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Disaster Preparedness: A Challenge for Hospitals in India Susan M. Smith EdD, MSPH June Gorski DrPH, CHES Hari Chandra Ven...
Introduction <ul><li>India is located within the Himalayan belt which is one of the most active seismic regions of the wor...
High Risk Regions <ul><li>Zone III, IV & V represents higher risk areas for earthquake damage </li></ul>www.reliefweb.int
Tsunami Affected Regions www.redcross.ca
Introduction <ul><li>India reported the highest number of 1,552 million individuals affected by disasters in the world bet...
www.rediff.com www.cbc.ca www.dynamic.unv.org www.mmu.com
Disaster Occurrence  <ul><li>During 2007, India reported experiencing 18 disasters. This high rate of natural disasters in...
The Healthcare System in India <ul><li>In India, healthcare is primarily a state function with the central government invo...
Surge Capacity <ul><li>There is a need to improve the ability of healthcare facilities to rapidly respond to a disaster an...
Special Challenges for India’s Healthcare System in Disaster Response <ul><li>Challenges for India include: </li></ul><ul>...
Why Healthcare Facilities Play a Major Role in Disaster Response <ul><li>“  Hospitals have always been an important link i...
Why Planning and Practice is Important for Healthcare Facilities <ul><li>Planning to have adequate surge capacity is neces...
Learning from Past: The Gujarat Earthquake of 2001 <ul><li>Aftermath: Nearly 250,000 were injured  </li></ul><ul><li>The e...
The Healthcare Response  <ul><li>Most foreign field hospitals did not arrive in Gujarat until five or seven days after the...
Bhuj Hospital- Gujarat Earthquake 2001 <ul><li>Only two major existing hospitals functioned without critical structural da...
Local Demand and Response <ul><li>There was increased demand on the local doctors  of secondary and primary health centers...
<ul><li>Damaged Tangdhar hospital with inpatients  </li></ul>www.whoindia.org
Crush Injuries Remain a Problem <ul><li>Lack of formal orthopedic medical care and prompt care to treat crush injuries fol...
National Response Plan Created in 2005 <ul><li>In recognition of the need for improvement the Indian Government took actio...
National Efforts to Improve  Emergency Response <ul><li>The Ministry of health in India has initiated a process to assess ...
Challenges Still Exist for  Individual States <ul><li>Individual states  within India have limited resources and lack stat...
Reported Challenges: <ul><li>In the 2006 USAID report, operating procedures to provide relief were found to be non existen...
Why Rapid Healthcare Response is Important Following an Earthquake? <ul><li>Effective emergency medical services and healt...
Improvement through  Standards and Accreditation  <ul><li>National Framework did not require each healthcare facility to c...
National Accreditation Systems <ul><li>National accreditation systems have been used successfully to provide needed impetu...
Accreditation Standards <ul><li>In the United States, accreditation process is operated by the Joint Commission on Accredi...
Accreditation Standards <ul><li>An accredited program contributes to a viable disaster medical response </li></ul><ul><li>...
Checklist to Record Response Capacity <ul><li>Accreditation may be too involved for smaller hospitals to undertake if so d...
Checklist to Record Response Capacity <ul><li>The criteria used to evaluate a healthcare facility’s capacity to provide me...
Disaster Response Training for Health Care Workers <ul><li>After 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka, an assessment of post disaster...
Disaster Response Training for Health Care Workers <ul><li>The October 8, 2005 earthquake that struck Pakistan illustrated...
Disaster Response Training for Health Care Workers <ul><li>Training and regular drills are important to build capacity for...
Disaster Response Training for Health Care Workers <ul><li>A critical component of the 2008-2009 World Disaster Reduction ...
Disaster Response Training for Health Care Workers <ul><li>Mock drill conducted to test preparedness of rescue, relief tea...
Disaster Response Training for Health Care Workers <ul><li>A table top  exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Decontamination crews c...
Summary <ul><li>The efficient  earthquake response of hospitals and other health care facilities in India  requires planni...
In Conclusion <ul><li>The earthquake challenges facing India are not unique </li></ul><ul><li>The Global Community is posi...
References <ul><li>Bremer, R. ( 2003). Policy Development in Disaster Preparedness and Management: Lessons Learned from th...
