LEARNING MOTIVATION (WHY?) Throughout your career in the field of cosmetology, you will come into direct contact with many clients. As a result, the principles and practice of infection control are of key importance in your daily practice. These subjects have a direct bearing on your well-being and that of your clients. That is why it is so important for you to know the necessary steps to prevent the spread of disease. A basic understanding of how bacteria affect our daily lives is helpful in becoming competent in infection control procedures. Contagious diseases, blood poisoning, and skin infections are caused by infectious bacteria being transmitted from one individual to another. They are also caused by the use of unsanitary implements or dirty hands and fingernails. As a professional in the field of cosmetology, you will be exposed to a variety of germs or bacteria every day. You will be working directly on the skin, scalp, hair, and nails of your clients, all of which are ideal breeding grounds for bacteria. Your hands and the implements you use will be additional sources of passing bacteria. Thus, the applied practice of infection control is even more essential to our safety.
If we follow established guidelines and sound principles of cleanliness and safety, we should never encounter any problems with the spread of harmful bacteria. In fact, each state establishes detailed procedures for protection against the spread of disease. We will learn and practice those regulations throughout your course of study. We must take care when using implements that could cut or pierce the skin. They must be disinfected before and after each use. Implements that cannot be properly disinfected must be disposed of as directed. Consider this. How would you feel if you were very ill and went to the doctor only to find the examination room dirty with contaminated gauze, soiled cotton, and used gowns strewn about? Then, you were asked to recline on an examining table that the former patient had just vacated and the disposable covering had not been changed. You would not feel very confident that the doctor knew what he was doing or that you were going to be well taken care of, would you? Our profession is one of high touch and contact. Therefore, it is critical for you to develop clean habits now, while you are in school. You will want to modify your behavior to ensure that good habits of cleanliness are routine in your daily activities. This behavior will endear you to your clients and increase their confidence in your professional abilities and your concern for their safety
REGULATION: Many different state and federal agencies regulate the practice of cosmetology. Federal agencies set guidelines for manufacturing, the sale and use of equipment and chemical ingredients, and requirements for safety in the workplace. State agencies regulate licensing, enforcement, and your conduct in the salon. OSHA. Occupational Safety and Health Administration created as part of U.S. Department of Labor to enforce safety and health standards in the workplace. The Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Hazard Communication Rule, which requires manufacturers to assess hazards associated with their products. MSDS. Material Safety Data Sheets provide pertinent information. See Figure 5–1. Have students look it over as you review the document. Product content Associated hazards Combustion levels Storage requirements. OSHA standards are important to cosmetology because of nature of chemicals used; mixing, storing, and disposal of chemicals; general safety, and our rights to know what we are working with.
EPA. Environmental Protection Agency. Disinfectants must be approved by the EPA in your state. Product label must contain EPA registration number. Label lists organisms the product has been tested for. Label gives directions for use. Label lists safety precautions. Label lists active ingredients. State regulatory agencies (more detail on future slide).
STATE REGULATORY AGENCIES: Exist to protect consumers’ health, safety, and welfare. They include boards of cosmetology, commissions, and health departments. Laws. Laws are written by the state legislature and determine the scope of practice (what you are allowed to do) and establish guidelines for agencies to make rules. Rules. Also called regulations. They are more specific than laws. They determine how the law will be applied. Rules establish specific standards of conduct and can be changed and updated frequently without the passing of a law through the legislature.
PRINCIPLES OF INFECTION: There are three types of potentially infectious microorganisms important in the practice of cosmetology. They are bacteria, fungus, and virus. (Infectious: infection that can be spread from one person to another or from one infected body part to another.) BACTERIA: Minute, one-celled vegetable microorganisms found nearly everywhere. Prominent in dust, dirt, refuse and diseased tissues. Also known as GERMS or MICROBES. They can exist almost anywhere and can only be seen through a microscope; 1500 rod-shaped bacteria will fit on the head of a pin. See Fig. 5-3. TYPES Nonpathogenic. These are helpful or harmless bacteria that perform useful functions such as decomposing refuse and improving soil fertility. They help metabolize food, protect against microorganisms, and stimulate immune response. Pathogenic. Harmful and disease-producing when they invade plant or animal tissue. Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis is a germ found in tap water and is normally harmless. A strong infestation of the germ, however, can cause infection. Such infections resulting from improperly sanitized foot spas have caused hospitalization and death.
