Growth And Capital Flows With Risky Entrepreneurship


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Growth And Capital Flows With Risky Entrepreneurship

  1. 1. «Growth and Capital Flows with Risky Entrepreneurship»<br />DamianoSandri<br />Johns Hopkins University<br />2009<br />Presented by Anastasia Aladysheva<br />10th of May 2010<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Empirical Motivation<br />The Model<br />workers;<br />entrepreneurs;<br />net foreign asset position;<br />competitive equilibrium;<br />policy functions;<br />Model Implications<br />calibration and structural estimation;<br />simulation;<br />sensitivity analysis;<br />Financial Development<br />economy’s dynamics under risk-sharing;<br />welfare gains from risk-sharing;<br />Conclusion<br />
  3. 3. Empirical Motivation<br />Capital flows from rich to developing countries (Lucas (1990)), allocation “puzzle” (Prasad et al. (2007)), China-US;<br />Permanent Income Hypothesis (fast growing country should be borrowing heavily in order to finance investment and smooth consumption), positive correlation between growth and net capital outflows (Prasad et al. (2007)), large current account deficits in European emerging markets (Abiad, Leigh, and Mody (2007));<br />Positive correlation between saving rate and growth (Houthakker (1961), Modigliani (1970), Bosworth (1993), Gourinchasand Jeanne (2007));<br />Standard closed economy growth models a la Solow and Romer predict that higher saving rates lead to more investment and growth. However:<br />In case of frictionless small open economy: exogenous increase in saving simply generates capital outflows;<br />Opposite causal relation (Rodrik (2000), Carroll and Weil (1994), etc), higher correlation than between investment and growth;<br />
  4. 4. Saving, Investment, and the current account during growth acceleration periods:<br />Rapid growth (at least 3% over the following 7 years);<br />Growth has to accelerate (the subsequent 7 years has to be at least 2% higher than over the previous 7 years);<br />Growth should not be driven by a recovery phase out of recession (GNI per capita 7 years after the growth acceleration year has to be at least as large as the pre-growth peak);<br />Data on developing countries from World Development Indicators, 1960-2004, 33 growth acceleration episodes, time-series of cross-country mean;<br />Financial globalization is not a key factor behind the positive correlation between growth and capital outflows (Figure 2)<br />An important role in driving the positive correlation between saving, net capital outflow and growth is played by entrepreneurs (Gentry and Hubbard (2004), Chamon and Prasad (2007), Sandri (2008))<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. The Model<br />Heterogeneous entrepreneurial ability;<br />Initially, all agents are self-employed farmers earning the risk-free income;<br />Unexpectedly they are offered the one time chance of forever becoming entrepreneurs, foregoing the farming income in favor of a risky income proportional to invested capital and entrepreneurial ability (pre-entry saving is ruled out);<br />The individuals with high entrepreneurial ability invest in their firms, thus triggering growth; <br />Entrepreneurial activities also require the employment of workers which are absorbed from the rural sector and paid the market clearing wage;<br />Key assumption: incomplete financial markets (no state contingent claims);<br />Impatience condition Rβ< 1 that guarantees a finite accumulation of safe assets by entrepreneurs;<br />
  7. 7. Workers<br />Workers decide:<br />Earn income as self-employed farmers or offer their labor unit to entrepreneurs;<br />How to allocate resources between consumption and savings, which are invested in risk-free assets<br />
  8. 8. Entrepreneurs<br />
  9. 9. Entrepreneurs<br />They choose at each time how much to consume and how to allocate savings between the risk free asset and the invested capital;<br />With probability б E. will be hit by an exogenous idiosyncratic shock involving loss of the invested capital;<br />Investment is self-financed;<br />The expected marginal value of investing in the safe asset has to equal the expected marginal utility of investing in the firm’s capital (as E. becomes wealthier, invested capital and safe asset holdings increase together);<br />Euler condition, equating the marginal utility of consumption today with the discounted expected marginal utility of consumption tomorrow:<br />
  10. 10. The Net Foreign Asset Position<br />the aggregate risk free asset holdings of workers and entrepreneurs<br />Competitive Equilibrium<br />given R and , CE is <br />the sequence of distributions<br />Policy functions<br />Value functions<br />Wage rates <br />such that:<br />Policy functions solve the worker’s and entrepreneur’s problems;<br />The labor market clears for all t≥0<br /> is consistent with , the policy rules, and the idiosyncratic shocks.<br />
  11. 11. The worker has no incentive to hold any assets (due to the absence of uncertainty and impatience condition);<br />The E. saves for two reasons:<br />The high return which can be earned on invested capital<br />Desire to create a buffer stock of safe assets to smooth consumption in the case of business failure<br />