Chapter 05 Infection Control Principles & Practices


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Chapter 05 Infection Control Principles & Practices

  1. 1. Infection Control Principles & Practices Milady’s Standard Cosmetology Cosmetology:
  2. 2. “ A non-doer is very often a critic…that is, someone who sits back and watches doers and then waxes philosophically about how the doers are doing. It’s easy to be a critic, but being a doer requires effort, risk, and change” Dr. Wayne W. Dyer
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Understand state laws and rules </li></ul><ul><li>List the types and classifications of bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>List types of disinfection and how they are used </li></ul><ul><li>Define hepatitis and HIV and explain how they are transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how to safely sanitize and disinfect various salon tools and surfaces </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Explain the differences between cleaning, disinfection, and sterilization </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss Universal Precautions and your responsibilities as a salon professional </li></ul>Objectives
  5. 5. Regulations <ul><li>OSHA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occupational Safety and Health Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MSDS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product content, associated hazards, combustion levels, storage requirements </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Regulations <ul><li>EPA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Registration number, labeling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State agencies </li></ul>
  7. 7. Material Safety Data Sheet
  8. 8. State Regulatory Agencies <ul><li>Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Rules </li></ul>
  9. 9. Principles of Infection <ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-pathogenic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogenic </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Classifications of Pathogenic Bacteria <ul><li>Cocci </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Staphylococci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streptococci </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diplococci </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bacilli </li></ul><ul><li>Spirilla </li></ul>
  11. 11. Movement of Bacteria <ul><li>Cocci </li></ul><ul><li>Bacilli and spirilla </li></ul>
  12. 12. Growth and Reproduction <ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm, moist, dirty environment; takes 20-30 minutes; cell division called mitosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inactive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spore-forming, allowing dormant bacteria to withstand long periods without food </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Bacterial Infections <ul><li>Staphylococci </li></ul><ul><li>Local infection </li></ul><ul><li>General infection </li></ul><ul><li>Contagious or communicable </li></ul>
  14. 14. Viruses <ul><li>Live by penetrating cells </li></ul><ul><li>Resistant to antibiotics </li></ul><ul><li>Prevented by vaccination </li></ul>
  15. 15. Bloodborne Pathogens <ul><li>Hepatitis </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis A </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis B (HBV) </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatitis C (HCV) </li></ul>
  16. 16. HIV / AIDS <ul><li>Transmitted by unprotected sexual contact, needle-sharing, and accidents with needles, and through cuts and sores </li></ul><ul><li>Not transmitted by hand holding, hugging, kissing, or sharing food or household items </li></ul>
  17. 17. Parasites <ul><li>Vegetable </li></ul><ul><li>Animal </li></ul>
  18. 18. How Pathogens Enter the Body <ul><li>Break in skin </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Nose </li></ul><ul><li>Ears </li></ul>
  19. 19. How the Body Fights Infection <ul><li>Unbroken skin </li></ul><ul><li>Body secretions </li></ul><ul><li>White blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Antitoxins </li></ul>
  20. 20. Immunity <ul><li>Natural immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired immunity </li></ul><ul><li>Human disease carrier </li></ul>
  21. 21. Principles of Prevention <ul><li>Contamination: pollution, soiling with infectious matter </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminate: to make impure; to taint or pollute </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminant: any substance that causes contamination </li></ul>
  22. 22. Decontamination <ul><li>Sanitation: removing visible dirt and debris </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfection: controls microorganisms on nonporous surfaces </li></ul>
  23. 23. Decontamination <ul><li>Sterilization: destroys all microbial life including bacterial spores </li></ul>
  24. 24. Choosing a Disinfectant <ul><li>Correct efficacy (effectiveness against bacteria, fungi, and viruses) </li></ul><ul><li>Hospital-level disinfectant (EPA registered for blood spills) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Proper Use of Disinfectants <ul><li>Use on precleaned surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Dilute per directions </li></ul><ul><li>Contact time per directions </li></ul><ul><li>Spray on contact time per directions </li></ul><ul><li>No spray if immersion required </li></ul><ul><li>Use only as directed </li></ul><ul><li>EPA-registered disinfectant in foot spas </li></ul>