CLASSIFICATIONS OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA Cocci. Round-shaped that appear singly or in the following groups. Staphylococci. Pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters like grapes; cause abscesses, pustules, and boils Streptococci. Pus-forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads; cause infections such as strep and blood poisoning. Diplococci. Spherical bacteria that grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia. Bacilli. Short, rod-shaped bacteria. They are the most common and produce diseases such as tetanus, thyphiod, tuberculosis, and diphtheria. Spirilla. Spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria. They are subdivided into subgroups: Treponema papillida which causes syphilis (an STD) or Borrelia burgdorferi which causes lime disease.
MOVEMENT OF BACTERIA Cocci. Rarely show motility (self-movement); transmitted in air, dust, or in the substances in which that settle. Bacilli. Motile and use slender, hairlike extensions known as flagella or cilia for locomotion. A whiplike motion of these hairs moves the bacteria liquid.
GROWTH AND REPRODUCTION: The material needed to sustain the life of bacteria are the outer cell wall and internal protoplasm. Bacteria manufacture their own food, give off waste products, and grow and reproduce. Active. Bacteria thrive in a warm, moist, dark and dirty environment. It only takes about 20 to 30 minutes for bacteria to reach full growth. They then divide into two new cells. The division is called mitosis and the new cells are called daughter cells. Inactive or spore-forming. Bacteria such as anthrax and tetanus bacilli form spherical spores with tough outer coverings that are resistant to adverse conditions. This allows the dormant bacteria to withstand long periods without food. The spores can be blown about and can come to rest on various surfaces within the salon. When favorable conditions are restored, the spores become active or vegetative and begin to grow and reproduce once again. Therefore, even bacteria in the inactive stage can ultimately be a threat to the spread of disease or infection in the salon.
BACTERIAL INFECTIONS: Infections occur when body tissues are invaded by disease-causing or pathogenic bacteria. The presence of pus is a sign of infection. Pus is a fluid product of inflammation and contains white blood cells and the debris of dead cells, tissue elements, and bacteria. Staphylococci. Most common human bacteria; can be picked up on door knobs and countertops, by handshaking, or on unclean implements. Local infection. One that is confined to a single area such as a pimple, boil, or infected cut. Presence of pus is the sign of infection. Pus contains bacteria, waste matter, decayed tissue, body cells, and living and dead blood cells. Staphylococci are the most common pus-forming bacteria. General infection. When pathogenic bacteria and their toxins are carried to all parts of the body by way of the bloodstream, a general infection results, such as blood poisoning or syphilis. Contagious or communicable. Diseases that are spread from one person to another by direct or indirect contact such as coughing, sneezing, unclean hands, unclean implements, open sores, common drinking cups, common towels, etc. Common contagious diseases preventing cosmetologists from working are tuberculosis, colds, ringworm, scabies, head lice, and virus infections.
VIRUSES: Submicroscopic structures capable of infecting almost all plants, animals, and bacteria; can pass through the pores of a porcelain filter; cause common colds and other respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. They include measles, mumps, chicken pox, smallpox, rabies, yellow fever, polio, influenza, and HIV (AIDS). Live by penetrating cells Resistant to antibiotics Prevented by vaccination; however, vaccinations are not available for all viruses
BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS: Disease-causing bacteria or viruses that are carried through the body in the blood or body fluids, such as hepatitis and HIV, are called bloodborne pathogens. Hepatitis. Disease marked by inflammation of the liver and caused by a blood-borne virus similar to HIV/AIDS in transmission. It is present in all body fluids of infected individuals. Hepatitis A. Illness lasts about 3 weeks. Symptoms similar to flu; may cause yellowing of skin and eyes in adults. Spread through close contact; poor sanitation and personal hygiene; contaminated food, milk, water, and shellfish; infected food handlers; sexual contact. A vaccine is available. Hepatitis B (HBV). Can cause long-term hepatitis, cirrhosis, and/or liver cancer. There may be no symptoms or flu-like symptoms. It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact or blood transfusions or when infected needles are shared. A vaccine is available. Hepatitis C (HCV). Progresses slowly and about one-third of those with the illness show no symptoms. When symptoms exist they include fatigue and stomach pain. It is also transferable through parenteral contact and sexual activity with infected partners. No vaccine is available.
