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Chapter 06 General Anatomy And Physiology

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Chapter 06 General Anatomy And Physiology

  1. 1. Milady’s Standard Cosmetology Cosmetology: General Anatomy and Physiology
  2. 2. “ Remember, you can earn more money, but when time is spent, it is gone forever” Zig Ziglar
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Explain the importance of anatomy and physiology to the cosmetology profession </li></ul><ul><li>Describe cells, their structure, and their reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Define tissue and identify the types of tissues found in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Name the 10 main body systems and explain their basic functions </li></ul>
  4. 4. Anatomy <ul><li>Defined: The study of the structures of the human body that can be seen with the naked eye and what it is made of; the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts </li></ul>
  5. 5. Physiology <ul><li>Defined: The study of the functions and activities performed by the body’s structures </li></ul>
  6. 6. Histology <ul><li>Defined: The study of the science of the minute structures of organic tissues; microscopic anatomy </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cells <ul><li>Composition </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>Centrosome </li></ul><ul><li>Cell membrane </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Cell reproduction and division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate food supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate oxygen supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate water supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste elimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper temperature </li></ul></ul>Cells
  9. 9. <ul><li>Cell metabolism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catabolism </li></ul></ul>Cells
  10. 10. Tissues <ul><li>Connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Epithelial tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve tissue </li></ul>
  11. 11. Organs <ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach/intestines </li></ul>
  12. 13. Systems <ul><li>Circulatory </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul><ul><li>Excretory </li></ul><ul><li>Integumentary </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Muscular </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul>Systems
  14. 16. Skeletal System <ul><li>Bone composition </li></ul><ul><li>Osteology </li></ul><ul><li>Primary function </li></ul><ul><li>Joints </li></ul><ul><li>Parts of skull </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>Bones of cranium </li></ul><ul><li>Bones of face </li></ul>Skeletal System
  16. 18. <ul><li>Bones of neck </li></ul><ul><li>Bones of trunk/torso </li></ul>Skeletal System
  17. 19. <ul><li>Bones of arm and hand </li></ul>Skeletal System
  18. 20. <ul><li>Bones of the leg and foot </li></ul>Skeletal System
  19. 21. Muscular System <ul><li>Myology: The study of the structure, function, and diseases of the muscles. Human body has over 600 muscles responsible for 40% of body’s weight; fibrous tissues with the ability to stretch and contract </li></ul>
  20. 22. Muscular Tissue <ul><li>Striated muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Nonstriated muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac muscles </li></ul>
  21. 23. Muscle Parts <ul><li>Origin </li></ul><ul><li>Insertion </li></ul><ul><li>Belly </li></ul>
  22. 24. Stimulation of Muscles <ul><li>Massage </li></ul><ul><li>Electric current </li></ul><ul><li>Light rays </li></ul><ul><li>Heat rays </li></ul><ul><li>Moist heat </li></ul><ul><li>Nerve impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul>
  23. 25. Scalp Muscles <ul><li>Epicranius or occipito-frontalis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipitalis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontalis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epicranial Aponeurosis </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Muscles of the Ear <ul><li>Auricularis superior </li></ul><ul><li>Auricularis anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Auricularis posterior </li></ul>
  25. 27. Muscles of Mastication <ul><li>Masseter </li></ul><ul><li>Temporalis </li></ul>
  26. 28. Neck Muscles <ul><li>Platysma </li></ul><ul><li>Sternocleidomastoideus </li></ul>
  27. 29. Eyebrow Muscles <ul><li>Orbicularis oculi </li></ul><ul><li>Corrugator </li></ul>
  28. 30. Muscles of the Nose <ul><li>Procerus </li></ul><ul><li>Other nasal muscles </li></ul>
  29. 31. Muscles of the Mouth <ul><li>Buccinator </li></ul><ul><li>Depressor labii inferioris </li></ul><ul><li>Levator anguli oris </li></ul><ul><li>Levator labii superioris </li></ul><ul><li>Mentalis </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>Orbicularis oris </li></ul><ul><li>Risorius </li></ul><ul><li>Triangularis </li></ul><ul><li>Zygomaticus major and minor </li></ul>Muscles of the Mouth
  31. 33. Muscles – Arms to Body <ul><li>Latissimus dorsi </li></ul><ul><li>Pectoralis major and minor </li></ul><ul><li>Serratus anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Trapezius </li></ul>
  32. 34. Shoulder and Arm Muscles <ul><li>Deltoid </li></ul><ul><li>Biceps </li></ul><ul><li>Triceps </li></ul><ul><li>Pronator </li></ul><ul><li>Supinator </li></ul><ul><li>Flexors </li></ul><ul><li>Extensors </li></ul>
  33. 35. Muscles of the Hand <ul><li>Abductor </li></ul><ul><li>Adductor </li></ul>
  34. 36. Muscles of the Lower Leg and Foot <ul><li>Extensor digitorum longus </li></ul><ul><li>Tibialis anterior </li></ul><ul><li>Peroneus longus </li></ul><ul><li>Peroneus brevis </li></ul><ul><li>Gastrocnemius </li></ul><ul><li>Soleus </li></ul>
  35. 37. Nervous System <ul><li>Neurology defined: The scientific study of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system </li></ul>
  36. 38. Divisions of the Nervous System <ul><li>Cerebrospinal system </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic nervous system </li></ul>
  37. 39. The Brain and Spinal Cord <ul><li>Brain is largest mass of body tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Average weight is 44 – 48 ounces </li></ul><ul><li>Twelve pairs of cranial nerves originate in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord originates in brain </li></ul><ul><li>Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves extend from the spinal cord </li></ul>
