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- 1. Cell Phone-basedOptometry Solution The Inverse of Shack-Hartmann Vitor Pamplona eyenetra.com
- 2. Andres Rueda
- 3. Thermometer for vision Collaboration with: Ankit Mohan , Manuel M. Oliveira, Ramesh Raskar
- 4. Thermometer for vision Collaboration with: Ankit Mohan , Manuel M. Oliveira, Ramesh Raskar
- 5. 2B have refractive errors 0.6B have4.5B have a URE cell phone 6.5 Billion people
- 6. Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor Wavefront aberrometerExpensive; Bulky, Requires trained professionals 6
- 7. Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor LaserSpot Diagram Planar Sensor Microlens Wavefront Array
- 8. Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor Laser Spot Diagram SensorDisplacement = Local Slopeof the Wavefront 8
- 9. NETRA = Inverse of Shack-HartmannSpot Diagram on LCD Cell Eye Phone Piece Display 9
- 10. Inverse of Shack-Hartmann User interactively creates the Spot DiagramSpot Diagram on LCDDisplace 25points but3 parameters 10
- 11. Inverse of Shack-Hartmann User interactively creates the Spot DiagramSpot Diagram on LCDDisplace 25points but3 parameters 11
- 12. Relaxed Eye with Myopia EyeRed point Blurredat infinity point Focusing Range perfect vision myopia hyperopiainfinity ~10cm 12
- 13. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye PinholesRed point Distinctat infinity image points Focusing Range perfect vision myopia Scheiner’s Principle hyperopia infinity ~10cm 13
- 14. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye Display AVirtual red point Distinct at infinity image B points Focusing Range perfect vision myopia hyperopia infinity ~10cm 14
- 15. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye Display Move spotstowards each other A Distinct imageVirtual red point B pointsat finite distance Focusing Range perfect vision myopia hyperopia infinity ~10cm 15
- 16. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye Display Move spotstowards each other A Points overlapVirtual red point Bat finite distance Focusing Range perfect vision myopia hyperopia infinity ~10cm 16
- 17. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye Display Move spotstowards each other A Points overlapVirtual red point Bat finite distance d Focusing Range perfect vision myopia hyperopia infinity ~10cm 17
- 18. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye 1 dPoint at Pointsinfinity overlap d Focusing Range perfect vision myopia hyperopia infinity ~10cm 18
- 19. Interactive Method 20
- 20. Interactive Method 21
- 21. Interactive Method 22
- 22. Interactive Method 23
- 23. Interactive Method Farthest Focal Point (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) 24
- 24. Limitations• Children• Ability to align lines• Resolution is a function of the display DPI – Samsung Behold II – 160 DPI – 0.35D – Google Nexus One – 250 DPI – 0.2D – Apple iPhone 4G – 326 DPI – 0.14D 25
- 25. Why Now? 0.35um
- 26. NETRA Prototypes Worldwide 29 partners in 14 countries. Confidential 27
- 27. Clinical Testing Partners
- 28. NETRA Team at LVPEI, India
- 29. Kenya
- 30. Validation: Side by Side Trials 13 adults 29 adults 5.00 7.00 4.00 5.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 1.00 1.00Netra (D) Netra (D) 0.00 -5.00 -3.00 -1.00 1.00 3.00 5.00 -7.00 -1.00 -2.00 3.00 -1.00 -2.00 -3.00 -3.00 -5.00 -4.00 -5.00 -7.00 Retinoscopy (D) Retinoscopy (D) Tufts U. (Boston) LVPEI (India)NETRA vs Manifest Refraction NETRA vs Retinoscopy
- 31. Preventable Blindness WHO 2004
- 32. CATRA: Quantitative Cataract Maps Unique, quantitative lens mappingwith: Erick Passos, Jan Zizka, Everett Lawson, Esteban Clua , Manuel M. Oliveira, Ramesh Raskar
- 33. Testing the Presence of CataractsBlinking patterns on Screen Pinhole Lens Cell Phone Display 34
- 34. 36 years old female with Posterior Sub-Capsular (10%) Retro-illumination Slit-lamp CATRA’s Opacity Map
- 35. For the Future• Ophthalmology for Masses – >.5 billion URE. > 2.5 billion RE. -> Devices for all• Quality of phones (resolution) will increase exponentially• New features (recently cataracts, next Retinal NETRA)• Smart phones will take over the market in developing world countries like India in next 5 years.• Hardware store
- 36. NETRA Vitor Pamplonahttp://eyenetra.com
- 37. Photography in 1960s Illana Tamir Roboppy
- 38. Today, cameras are everywhere Photo: Tyler Photo: Derek K. Miller Photo: John Kannenberg