References <ul><li>Nanda, S.K. (2008). Safe Hospital Initative in the Aftermath of the 2001 Earthquake in Gujarat (India)....
Thank you  for your time & attention www.ifsw.org
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Disaster Preparedness

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Presentation at the 16th International Emergency Management Society 16th annual Conference held at Istanbul, Turkey.

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Disaster Preparedness

  1. 1. Disaster Preparedness: A Challenge for Hospitals in India Susan M. Smith EdD, MSPH June Gorski DrPH, CHES Hari Chandra Vennelakanti, B.S UT Safety Center The University of Tennessee Knoxville, Tennessee, U.S.A.
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>India is located within the Himalayan belt which is one of the most active seismic regions of the world </li></ul>www.state.gov
  3. 3. High Risk Regions <ul><li>Zone III, IV & V represents higher risk areas for earthquake damage </li></ul>www.reliefweb.int
  4. 4. Tsunami Affected Regions www.redcross.ca
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>India reported the highest number of 1,552 million individuals affected by disasters in the world between the years 1966-1990 </li></ul><ul><li>India reported 216 separate disasters between the years 1966-1990 </li></ul><ul><li>India ranked ninth out of the top twenty countries with 91,400 deaths between 1966-1990 </li></ul>
  6. 6. www.rediff.com www.cbc.ca www.dynamic.unv.org www.mmu.com
  7. 7. Disaster Occurrence <ul><li>During 2007, India reported experiencing 18 disasters. This high rate of natural disasters in India is projected to continue and/or increase </li></ul><ul><li>Due to India’s high rate of natural disasters, healthcare facilities have a greater responsibility than many countries to create, practice and implement efficient and effective disaster response planning and acquire the resources needed to provide an adequate medical disaster response </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Healthcare System in India <ul><li>In India, healthcare is primarily a state function with the central government involved mainly in policy and specific disease control programs </li></ul><ul><li>Formal private sector medical care facilities and informal sector practitioners also exist in many areas of India </li></ul>
  9. 9. Surge Capacity <ul><li>There is a need to improve the ability of healthcare facilities to rapidly respond to a disaster and for professionals to coordinate activities of multiple agencies and incorporate “surge” capacity in planning </li></ul>
  10. 10. Special Challenges for India’s Healthcare System in Disaster Response <ul><li>Challenges for India include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No current database of private providers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited ability of the government to enforce regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of resources to support regulatory institutions and government agencies </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Why Healthcare Facilities Play a Major Role in Disaster Response <ul><li>“ Hospitals have always been an important link in the chain of disaster response and are assuming even more importance as advanced pre-hospital care capabilities lead to improved survival-to-hospital rate”(Dara et al., 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, disaster preparedness in India must focus heavily on organizations that provide healthcare. This preparedness effort must include both public and private sector hospitals </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why Planning and Practice is Important for Healthcare Facilities <ul><li>Planning to have adequate surge capacity is necessary . For example a relatively small number of injured persons can create a surge and overwhelm the normal capacity of a local health care facility even if the facility is not damaged by the earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>Planning allows a facility to learn from past events. For example a healthcare facility medical response plan should describe how types of injuries and illnesses that have occurred during past disasters will be addressed in future. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Learning from Past: The Gujarat Earthquake of 2001 <ul><li>Aftermath: Nearly 250,000 were injured </li></ul><ul><li>The earthquake claimed more women and children as victims and resulted in 14,000 deaths and thousands injured, maimed, or rendered homeless or destitute (Nanda., 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Substantial deficiencies in the existing health care system….. added to the severity of the disaster”(Bremer., 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>This earthquake with a rapid onset disrupted the “Lifeline and health system of about two-thirds of the population of India’s Gujarat state”( Nanda., 2008). </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Healthcare Response <ul><li>Most foreign field hospitals did not arrive in Gujarat until five or seven days after the earthquake occurred </li></ul><ul><li>A temporary hospital was also established by private and government doctors from nearby areas and tent field hospitals were provided by the Indian army </li></ul>www.impactindia.org