HIV/AIDS: HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS breaks down the body’s immune system. Passed through blood and body fluids: Unprotected sexual contact Sharing of IV needles with infected drug users Accidents with needles in health care facilities Through cuts and sores; through sharp implements in the salon (although this is never known to have occurred.) Methods for NOT transmitting the disease: Hand holding Hugging Kissing Sharing food or household items like telephones or toilet seats. Can be infected for 11 years without symptoms. A person may be infected and transmitting the disease without even knowing they have the disease. There are no documented cases of the virus being transmitted by food handlers, insects, or casual contact.
PARASITES: Vegetable or animal organisms that live in or on other living organisms. Examples are head and body lice. Vegetable parasites or fungi. Produce contagious diseases such as ringworm or favus, which is a disease of the scalp. Includes molds, mildews, and yeasts. Can cause lifting of the finger or toenails. Tinea barbae (barber’s itch) can be caused from unclean clippers. Nail fungus can be spread by unclean implements or not preparing the nail plate before applying enhancement products. See Fig. 5-11. Animal parasites. Responsible for contagious diseases. A parasite carried by a mosquito causes malaria. Insects that carry diseases from one person to another are known as disease vectors . The itch mite burrows under skin and causes scabies. Head lice is called pediculosis capitis . Scabies is another contagious skin disease caused by the itch mite. See Fig. 5-12. REMINDER: Contagious diseases caused by parasites are never treated in a cosmetology school or salon. They should be referred to a physician.
HOW PATHOGENS ENTER THE BODY Break in the skin (cut, pimple, or scratch) Mouth (breathing or swallowing air, water, or food) Nose (air) Eyes or ears (dirt) Unprotected sex
HOW THE BODY FIGHTS INFECTION Through unbroken skin Body secretions such as perspiration and digestive juices White blood cells Antitoxins REMEMBER: Infections can be prevented and controlled through personal hygiene and public sanitation. Refer to Table 5.2 for general terms and definitions that are important for an understanding of disease in general.
IMMUNITY: The ability of the body to fight off or resist infections and disease and to destroy bacteria that have entered the body. Natural immunity. An inborn ability to resist certain diseases. It is partly inherited and partly developed through hygienic living and such factors as frequent exercise and a wholesome diet. Acquired immunity. Developed after the body has overcome a disease or through inoculation. The disease or inoculation causes the blood cells to produce antibodies which are proteins that fight disease germs. Acquired immunity may be only temporary or permanent. Human disease carrier. A person who is personally immune to a disease but can transmit germs to others. Typhoid fever and diphtheria can be transmitted this way.
PRINCIPLES OF PREVENTION: Proper care must be taken to meet rigorous health standards in order to prevent the spread of disease. Our clients depend upon us to ensure their safety. CONTAMINATION: Definition. Pollution, soiling with infectious matter. CONTAMINATE: Definition. To make impure by contact; to taint or pollute. CONTAMINANT: Definition. Any substance that causes contamination. ACTIVITY: Have students look around the classroom and identify all the surfaces, tools, doorknobs, fixtures, etc., that constitute routine sources of contamination and preventive measures the student can take to reduce risk of contamination. Ask for a volunteer to act as scribe and record the list on the board or flip chart. (Remember to reward your volunteer.)
DECONTAMINATION: Definition. The act of removing pathogens and other substances from tools or surfaces. SANITATION: Sanitation or sanitizing is simply cleaning; removing all visible dirt and debris is sanitizing. DISINFECTION: Controls microorganisms on nonporous surfaces such as instruments or implements. It is a higher level of decontamination than sanitation. It is second only to sterilization. Does not kill bacterial spores. NOT for use on human skin, hair, nails. Follow directions. Products that are developed to be safe may be dangerous if used incorrectly. Disinfectants must be used in strict accordance with directions. Methods of Cleaning Scrubbing with a brush Using an ultrasonic unit Using a solvent (i.e, metal bits for electric files)
STERILIZATION: Highest level of decontamination; destroys all microbial life and is necessary only when surgical instruments cut into the vascular layers of the body. Kills bacterial spores, the most resistant form of life on earth. Includes the steam autoclave and dry heat. IMPORTANT POINT: Don’t use the word sterilize incorrectly. You can only sterilize nonporous surfaces, such as metal implements; you cannot sterilize the skin or nails. Sterilization is impractical and unnecessary in salons. Steam autoclave. Most popular and preferred due to proven history. Works like a pressure cooker. With steam injection, the temperature is raised above that of boiling water. Will eventually kill all living organisms, including bacterial spores. Dry heat. Works like an oven. Objects are baked until all forms of life are dead.
