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  1. 1. History of pesticides Types of Pesticides Uses of Pesticides Impact of pesticides on human being & environment Alternative Methods
  2. 2. A substance used for destroying insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or to animals.
  3. 3. Ancient times: Ashes, common salts, and bitters are used as herbicides 1st century AD: Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder, in his Historia naturalis, advocates the use of arsenic as an insecticide; suggests soda and olive oil for treatment of legumes 16th century: Chinese farmers use arsenicals and nicotine in the form of tobacco extracts as insecticides 1850s: Pyrethrum and soap see wide use in the West as insecticides; a wash of tobacco, sulfur, and lime used to combat insects and fungi 1867: The pigment Paris green, an impure form of copper arsenite, 1896: A French grape grower applies Bordeaux mixture Cu sulfate & CaOH
  4. 4. 1900: Sulfuric acid, copper nitrates, potassium salts are used 1900 -1950 Sodium arsenite solutions become the standard herbicides and are used in large quantities 1913 - Organomercury seed dressing 1913- 1939 First of several dithiocarbamates fungicides used in US
  5. 5. 1939: Insecticidal potential of DDT discovered in Switzerland, leading to synthesis of thousands of chemicals. Chlorinated hydrocarbons such as DDT, BHC, dieldrin, aldrin& chlordane, and others, all powerful contact and stomach poisons, see enthusiastic use against malaria and other insectborne diseases
  6. 6. TYPE ACTION Algicides Control algae in lakes, canals, swimming pools, water tanks, and other sites. Antifouling agents Kill or repel organisms that attach to underwater surfaces, such as boat bottoms Antimicrobials Kill microorganisms (such as bacteria and viruses). Attractants Attract pests (for example, to lure an insect or rodent to a trap). (However, food is not considered a pesticide when used as an attractant.) Biopesticides Biopesticides are certain types of pesticides derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. Biocides Kill microorganisms Disinfectants and sanitizers Kill or inactivate disease-producing microorganisms on inanimate objects
  7. 7. . TYPE ACTION Fungicides Kill fungi (including blights, mildews, molds, and rusts). Fumigants Produce gas or vapor intended to destroy pests in buildings or soil Herbicides Kill weeds and other plants that grow where they are not wanted. Insecticides Kill insects and other arthropods. Miticides Kill mites that feed on plants and animals Microbial pesticides Microorganisms that kill, inhibit, or out compete pests, including insects or other microorganisms Molluscicides Kill snails and slugs Nematicides Kill nematodes (microscopic, worm-like organisms that feed on plant roots)
  8. 8. TYPE ACTION Ovicides Kill eggs of insects and mites Pheromones Biochemicals used to disrupt the mating behavior of insects. Repellents Repel pests, including insects (such as mosquitoes) and birds Rodenticides Control mice and other rodents. Defoliants Cause leaves or other foliage to drop from a plant, usually to facilitate harvest Desiccants Promote drying of living tissues, such as unwanted plant tops. Insect growth regulators Disrupt the molting, maturity from pupal stage to adult, or other life processes of insects.
  9. 9. Food production capacity is faced with an ever-growing number of challenges, including a world population expected to grow to nearly 9 billion by 2050 and a falling ratio of arable land to population.
  10. 10. Increased yields, reduced crop losses from pests and disease, and less spoilage after harvest are just some of the benefits of innovation in crop protection products that we all enjoy today
  11. 11. Consumers expect high quality fruit and vegetables; this means produce free of insect blemishes and insect contamination. Before the introduction of insecticides, holes, scars, and surface tunnels made my insects feeding on crops could often be found in produce sold to consumers in addition to insect fragments in canned products.
  12. 12. Pesticides can contribute to air pollution. Pesticide drift occurs when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas, potentially contaminating them AIR POLLUTION
  13. 13. Pesticide impacts on aquatic systems There are four major routes through which pesticides reach the water: it may drift outside of the intended area when it is sprayed, it may percolate, or leach, through the soil, it may be carried to the water as runoff, or it may be spilled, for example accidentally or through neglect Water polllution
  14. 14. The use of pesticides decreases the general biodiversity in the soil. Not using the chemicals results in higher soil quality, with the additional effect that more organic matter in the soil allows for higher water retention Soil POLLUTION
  15. 15. Pesticides can enter the body through inhalation of aerosols, dust andvapor that contain pesticides; through oral exposure by consuming food/water; and through skin exposure by direct contact Impact of pesticides on human being
  16. 16. Alternative methods have been practiced for some time and include: 1. Crop rotation. Crop rotation involves alternating the species of crop that a farmer grows on his or her land each year. Rotating crops helps prevent pests from getting used to the type of plant that is being cultivated. Planting different species of
  17. 17. Polyculture. The simultaneous cultivation or exploitation of several crops or kinds of animals.
  18. 18. Trap crops, which attract pests away from the valuable crops Organic farming
  19. 19. 6. Biological pest control, such as: i) Pheromones. ii) Entomopathogenic fungi. iii) Bacteria and viruses. iv) The release of other organisms, such as natural pest predators and pesticides