  15. 15. Bhuj Hospital- Gujarat Earthquake 2001 <ul><li>Only two major existing hospitals functioned without critical structural damage after the earthquake </li></ul>  research.eerc.berkeley.edu www.searo.who.int
  16. 16. Local Demand and Response <ul><li>There was increased demand on the local doctors of secondary and primary health centers in the buffer region to provide ambulances and medical care </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance of patients to be transferred to tertiary hospitals far away from the patients relatives contributed to higher post operative complications from earthquake injuries </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Damaged Tangdhar hospital with inpatients  </li></ul>www.whoindia.org
  18. 18. Crush Injuries Remain a Problem <ul><li>Lack of formal orthopedic medical care and prompt care to treat crush injuries following an earthquake ( Roy et al., 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>The Government of India has failed to recognize injury as a priority( Joshipura et al., 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Canadian Relief Foundation Field Hospital: A mother </li></ul><ul><li>who sustained a crush injury to her right hand </li></ul><ul><li>complicated by gangrene requiring amputation. </li></ul><ul><li>Her injury was sustained when she pulled one child </li></ul><ul><li>to safety as her home collapsed following an earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>In Kashmir </li></ul>www.caep.ca
  19. 19. National Response Plan Created in 2005 <ul><li>In recognition of the need for improvement the Indian Government took action to enhance national and state level responses through creating a National Response Plan </li></ul><ul><li>National Disaster Management Authority requires each state to establish a Disaster Management Authority and district management committees </li></ul>www.responsenet.org
  20. 20. National Efforts to Improve Emergency Response <ul><li>The Ministry of health in India has initiated a process to assess existing gaps in the management of disasters and issued policy guidelines to improve the disaster management system </li></ul><ul><li>The Indian Government has initiated support for mobile hospitals, specialized search and rescue medical teams, and building capacity for the management of mass causalities </li></ul><ul><li>A National Crisis Management Committee was also created in 2005 which was composed of high ranking government officials and coordinators </li></ul>
  21. 21. Challenges Still Exist for Individual States <ul><li>Individual states within India have limited resources and lack state level plans </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiencies include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of resources to implement a mass evacuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Failure to keep an essential inventory of medicines and life saving equipment in “ready stock” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of coordination among government departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delayed response (USAID Report 2006) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Reported Challenges: <ul><li>In the 2006 USAID report, operating procedures to provide relief were found to be non existent in some cases </li></ul><ul><li>Poor coordination was reported at the local level and the lack of an early warning system </li></ul><ul><li>Very slow response times were reported </li></ul><ul><li>Limited number of trained and dedicated clinicians were documented </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of a systematic search and rescue system and equipment still existed </li></ul><ul><li>Poor community empowerment and participation was reported </li></ul>
  23. 23. Why Rapid Healthcare Response is Important Following an Earthquake? <ul><li>Effective emergency medical services and healthcare within the first 24 hours following a disaster is critical to minimize deaths and permanent disability following natural disaster such as an earthquake </li></ul><ul><li>The heavy demand placed on local hospital services for immediate disaster medical care demonstrates the need for every hospital to be prepared to handle an unpredicted surge in workload </li></ul>
  24. 24. Improvement through Standards and Accreditation <ul><li>National Framework did not require each healthcare facility to create, practice and maintain an up-to-date disaster medical plan for each facility </li></ul><ul><li>In 2006 Mehta reported, there was“ no statutory body to regulate and accredit” hospitals in India </li></ul>
  25. 25. National Accreditation Systems <ul><li>National accreditation systems have been used successfully to provide needed impetus for healthcare facilities to maintain and practice up-to-date disaster/emergency plans </li></ul><ul><li>In many developed countries, including United States, hospitals are required to have an emergency/disaster response plan as a part of the requirements for accreditation </li></ul>
  26. 26. Accreditation Standards <ul><li>In the United States, accreditation process is operated by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) </li></ul><ul><li>In India, a group of five hospitals and several medical institutes were reported to receive accreditation from the Joint Commission International in 2008 (Sharma et al., 2008). </li></ul>www.healthsystem.virginia.edu www.ttsh.com.sg