CHOOSING A DISINFECTANT: Disinfectants are chemicals. We must read and follow directions. Safe products can be harmful if used incorrectly. An EPA-registered hospital liquid disinfectant or bleach solution for cleanup of blood or body fluid. When salon implements accidentally contact blood, body fluids, or unhealthy conditions, they should be cleaned and then completely immersed in an EPA–registered hospital disinfectant solution or 10% bleach solution. The National Interstate Council of State Cosmetology Boards (NIC) follows this standard for testing as well. Correct efficacy. Efficacy means effectiveness to be used against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Labels must list the germs the product is proven to kill. Hospital-level disinfectant. Must be pseudomonacidal, bactericidal, fungicidal, and virucidal.
PROPER USE OF DISINFECTANTS: Clean before immersing. See Fig. 5-6. • Use on precleaned, nonporous surfaces. • Dilute according to directions. • Contact time is per directions. • Spray on contact time is per directions. • Spray can’t be used if complete Immersion is called for. • Use only as directed. Any other use is a violation of federal law. • Use EPA-registered disinfectant in pedicure spa. Solution must be circulated for the time required by label. Absorbent nail files must be disposed of if they accidentally break the client’s skin or contact unhealthy skin or nails.
TYPES OF DISINFECTANTS. NOTE: Have various disinfectants on display. QUATS: Quaternary Ammonium Compounds Nontoxic, odorless, fast-acting, safe and useful disinfectants. Most disinfect in 10 minutes. Long-term exposure may damage fine steel. Complete immersion. Means enough liquid to cover all surfaces of the item being disinfected. PHENOLICS: Phenolic disinfectants are powerful tuberculocidal disinfectants. A caustic poison. Safe and effective if used properly. Can damage rubber and plastic. Avoid skin contact. High pH can cause skin irritation; concentrated phenols can seriously burn skin and eyes. ALCOHOL: Methyl alcohol. Methanol…not used in salons. Ethyl alcohol. Ethanol…to be effective, must be no less than 70%. Isopropyl alcohol. Rubbing alcohol…must be 99% to be effective. Alcohols are not EPA-registered as disinfectants; they are not permitted for use with implements in states requiring hospital-level disinfection.
BLEACH: sodium hypochlorite (household bleach) are as effective as a disinfectant in the salon. Effective as a laundering additive. Too much bleach can damage some metals and plastics. To mix bleach solution, add ¾ cup to 1 gallon of water (128 ounces). FUMIGANTS: Formaldehyde vapors may cause cancer in high concentrations. High risk of developing allergic sensitivity as well. Must be kept in airtight container. It takes 24 hours to kill one fungus. Vapors are poisonous. Also extremely irritating to eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, and can cause skin allergies. Incorrect use violates federal law. Can aggravate lung problems.
DISINFECTANT SAFETY: Disinfectants are hazardous if used incorrectly. Some are poisonous if ingested; some cause skin and eye damage. Wear gloves and safety glasses. See Fig. 5-14. Add disinfectant to water. Never add water to disinfectant. Use tongs, gloves, or draining basket when removing implements from disinfectants. Keep away from children.
Don’t pour quats, phenols, etc., over hands. Wash your hands with soap and warm water and dry thoroughly. Carefully weigh and measure products. Never place in unmarked container. Always follow manufacturer’s directions. Avoid overexposure. Change disinfectant soak solution daily or more often if it becomes soiled or contaminated.
DISINFECT OR DISPOSE Multiuse. Reusable and can be cleaned, disinfected, and used on more than one person. Examples are nippers, shears, combs, pushers, some files, and buffers. Single-use. Disposable items cannot be used more than once (either because they cannot be properly cleaned or because cleaning damages them). Examples are orangewood sticks, cotton balls, gauze, tissues, paper towels, and some nail files and buffers. Porous. Items made or constructed of an absorbent material. Some can be cleaned and disinfected. Examples are towels, chamois, some nail files, and buffers. NOTE: If a porous item contacts broken skin, blood, body fluid, or any unhealthy conditions, it must be discarded immediately. (When in doubt, toss it out!)
