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Developmental Psychology
Development <ul><li>Developmental psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies maturation of human behavior over time </li></u...
Development <ul><li>Prenatal development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilized ovum considered a fetus from 8 weeks after time ...
Development <ul><li>Infancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newborns have simple adaptive reflexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ro...
 
Piaget <ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>occurs when new experiences are incorporated into existing schema </...
Piaget <ul><li>Stages of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive schemas  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasi...
Piaget <ul><li>Sensorimotor Stage (0 - 2 years)   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child is...
Piaget <ul><li>Preoperational (2-7 years)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserving number, length, amount, area, weight, and volu...
Piaget <ul><li>Concrete Operational (7-11 years)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First true classification abilities appear  </li><...
 
Piaget <ul><li>Formal Operational (12+ years)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to recombine groups into fewer or broader cat...
Development <ul><li>Critical periods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically pre-determined maturation phases </li></ul></ul><ul...
Development <ul><li>Imprinting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duckling studies (Lorenz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hatching app...
 
Development <ul><li>Parenting styles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authorita...
Development <ul><li>How important are peers to child development? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood friendships almost e...
<ul><li>Preconventional morality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follow moral rules to avoid punishment or obtain rewards </li><...
Kohlberg’s Moral Development   Theory
Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development
Methodology <ul><li>Cross-sectional design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studying separate groups at the same time </li></ul></ul>...
Disorders <ul><li>Pica </li></ul><ul><li>Dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>Enuresis </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity  (ADD, ADHD) ...
Disorders <ul><li>Autism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme social withdrawal + impaired verbal/nonverbal communication skills ...
Death and Grief <ul><li>5 Stages of Grief (Kubler-Ross, 1977)  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><u...
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  1. 1. Developmental Psychology
  2. 2. Development <ul><li>Developmental psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies maturation of human behavior over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent shift from adolescent studies to lifespan research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maturation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual growth and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biologically based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the interaction between hereditary and environment? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Development <ul><li>Prenatal development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilized ovum considered a fetus from 8 weeks after time of conception (until birth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to teratogens (viruses, chemicals, drugs) during pregnancy can impair brain development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congenital problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problems originating during fetal period (e.g., FAS) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present at birth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Development <ul><li>Infancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newborns have simple adaptive reflexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rooting reflex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tonic neck reflex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palmar grasp reflex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plantar reflex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor reflexes develop during later critical periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smiling, turning head, rolling over, crawling, walking </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Piaget <ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>occurs when new experiences are incorporated into existing schema </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>occurs by changing existing schemas to accommodate new information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>can be a more difficult process </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Piaget <ul><li>Stages of Cognitive Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive schemas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasized how children’s mental abilities progress qualitatively on a fixed sequence of stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At each stage of development, children use a distinct type of thought to guide thinking </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Piaget <ul><li>Sensorimotor Stage (0 - 2 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earliest stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child is completely egocentric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No sense that objects are separate from themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought and action virtually identical as child explores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning occurs through use of hands and mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object permanence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The understanding an object continues to exist even when you can't see it or touch it </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Piaget <ul><li>Preoperational (2-7 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserving number, length, amount, area, weight, and volume is difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceptual impression chosen over logic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Putting self in another person’s place is difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interrelating several ideas at once is difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contradicting themselves is not a problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language acquisition and symbolic thinking </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Piaget <ul><li>Concrete Operational (7-11 years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First true classification abilities appear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking can be reversed and a sequence of changes can be held in the mind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of other people’s viewpoints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of changeable conditions develops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance of systematic and logical reasoning </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. Piaget <ul><li>Formal Operational (12+ years) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to recombine groups into fewer or broader categories develops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defining concepts using other abstract concepts is possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can use analogies to understand concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent, abstract thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can think about thinking </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Development <ul><li>Critical periods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically pre-determined maturation phases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periods of extremely high sensitivity to stimuli from environment that shape future development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Victor of Aveyron/L'Enfant Sauvage (1799) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calrson et al. (1987) visual deprivation in monkeys </li></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Development <ul><li>Imprinting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duckling studies (Lorenz) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hatching appears to be a critical period for ducklings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 st large moving object they see becomes imprinted as the mother </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early animal imprinting with humans = good pets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harlow’s rhesus monkeys </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Development <ul><li>Parenting styles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Authoritarian </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permissive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uninvolved </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 17. Development <ul><li>How important are peers to child development? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Childhood friendships almost exclusively same-sex </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peer status </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected children </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Neglected children </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Preconventional morality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Follow moral rules to avoid punishment or obtain rewards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Conventional morality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define what is right by the standards learned from others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal belief in the moral rules learned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Postconventional morality </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of self-defined moral principles that may not match </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conventional moral beliefs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morals defined by one’s culture may be viewed as a social </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>contract and potentially fallible </li></ul></ul></ul>Kohlberg’s Levels of Moral Development
  16. 19. Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory
  17. 20. Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages of Development
  18. 21. Methodology <ul><li>Cross-sectional design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studying separate groups at the same time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample of 8 th , 10 th , and 12 th graders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of potential confounds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studying the same individuals/group over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample of 8 th graders tested again in 10 th and 12 th grade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of attrition </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. Disorders <ul><li>Pica </li></ul><ul><li>Dyslexia </li></ul><ul><li>Enuresis </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity (ADD, ADHD) </li></ul><ul><li>Tourette’s Syndrome </li></ul>
  20. 23. Disorders <ul><li>Autism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme social withdrawal + impaired verbal/nonverbal communication skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical condition linked to abnormal chemistry in brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asperger syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Milder form of autism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Delayed motor development milestones, child may appear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to be somewhat clumsy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lacks ability to reciprocate emotions in social settings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intense preoccupation with narrow area of interest (phone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>books, train schedules, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Death and Grief <ul><li>5 Stages of Grief (Kubler-Ross, 1977) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bargaining/rationalization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grief/sadness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptance </li></ul></ul></ul>

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