  27. 27. Accreditation Standards <ul><li>An accredited program contributes to a viable disaster medical response </li></ul><ul><li>The attitude of hospitals toward quality certification (accreditation) is very cold </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, the Quality Council of India remains challenged to reach a goal of having a majority of healthcare facilities in India nationally accredited </li></ul>www.fortishealthcare.com
  28. 28. Checklist to Record Response Capacity <ul><li>Accreditation may be too involved for smaller hospitals to undertake if so disaster capacity assessment may be accomplished through the use of a check list </li></ul><ul><li>A checklist allows for the uniform documentation of a health facility’s disaster response capacity </li></ul><ul><li>The following ten evaluation criteria were developed and used for hospitals in Nepal to provide an overview of the main areas that should be addressed to assess response capacity </li></ul>
  29. 29. Checklist to Record Response Capacity <ul><li>The criteria used to evaluate a healthcare facility’s capacity to provide medical care services following a disaster can include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Disaster Planning Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bed Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgical Capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Transfusion Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplies of Medicines and Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease Surveillance and Control </li></ul></ul>Emergency and Humanitarian Action Newsletter, 2006
  30. 30. Disaster Response Training for Health Care Workers <ul><li>After 2004 Tsunami in Sri Lanka, an assessment of post disaster health care services identified the need to provide targeted training to prepare healthcare workers for future medical disaster responses </li></ul><ul><li>Development and implementation of a disaster management course for healthcare workers is a priority to improve medical disaster response </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster medicine physicians can be effective advocates to ensure disaster preparedness training is implemented </li></ul>
  31. 31. Disaster Response Training for Health Care Workers <ul><li>The October 8, 2005 earthquake that struck Pakistan illustrated the lack of preparation by final year medical students to provide the medical response to a disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Medical students were quickly confronted with challenges associated with search and rescue, unsupervised emergency care for patients, personal emotions from viewing the rubble and human suffering, prioritizing medical attention, managing children's injuries and the obstacles associated with gender issues </li></ul>
  32. 32. Disaster Response Training for Health Care Workers <ul><li>Training and regular drills are important to build capacity for medical disaster response </li></ul><ul><li>These challenges and others need to be included in the curricula that is used to train medical personnel and hospital staff to respond in a disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Effective communication skills needs to be incorporated for any training of medical and hospital personnel </li></ul>
  33. 33. Disaster Response Training for Health Care Workers <ul><li>A critical component of the 2008-2009 World Disaster Reduction Campaign is the ongoing need for “ preparing and training the health workforce to act in emergency situations”. </li></ul>www.topnews.in www.who.int www.newpaho.org
  34. 34. Disaster Response Training for Health Care Workers <ul><li>Mock drill conducted to test preparedness of rescue, relief team where ‘Injured’ victims being treated by doctors and paramedics at the mock drill </li></ul><ul><li>A patient being shifted from an ambulance during a disaster management drill at SPS Apollo Hospital in Ludhiana </li></ul>www.hindu.com www.tribuneindia.com
  35. 35. Disaster Response Training for Health Care Workers <ul><li>A table top exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Decontamination crews cut clothing from a mock victim covered in mustard at Community Hospital's decontamination drill </li></ul>www.kvnews.com www.searo.who.int
  36. 36. Summary <ul><li>The efficient earthquake response of hospitals and other health care facilities in India requires planning and training to build surge capacity and an effective response </li></ul><ul><li>This can be accomplished by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation and practice of disaster plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in accreditation processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting training and exercises for hospital personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drills should be conducted using available health care facilities and by using alternate locations as practice sites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local medical personnel need to practice disaster response in collaboration with their hospital counterparts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. In Conclusion <ul><li>The earthquake challenges facing India are not unique </li></ul><ul><li>The Global Community is positioned to share best practices among nations affected by earthquakes </li></ul><ul><li>To accomplish this collaboration will be required among public and private health care sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Emergency Preparedness is a Universal Global Need” </li></ul>