DISINFECTION PROCEDURES: IMPLEMENTS. Non-electrical tools and equipment. Preclean. Remove hair, filings, and other such loose matter by scrubbing with soap and water. See Figure 5-17. Rinse thoroughly, pat dry. Completely immerse. See Figure 5-18. Remove implements with tongs, basket, or gloves. See Figure 5-19. Rinse thoroughly; air-dry. Store disinfected implements. A clean drawer can be used if it contains only clean items. CAUTION: Ultraviolet sanitizers are useful storage containers, but they do not disinfect or sterilize. Electric or bead “sterilizers” do not disinfect or sterilize implements. They can actually spread potentially infectious diseases and should never be used in a salon.
LINENS, CAPES: Launder and bleach according to label directions. Store clean towels separate from soiled towels. WORK SURFACES: Wipe with clean, disposable towel. Clean doorknobs and handles daily. INDIVIDUAL CLIENT PACKS: You may prepare and save individual client packs with items like nail files and buffers as long as items are cleaned, disinfected, and dried before being placed in the pack. Do not use bags with an airtight seal. DETERGENTS AND SOAPS: Use chelating surfactant soaps or detergents, which work to sequester debris. These are important for removing residue from pedicure products like scrubs, salts, and masques. ADDITIVES, POWDERS, TABLETS: These cannot be used to replace EPA-registered disinfectant solutions. Be wary of Chloramine-T as it is not recognized as effective in the United States.
HANDLING DISPOSABLES: All single-use items must be disposed of after use. Anything exposed to blood must be double-bagged and marked with a biohazard sticker and disposed of according to OSHA standards (separated from other waste and disposed of according to federal, state, and local regulations). Puncture-proof containers should be used for disposal of all sharp items. WASHING HANDS Wet hands with warm water. Use liquid soap and scrub hands together for 20 seconds. Give attention to areas between fingers, nails, and both sides of hands and exposed portions of arms. Rinse well with warm water. Dry with disposable paper towel or air blower. Do not use cloth towels. WATERLESS HAND SANITIZERS: Antiseptics are agents formulated for use on skin. Effective if soap and water is not available. Can ultimately be drying on skin.
WHIRLPOOL FOOT SPAS: Present procedures for disinfecting foot spas after each client, at the end of each day, and weekly. Have students follow along procedures found on LP 5.0, H–1.
UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS: OSHA prescribes the use of Universal Precautions as the approach to infection control. They require the employer and employee to assume that all human blood and specified human body fluids are infectious for HIV, HBV, and other bloodborne pathogens. BLOOD SPILL DISINFECTION: Procedure protects both the client and the professional. CAUTION: Hand washing is the single most effective measure for reducing the spread of infectious disease. Be aware that antibacterial soap may NOT kill more germs than regular soap and water and can be harmful in that they leave the skin vulnerable to skin problems such as eczema. Stop service and clean injured area. Apply gloves for self-protection. Apply antiseptic and/or liquid or spray styptic. Don’t contaminate container. Bandage cut. Use an adhesive bandage. Clean workstation as needed. Discard contaminated objects. Dispose of all disposable contaminated objects such as wipes or cotton balls by double bagging. Use biohazard sticker. Deposit sharp disposables in a box. See Figure 5-22. Disinfect all tools contaminated with blood or body fluids by complete immersion in an EPA-registered disinfectant that kills HIV-1 and hepatitis B or in a tuberculocidal disinfectant. Remove gloves; wash hands with soap and warm water.
THE PROFESSIONAL SALON IMAGE. SALON GUIDELINES Keep floors clean. Sweep hair after every client. Mop floors and vacuum carpets every day. Keep trash contained. Place in a waste receptacle; covered containers may be necessary by mandate of your state regulatory agency and to reduce chemical odors and look more professional. Control dust, hair, and other debris. Clean fans, ventilation systems, and humidifiers at least weekly. Keep all work areas well lit.
Keep restrooms clean, including door handles. Supply restrooms. Provide toilet tissue, paper towels, liquid soap, and clean, soft bristle nail brushes in the rest room. No cooking or sleeping. Do not allow the salon to be used for cooking or living quarters. Store food separate from products. Never place food in refrigerators used to store salon products. Prohibit eating, drinking, smoking in areas where services are performed or where product mixing occurs, i.e., back bar area.