  38. 40. Nerve Cell Structure and Function <ul><li>Neuron or nerve Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Dendrites </li></ul><ul><li>Axon and axon terminal </li></ul><ul><li>Nerves </li></ul>
  39. 41. Types of Nerves <ul><li>Sensory </li></ul><ul><li>Motor </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed </li></ul><ul><li>Reflex </li></ul>
  40. 42. Nerves of Head, Face, and Neck <ul><li>5 th cranial, trifacial, trigeminal </li></ul>
  41. 43. Nerves of Head, Face, and Neck <ul><li>7 th cranial </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical </li></ul>
  42. 44. Nerves of Arm and Hand <ul><li>Ulnar </li></ul><ul><li>Radial </li></ul><ul><li>Median </li></ul><ul><li>Digital </li></ul>
  43. 45. Nerves of the Lower Leg and Foot <ul><li>Tibial </li></ul><ul><li>Common peroneal </li></ul><ul><li>Deep peroneal </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial peroneal </li></ul><ul><li>Saphenous </li></ul><ul><li>Sural </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsal </li></ul>
  44. 46. Circulatory System <ul><li>Blood-vascular system </li></ul><ul><li>Lymph-vascular system </li></ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pericardium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resting Heart Rate </li></ul></ul>
  45. 47. Heart Chambers and Valves <ul><li>Right and left atrium </li></ul><ul><li>Right and left ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Valves </li></ul><ul><li>Atria </li></ul>
  46. 48. Blood Circulation <ul><li>Pulmonary circulation </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic or general circulation </li></ul>
  47. 49. Blood Vessels <ul><li>Arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Veins </li></ul>
  48. 50. The Blood <ul><li>Sticky, salty fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature of 98.6 degrees F </li></ul><ul><li>1/20 th of body weight </li></ul><ul><li>8 – 10 pints in adults </li></ul><ul><li>Bright red in arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Dark red in veins (except pulmonary) </li></ul>
  49. 51. Blood Composition <ul><li>Red corpuscles </li></ul><ul><li>White corpuscles </li></ul><ul><li>Blood platelets </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma </li></ul>
  50. 52. Blood Functions <ul><li>Carries water, oxygen, food, secretions to cells </li></ul><ul><li>Carries away carbon dioxide and waste </li></ul><ul><li>Helps equalize body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Clotting </li></ul>
  51. 53. Lymph-Vascular Functions <ul><li>Nourishment </li></ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Remove waste </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid environment </li></ul>
  52. 54. Arteries of Head, Face, Neck <ul><li>Common carotid </li></ul><ul><li>Internal division </li></ul><ul><li>External division </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial temporal artery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital artery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior auricular artery </li></ul></ul>
  53. 55. Facial Artery <ul><li>Submental artery </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior labial artery </li></ul><ul><li>Angular artery </li></ul><ul><li>Superior labial artery </li></ul>
  54. 56. Superficial Temporal Artery <ul><li>Frontal artery </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal artery </li></ul><ul><li>Transverse facial artery </li></ul><ul><li>Middle temporal artery </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior auricular artery </li></ul>
  55. 57. External/Internal Carotid Artery Branches <ul><li>Occipital artery </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior auricular artery </li></ul><ul><li>Supraorbital artery </li></ul><ul><li>Infraorbital artery </li></ul>
  56. 58. Veins of Head, Face, and Neck <ul><li>Internal jugular </li></ul><ul><li>External jugular </li></ul>
  57. 59. Blood Supply for Arm and Hand <ul><li>Ulnar arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Radial arteries </li></ul>
  58. 60. Blood Supply for Foot and Leg <ul><li>Popliteal artery </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior tibial </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsalis pedis </li></ul>
  59. 61. Endocrine System <ul><li>Exocrine or duct glands </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine or ductless glands </li></ul>
  60. 62. Digestive System <ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive enzymes </li></ul>
  61. 63. Excretory System <ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul><ul><li>Large intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul>
  62. 64. Respiratory System <ul><li>Diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs </li></ul>
  63. 65. Integumentary System <ul><li>The skin </li></ul><ul><li>Various accessory organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nails </li></ul></ul>
  64. 66. Summary and Review <ul><li>Define anatomy, physiology, and histology </li></ul>
  65. 67. Summary and Review <ul><li>Why is the study of anatomy, physiology, and histology important to the cosmetologist? </li></ul>
  66. 68. Summary and Review <ul><li>Name and describe the basic structure of a cell </li></ul><ul><li>Explain cell metabolism and its purpose </li></ul>
  67. 69. <ul><li>List and describe the functions of the five types of tissue found in the human body. </li></ul><ul><li>What are organs? </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the functions of the main organs found in the body </li></ul>Summary and Review
  68. 70. <ul><li>Name the 10 body systems and their main functions </li></ul>Summary and Review
  69. 71. <ul><li>List the primary functions of bones </li></ul><ul><li>Name and describe the three types of muscular tissue found in the body </li></ul>Summary and Review
  70. 72. <ul><li>Name and describe the three types of nerves found in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Name and briefly describe the three types of blood vessels found in the body </li></ul>Summary and Review
  71. 73. <ul><li>List and describe the components of blood </li></ul><ul><li>Name and discuss the two types of glands found in the human body </li></ul><ul><li>List the organs of the excretory system and their function </li></ul>Summary and Review
  72. 74. Congratulations! <ul><li>You’ve just completed </li></ul><ul><li>one unit of study toward </li></ul><ul><li>program completion! </li></ul>

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