  38. 38. References <ul><li>Bremer, R. ( 2003). Policy Development in Disaster Preparedness and Management: Lessons Learned from the January 2001 Earthquake in Gujarat, India. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 370-382. </li></ul><ul><li>Cherukara J.M. and Manalel J. (May 2008). Medical Tourism in Kerala—Challenges and Scope. Proceedings of the Conference on Tourism in India Challenges Ahead, May 15-17, 2008, IIML pp. 369-379. </li></ul><ul><li>Dara, S.I., Ashton., R. W., Farmer, J.C., and Carlton P.K. (2005). Worldwide Disaster Medical Response: An Historical Perspective. Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 1, (suppl.) pp. 2-6. Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency and Humanitarian Action Newsletter, September 2006. Issue VIII. Retrieved February 19, 2009 website: http://www.nset.org.np/peer/background.htm </li></ul><ul><li>International Disaster Data-base(ND). 2007 Disasters in numbers. Retrieved November 17, 2008, from www.undisr.org Website: http://www.unisdr.org/eng/media-room/facts-sheets/2007-disasters-in-numbers-ISDR-CRED.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Jain, V., Noponen, R and Smith, B.M. (May 2003). Pediatric Surgical Emergencies in the Setting of a Natural Disaster: Expereinces from the 2001 Earthquake in Gujarat, India. Journal of Pediatric Surgery, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 663-667. Elsevier Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Joshipura, M.K., Shah, H.S., Patel, P.R., Divatia, P.A and Desai, P.M. (2003). Trauma Care Systems in India. Injury, International Journal of the Care of the Injured, Vol. 34, No. 9, pp. 686-692. Elsevier Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaur, J. (2006). Administrative Issues Involved in Disaster Management in India. International Review of Psychiatry, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 533-557. Routledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Kaushik, H.B., Dasgupta, K., Sahoo, D.R. and Kharel, G. (August 2006). Performance of Structures during the Sikkim Earthquake of 14 February 2006. Current Science, Vol. 91, No. 4, PP. 449-455. </li></ul><ul><li>Merson, M.H., Black, R.E. and Mills, A.J. (Eds). (2006) International Public Health: Disease, Programs, Systems, and Policies, Jones and Barlett Publishers, Boston, United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Metri, B. (2006). Disaster Mitigation Framework for India Using Quality Circle Approach. Disaster Prevention and Management, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 621-635. Emerald Group Publishing Limited </li></ul><ul><li>Mehta, S. (2006). Disaster and Mass Casualty Management in a Hospital: How Well Are We Prepared. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, Vol. 52, No. 2, pp. 89-90. Medknow Publications,India. </li></ul><ul><li>Noji, E. (Ed.). (1997). The Public Health Consequences of Disasters. Oxford University Press, New York, United States. </li></ul>
  39. 39. References <ul><li>Nanda, S.K. (2008). Safe Hospital Initative in the Aftermath of the 2001 Earthquake in Gujarat (India). A Report of the Regional Consultation of SEAR Member Countries on Keeping Health Facilities Safe from Disasters 15-17 April 2008, New Delhi, India. Regional Office for South-East Asia, World Health Organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Ofrin, R and Salunke, S.R. (December 2006). Disaster Preparedness in the South East Asia Region. International Review of Psychaitry, Vol. 18, No. 6, pp. 495-500. </li></ul><ul><li>Roy, N., Shah H., Patel V., Coughlin R.R., (2002) The Gujarat Earthquake (2001) A Seismically Unprepared Area: Community Hospital Medical Response. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp: 186-195. </li></ul><ul><li>Sabri, A.A. and Qayyum, M.A. (September 2006). Why Medical Students Should be Trained in Disaster Management: Our Experience of the Kashmir Earthquake. Plos Medicine, Vol. 3, No. 9, pp. 1452-1453. </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations. 2008-2009 World Disaster Reduction Campaign. Hospitals Safe From Disasters. www. Unisdr.org/wdrc-2008-2009 ; www.who.int/hac/techguidance/safehospitals </li></ul><ul><li>USAID (2005) USAID India: Our Work- Strategic Objective 3- Disaster Management. Retrieved August 5, 2008, from http://www.usaid.gov/in/our_work/strategy/strategy6.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Wickramasinghe, K.K., Ishara M.H., Liyanage M.H., Karunathilake, I.M. and Samarasekera, D. ( September 2007). Outcome-based Approach in Development of a Disaster Management Course for Health Care Workers. Annals Academy of Medicine, Vol. 36, No. 9, pp. 765-769. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Thank you for your time & attention www.ifsw.org

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