Empty waste receptacles regularly throughout the day. A metal waste receptacle with a self-closing lid works best. Mark containers. Make sure all containers are properly marked and properly stored. Place tools properly. Never place any tools or implements in your mouth or pockets. Disinfect tools. Properly clean and disinfect all tools after each use. Properly store tools. Store clean and disinfected tools in a clean container or sanitary manner. Clean drawers may be used for storage if only clean items are stored in it.
Don’t touch face, mouth or eyes. Avoid touching your face, mouth, or eye areas during services. Clean work surfaces. Clean after every client. This includes manicure tables, esthetic chairs and tables, workstations, and shampoo bowls. Use clean linens on clients. Use disposable towels and linens. Keep soiled linens separate from clean linens. Use neck strips or towels to avoid skin contact with shampoo capes and cutting or chemical protection gowns. Use exhaust systems. Replacing the air in the salon with fresh air at least 4 times every hour is recommended. This will ensure proper air quality in the salon.
PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITY Protect client’s safety. Learn the state rules regarding sanitation and client safety. Never take shortcuts in sanitation or disinfection.
SUMMARY AND REVIEW The regulatory agency and local health board requires that businesses serving the public follow certain sanitary precautions. As we have learned, contagious diseases, skin infections, and blood poisoning are caused either by infectious bacteria being transmitted from one individual to another or by the use of unsanitary implements. The more you know and understand about bacteria, how they grow and reproduce and how they are destroyed, the more success you will attain in the salon in protecting both yourself and your clients from unnecessary infections or disease. It is essential to practice universal precautions which include using gloves, safety glasses, disinfectants, and salon/school cleanliness. Don’t take shortcuts when it comes to sanitation and disinfection. Following proper procedures will earn your clients’ trust and will improve the public’s perception of cosmetology as a career. Let’s review. What is sanitation and why is it important? ANSWER: It is simply cleaning; the removal of all visible dirt and debris. What is the primary purpose of regulatory agencies? ANSWER: State agencies regulate licensing, provide enforcement, protect the health, safety, and welfare of the consumer, and oversee your conduct when working in a salon. Federal agencies regulate the practice of cosmetology, set guidelines for manufacturing, regulate the sale and use of equipment and chemical ingredients, and provide for safety in the workplace.
What is an exposure incident? ANSWER: This refers to contact with non-intact skin, blood, body fluid, or other potentially infectious materials that results from the performance of an employee’s duties (previously called blood spill). List the steps for cleaning and disinfecting electrical equipment. ANSWER: If the electrical equipment cannot be completely immersed, a spray disinfectant must be used and allowed to remain on the item for the time required by the product label. List the three types of microorganisms that are important to cosmetology. ANSWER: Bacteria, fungus, and virus. What is complete immersion? ANSWER: Complete immersion means enough liquid to cover all surfaces of the item being disinfected. It is usually done for at least 10 minutes. Is HIV a risk in the salon? Why or why not? ANSWER: Yes. If you accidentally cut a client who is HIV-positive or is infected with hepatitis and you continue to use the implement without cleaning or disinfecting it, you risk puncturing your skin or cutting another client with a contaminated tool.
What is a contagious or communicable disease? ANSWER: A disease that is easily spread from one person to another or one part of the body to another. How often should disinfectant solutions be changed? ANSWER: Daily or more often if it becomes soiled or contaminated. Describe the procedure for taking care of blood or body fluid in the salon. ANSWER: Stop service and clean injured area. Apply gloves for self-protection. Apply antiseptic and/or liquid or spray styptic. Don’t contaminate container. Bandage cut. Use an adhesive bandage. Clean workstation as needed. Discard contaminated objects. Dispose of all disposable contaminated objects such as wipes or cotton balls by double bagging. Use biohazard sticker. Deposit sharp disposables in a box. Disinfect all tools contaminated with blood or body fluids by complete immersion in an EPA-registered disinfectant that kills HIV-1 and hepatitis B or in a tuberculocidal disinfectant. Remove gloves; wash hands with soap and warm water.