- 39. Optometry TodayWavefront Aberrometer Corneal Topographer Phoropter Trial set of lenses Lasers Snellen chart
- 40. “point-and-shoot” optometry
- 41. Traditional User DrivenMass-use Devices Scientific Instruments
- 42. Reading Charts• Accuracy – Sharpness Estimation is subjective – Brightness affects results – Pupil size variation and DoF• Cost – Trial Lens Set > $150 – Bulky Snellen chart Phoropter Trial lenses
- 43. New EcosystemMedical IT Systems EHR Eyecare Diagnostic Delivery Providers Asynchronous
- 44. Needs expert, Moving parts, Shining lasers Retino Auto- Chart In-Focus: Solo- scope w/ refracto- with Focometer Optiopia health: NETRA Lenses meter Lenses EyeSiteTechnology Shining Light Fundus Moving lenses Moving Reading Cellphone plus lenses Camera + target lenses + chart on + eyepiece target monitorCost to buy $2,000* ~$10,000 ~$100 ~$495 ~$200 -- $30Cost per test ~$36 ~$36 ~$5 -- -- -- ~$1Data capture No Comp. No No No Comp. PhoneMobility <500g >10Kg 2kg 1kg <5kg >10Kg <100gSpeed Fast Fast Medium Medium -- Fast FastScalability No No No Yes Probably No YesAccuracy 0.15 0.15 0.5 0.75 -- -- <0.5Self evaluation No No Yes Yes Yes Yes YesElectricity Req No Yes No No -- Yes NoAstigmatism Yes Yes Yes/No No -- Yes YesNetwork No Yes No No No Yes YesTraining High High High Medium Medium Low Low* Phoropter-based: $5,000.00
- 45. Human Eye Retina Human EyeCornea(~40D) Crystalline lens (10~20D) 46
- 46. Human Eye Accommodation Retina Human EyeCornea(~40D) Crystalline lens (10~20D) 47
- 47. Perfect Vision System Infinity Subject can focus at infinity Human EyeAccommodation Range Normal VisionInfinity 10cm 48
- 48. Myopia (nearsightedness) Infinity Subject cannot focus Wrong at far focal point distances Human EyeAccommodation Range Normal Vision MyopiaInfinity 10cm 49
- 49. Myopia Correction Infinity Subject can focus at infinity Divergent Lens Human EyeAccommodation Range Normal Vision Corrected Myopia MyopiaInfinity 10cm 50
- 50. Hyperopia (farsightedness) Infinity Wrong focal point Human EyeAccommodation Range Normal Vision Myopia HyperopiaInfinity 10cm 51
- 51. Hyperopia Correction Infinity Convergent Lens Human EyeAccommodation Range Normal Vision Myopia Corrected Hyperopia HyperopiaInfinity 10cm 52
- 52. Refractive Errors and Shifted Range Need to Perfect vision measure Myopia Hyperopia Infinity 1m 33cm 10cm Distance 54
- 53. Refractive Errors and Shifted Range Perfect vision Myopia Hyperopia Infinity 1m 33cm 10cm Distance+3D +1D 0D -1D -3D -10D Diopter Diopter = 1/Distance 55
- 54. Astigmatism: angle-dependent refractive error http://www.elizabethpope.co.uk/eyeinfo/astigmatism.html 56
- 55. Astigmatism: angle-dependent refractive error http://www.elizabethpope.co.uk/eyeinfo/astigmatism.html 57
- 56. Astigmatism: angle-dependent refractive error http://www.elizabethpope.co.uk/eyeinfo/astigmatism.html 58
- 57. Refractive Power as a Function of Angle 2 P( C sin ( ) SUnknowns: Cylinder Axis Cyl. Sphere 59
- 58. AstigmatismCross or points may never meet with a 1d search ! 60
- 59. AstigmatismLines reduce the problem to a 1d search 61
- 60. Measuring the Accommodation Range Perfect vision Myopia Hyperopia Infinity ~10cm Step 1: Far limit Step 2: Near limit 62
- 61. Measuring the Accommodation Range Perfect vision Myopia Hyperopia Infinity ~10cm Step 1: Far limit Step 2: Near limit 63
- 62. Measuring the Accommodation Range Perfect vision Myopia Hyperopia Infinity ~10cm Step 1: Far limit Step 2: Near limit 64
- 63. Relaxed Eye Display AVirtual Point at Points the far limit B overlap 65
- 64. Accommodated Eye DisplayMove points towards each other A Points B overlap Virtual point getting closer Subject Accommodates to fix the “blur” 66
- 65. Accommodated Eye DisplayMove points towards each other A Points B overlap Virtual point getting closer Subject Accommodates to fix the “blur” 67
- 66. Accommodated Eye DisplayMove points towards each other A Points B overlap Virtual point getting closer Subject cannot accommodate more than the previous point 68
- 67. Patterns for Alignment Task A B A B A B A B A B DisplayedSubject view A B A B A B A B A B DisplayedSubject view Visual 69 Cryptography [NaorShamir94]
- 68. Patterns for Alignment Task A B A B A B A B A B DisplayedSubject view A B A B A B A B A B DisplayedSubject view Visual 70 Cryptography [NaorShamir94]
- 69. Summary of Interaction Accommodation Range Farthest Point Nearest Point(myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) (presbyopia) 71

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