Units 17-19

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Units 17-19

  1. 1. Learning
  2. 2. Learning <ul><li>Change in behavior due to experience with environment </li></ul><ul><li>Basic reflex between stimulus and response </li></ul><ul><li>Associative learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Associative learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Habituation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Associative Learning <ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pavlov’s dogs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measured amount of saliva produced by presenting dogs with meat powder </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When food dispenser made a sound to deliver food, the dogs salivated before it was delivered </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dogs learned to associate the sound with delivery of food </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Associative Learning <ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition and extinction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus generalization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus discrimination </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Associative Learning <ul><li>Classical conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little Albert </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Associative Learning <ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning to operate on the environment to produce a certain change that leads to a reward </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior is strengthened if it is reinforced and weakened if it is punished/not reinforced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skinner – behavior is not guided by inner thought or cognition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement is dependent on organism’s behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pigeon learns to touch a lighted key for reinforcement (Skinner, 1938) </li></ul></ul></ul>Associative Learning
  8. 9. Associative Learning <ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thorndike’s Law of Effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a consequence is pleasant, the behavior will become more frequent in the future </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a consequence is unpleasant, the behavior becomes less likely to occur in the future </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In classical conditioning, the controlling stimulus comes before a behavior – in operant conditioning, the controlling stimulus comes after a behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Operant conditioning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thorndike’s Puzzle Box </li></ul></ul></ul>Associative Learning
  10. 11. Associative Learning <ul><li>Reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement = presentation of a pleasant stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement = removal of an unpleasant stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Escape learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Avoidance learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of an aversive stimulus (spanking a child) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Bring a negative” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Omission </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Terminate a pleasant stimulus (withholding a paycheck) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“Stop a positive” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Schedules of reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed interval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Variable interval </li></ul></ul></ul>Associative Learning
  12. 13. Non-Associative Learning <ul><li>Habituation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased strength of a response after repeated presentations of a stimulus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensitization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated stimuli creates higher sensitivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Modeling </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Observing another’s behavior and then imitating that behavior </li></ul></ul></ul>

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