How do you know if an item is disinfectable? ANSWER: The item can be cleaned, disinfected, and used on more than one person, even if the item is exposed to blood or body fluid. Can porous items be disinfected? ANSWER: Porous means made or constructed of an absorbent material. Some porous items can be safely cleaned, disinfected, and used on more than one client. If a porous item contacts broken skin, blood, body fluid, or any unhealthy condition, it must be discarded immediately. What is an MSDS? Where can you get these? ANSWER: MSDS stands for Material Safety Data Sheet and can be obtained from the product’s manufacturer, downloaded from the manufacturer’s website, or obtained from the distributor.
List the steps for cleaning and disinfecting pedicure equipment after each client. ANSWER: See LP 5.0, H-1 of this lesson plan. Explain how to clean and disinfect the following: ANSWER: HAIRCUTTING AND STYLING IMPLEMENTS AND METAL NAIL IMPLEMENTS Preclean. Remove hair, filings, and other such loose matter by scrubbing with soap and water. Rinse thoroughly; pat dry. Wear gloves, goggles, and/or safety glasses. Mix solution according to directions. Use gloves and tongs to immerse implements. Remove implements with tongs, basket, or gloves. Rinse thoroughly; air-dry. Place in clean, closed, dry, disinfected container. LINENS, CAPES Launder and bleach according to label directions. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Wipe and spray with EPA- registered, hospital-grade, tuberculocidal disinfectant created for electrical equipment.
List at least six precautions to follow when using disinfectants. ANSWER: Preclean. Remove hair, filings, and other such loose matter by scrubbing with soap and water. Rinse thoroughly; pat dry. Completely immerse. Remove implements with tongs, basket, or gloves. Rinse thoroughly; air-dry. Store disinfected implements. A clean drawer can be used if it contains only clean items. CAUTION: UV sanitizers are useful storage containers, but they do not disinfect or sterilize. Electric or bead “sterilizers” do not disinfect or sterilize implements. They can actually spread potentially infectious diseases and should never be used in a salon. What are Universal Precautions? ANSWER: OSHA prescribes the use of Universal Precautions as the approach to infection control. They require the employer and employee to assume that all human blood and specified human body fluids are infectious for HIV, HBV, and other bloodborne pathogens.
Chapter 05 Infection Control Principles & Practices
Infection Control Principles & Practices Milady’s Standard Cosmetology Cosmetology:
“ A non-doer is very often a critic…that is, someone who sits back and watches doers and then waxes philosophically about how the doers are doing. It’s easy to be a critic, but being a doer requires effort, risk, and change” Dr. Wayne W. Dyer
Objectives <ul><li>Understand state laws and rules </li></ul><ul><li>List the types and classifications of bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>List types of disinfection and how they are used </li></ul><ul><li>Define hepatitis and HIV and explain how they are transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how to safely sanitize and disinfect various salon tools and surfaces </li></ul>
<ul><li>Explain the differences between cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss Universal Precautions and your responsibilities as a salon professional </li></ul>Objectives
Regulations <ul><li>OSHA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational Safety and Health Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MSDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product content, associated hazards, combustion levels, storage requirements </li></ul></ul>
Movement of Bacteria <ul><li>Cocci </li></ul><ul><li>Bacilli and spirilla </li></ul>
Growth and Reproduction <ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm, moist, dirty environment; takes 20-30 minutes; cell division called mitosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spore-forming, allowing dormant bacteria to withstand long periods without food </li></ul></ul>
Viruses <ul><li>Live by penetrating cells </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant to antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Prevented by vaccination </li></ul>
Bloodborne Pathogens <ul><li>Hepatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis A </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B (HBV) </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis C (HCV) </li></ul>
HIV / AIDS <ul><li>Transmitted by unprotected sexual contact, needle-sharing, and accidents with needles, and through cuts and sores </li></ul><ul><li>Not transmitted by hand holding, hugging, kissing, or sharing food or household items </li></ul>
Principles of Prevention <ul><li>Contamination: pollution, soiling with infectious matter </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminate: to make impure; to taint or pollute </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminant: any substance that causes contamination </li></ul>
Decontamination <ul><li>Sanitation: removing visible dirt and debris </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfection: controls microorganisms on nonporous surfaces </li></ul>
Decontamination <ul><li>Sterilization: destroys all microbial life including bacterial spores </li></ul>