  26. 26. Clean and Immerse
  27. 27. Types of Disinfectants <ul><li>QUATS </li></ul><ul><li>Phenolics </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohols </li></ul>
  28. 28. Types of Disinfectants <ul><li>Fumigants </li></ul>
  29. 29. Disinfectant Safety <ul><li>Wear gloves and safety glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Add disinfectant to water </li></ul><ul><li>Use tongs, gloves, </li></ul><ul><li>or draining basket </li></ul><ul><li>Keep away from children </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Don’t expose hands (wash and dry thoroughly) </li></ul><ul><li>Carefully weigh and </li></ul><ul><li>measure products </li></ul><ul><li>Mark containers </li></ul><ul><li>Follow directions </li></ul><ul><li>Change solution daily </li></ul>Disinfectant Safety
  31. 31. Disinfect or Dispose <ul><li>Multiuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nippers, shears, combs, pushers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single-use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orangewood sticks, cotton balls, tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Porous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Towels, chamois, some files and buffers </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Disinfection Procedures <ul><li>Preclean </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse and dry </li></ul><ul><li>Completely immerse </li></ul><ul><li>Remove with tongs, </li></ul><ul><li>basket, gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse, air dry </li></ul><ul><li>Store properly </li></ul>
  33. 33. Disinfection Information <ul><li>Linens and capes </li></ul><ul><li>Work surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Individual client packs </li></ul><ul><li>Detergents and soaps </li></ul><ul><li>Additives, powders, tablets </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Handling disposables </li></ul><ul><li>Washing hands </li></ul><ul><li>Waterless hand sanitizers </li></ul>Disinfection Information
  35. 35. Whirlpool Foot Spas <ul><li>Procedure after each use </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure at the end of each day </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure performed weekly </li></ul>
  36. 36. Universal Precautions <ul><li>Stop and clean area </li></ul><ul><li>Wear gloves </li></ul><ul><li>Apply antiseptic </li></ul><ul><li>Bandage cut </li></ul><ul><li>Clean workstation </li></ul><ul><li>Discard contaminated objects </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfect tools </li></ul><ul><li>Remove gloves and wash hands </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Professional Salon Image <ul><li>Keep floors clean </li></ul><ul><li>Keep trash contained </li></ul><ul><li>Control dust, hair, and other debris </li></ul><ul><li>Clean fans, ventilation systems </li></ul><ul><li>Keep all work areas well-lit </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Keep restrooms clean </li></ul><ul><li>Supply restrooms </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use as living quarters </li></ul><ul><li>Store foods separate from products </li></ul><ul><li>Control eating, drinking, smoking </li></ul>The Professional Salon Image
  39. 39. <ul><li>Empty waste receptacles </li></ul><ul><li>Mark containers </li></ul><ul><li>Never place tools in mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Disinfect tools </li></ul><ul><li>Properly store tools </li></ul>The Professional Salon Image
  40. 40. <ul><li>Don’t touch face, mouth, eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Clean work surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Use clean linens </li></ul><ul><li>Use exhaust systems </li></ul>The Professional Salon Image
  41. 41. Professional Responsibility <ul><li>Protect client’s safety </li></ul><ul><li>Never take shortcuts in sanitation and disinfection </li></ul>
  42. 42. Summary and Review <ul><li>What is sanitation and why is it important? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the primary purpose of regulatory agencies? </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>What is an exposure incident? </li></ul><ul><li>List the steps for cleaning and disinfecting electrical equipment </li></ul><ul><li>List the three types of microorganisms that are important to cosmetology </li></ul><ul><li>What is complete immersion? </li></ul><ul><li>Is HIV a risk in the salon? Why or why not? </li></ul>Summary and Review
  44. 44. <ul><li>What is a contagious or communicable disease? </li></ul><ul><li>How often should disinfectant solutions be changed? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the procedure for taking care of blood or body fluid in the salon </li></ul>Summary and Review
  45. 45. <ul><li>How do you know if an item is disinfectable? </li></ul><ul><li>Can porous items be disinfected? </li></ul><ul><li>What is an MSDS and where can it be obtained? </li></ul>Summary and Review
  46. 46. <ul><li>List steps for cleaning and disinfecting pedicure equipment </li></ul>Summary and Review
  47. 47. <ul><li>List at least six precautions to follow when using disinfectants </li></ul><ul><li>What are Universal Precautions? </li></ul>Summary and Review
  48. 48. Congratulations! <ul><li>You’ve just completed </li></ul><ul><li>one unit of study toward </li></ul><ul><li>program completion! </li></ul>