Choosing a Disinfectant <ul><li>Correct efficacy (effectiveness against bacteria, fungi, and viruses) </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital-level disinfectant (EPA registered for blood spills) </li></ul>
Proper Use of Disinfectants <ul><li>Use on precleaned surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Dilute per directions </li></ul><ul><li>Contact time per directions </li></ul><ul><li>Spray on contact time per directions </li></ul><ul><li>No spray if immersion required </li></ul><ul><li>Use only as directed </li></ul><ul><li>EPA-registered disinfectant in foot spas </li></ul>
Types of Disinfectants <ul><li>QUATS </li></ul><ul><li>Phenolics </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohols </li></ul>
Types of Disinfectants <ul><li>Fumigants </li></ul>
Disinfectant Safety <ul><li>Wear gloves and safety glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Add disinfectant to water </li></ul><ul><li>Use tongs, gloves, </li></ul><ul><li>or draining basket </li></ul><ul><li>Keep away from children </li></ul>
Disinfect or Dispose <ul><li>Multiuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nippers, shears, combs, pushers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single-use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orangewood sticks, cotton balls, tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Porous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Towels, chamois, some files and buffers </li></ul></ul>
Disinfection Procedures <ul><li>Preclean </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse and dry </li></ul><ul><li>Completely immerse </li></ul><ul><li>Remove with tongs, </li></ul><ul><li>basket, gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse, air dry </li></ul><ul><li>Store properly </li></ul>
Disinfection Information <ul><li>Linens and capes </li></ul><ul><li>Work surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Individual client packs </li></ul><ul><li>Detergents and soaps </li></ul><ul><li>Additives, powders, tablets </li></ul>
<ul><li>Handling disposables </li></ul><ul><li>Washing hands </li></ul><ul><li>Waterless hand sanitizers </li></ul>Disinfection Information
Whirlpool Foot Spas <ul><li>Procedure after each use </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure at the end of each day </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure performed weekly </li></ul>
Universal Precautions <ul><li>Stop and clean area </li></ul><ul><li>Wear gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Apply antiseptic </li></ul><ul><li>Bandage cut </li></ul><ul><li>Clean workstation </li></ul><ul><li>Discard contaminated objects </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfect tools </li></ul><ul><li>Remove gloves and wash hands </li></ul>
The Professional Salon Image <ul><li>Keep floors clean </li></ul><ul><li>Keep trash contained </li></ul><ul><li>Control dust, hair, and other debris </li></ul><ul><li>Clean fans, ventilation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Keep all work areas well-lit </li></ul>
<ul><li>Keep restrooms clean </li></ul><ul><li>Supply restrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use as living quarters </li></ul><ul><li>Store foods separate from products </li></ul><ul><li>Control eating, drinking, smoking </li></ul>The Professional Salon Image
<ul><li>Empty waste receptacles </li></ul><ul><li>Mark containers </li></ul><ul><li>Never place tools in mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfect tools </li></ul><ul><li>Properly store tools </li></ul>The Professional Salon Image
<ul><li>Don’t touch face, mouth, eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Clean work surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Use clean linens </li></ul><ul><li>Use exhaust systems </li></ul>The Professional Salon Image
Professional Responsibility <ul><li>Protect client’s safety </li></ul><ul><li>Never take shortcuts in sanitation and disinfection </li></ul>
Summary and Review <ul><li>What is sanitation and why is it important? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the primary purpose of regulatory agencies? </li></ul>
<ul><li>What is an exposure incident? </li></ul><ul><li>List the steps for cleaning and disinfecting electrical equipment </li></ul><ul><li>List the three types of microorganisms that are important to cosmetology </li></ul><ul><li>What is complete immersion? </li></ul><ul><li>Is HIV a risk in the salon? Why or why not? </li></ul>Summary and Review
<ul><li>What is a contagious or communicable disease? </li></ul><ul><li>How often should disinfectant solutions be changed? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the procedure for taking care of blood or body fluid in the salon </li></ul>Summary and Review
<ul><li>How do you know if an item is disinfectable? </li></ul><ul><li>Can porous items be disinfected? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an MSDS and where can it be obtained? </li></ul>Summary and Review
<ul><li>List steps for cleaning and disinfecting pedicure equipment </li></ul>Summary and Review
<ul><li>List at least six precautions to follow when using disinfectants </li></ul><ul><li>What are Universal Precautions? </li></ul>Summary and Review
Congratulations! <ul><li>You’ve just completed </li></ul><ul><li>one unit of study toward </li></ul><ul><li>program completion! </li></ul>