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Interactive Measurements and  Tailored Displays for OpticalAberrations of the Human Eye        Vitor Pamplona   Advisor: M...
Thesis Contributions                           TailoredNETRA          CATRA                           Displays            ...
Cell Phone-basedRefractive Measurements        The Inverse of       Shack-Hartmannwith: Manuel Oliveira, Ankit Mohan, Rame...
CATRA: Quantitative                                               Cataract Maps                                           ...
5with: Manuel Oliveira, Daniel Aliaga, Ramesh Raskar
Thesis Contributions                           TailoredNETRA          CATRA                           Displays            ...
NETRA: Measuring Refractive  Errors and Focal Range
Thermometer for visionVitor F. Pamplona   Ankit Mohan   Manuel M. Oliveira   Ramesh Raskar
Millions have poor vision, but are not getting corrected…                                                                 ...
2.4 Billion People w/out Glasses                   who need them around the world                                         ...
Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor   Wavefront aberrometerExpensive; Bulky, Requires trained professionals                   ...
Shack-Hartmann Wavefront SensorSpot Diagram   Laser                              Planar         Sensor    Microlens Wavefr...
Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor    Spot Diagram   Laser              SensorDisplacement =   Local Slopeof the Wavefront   ...
NETRA = Inverse of Shack-HartmannSpot Diagram on LCD              Cell      Eye             Phone     Piece             Di...
Inverse of Shack-Hartmann       User interactively creates the Spot DiagramSpot Diagram on LCD                            ...
Inverse of Shack-Hartmann       User interactively creates the Spot DiagramSpot Diagram on LCD                            ...
Relaxed Eye with Myopia                                                  Eye  Point                                       ...
Relaxed Eye with Myopia                                                    Eye                                         Pin...
Relaxed Eye with Myopia                                              Eye                                    Display       ...
Relaxed Eye with Myopia                                               Eye                                     Display Move...
Relaxed Eye with Myopia                                               Eye                                     Display Move...
Relaxed Eye with Myopia                                                   Eye                                        Displ...
Relaxed Eye with Myopia                                                    Eye                                            ...
Relaxed Eye with Myopia                                                           Eye                                     ...
Interactive Method    Farthest Focal Point      (myopia, hyperopia)   26
Interactive Method    Farthest Focal Point      (myopia, hyperopia)   27
Interactive Method    Farthest Focal Point      (myopia, hyperopia)   28
Astigmatism: angle-dependent refractive error                    http://www.elizabethpope.co.uk/eyeinfo/astigmatism.html
Astigmatism: angle-dependent refractive error                    http://www.elizabethpope.co.uk/eyeinfo/astigmatism.html
Astigmatism: angle-dependent refractive error                    http://www.elizabethpope.co.uk/eyeinfo/astigmatism.html
AstigmatismCross or points may never meet with a 1d search !                                               32
AstigmatismLines reduce the problem to a 1d search   33
Interactive Method      Farthest Focal Point   (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism)   34
Interactive Method      Farthest Focal Point   (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism)   35
Interactive Method      Farthest Focal Point   (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism)   36
Interactive Method      Farthest Focal Point   (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism)   37
Best fitting on a Astigmatic Curve                          2      P(            C sin (           ) S   Unknowns:   Cylin...
Interactive Method      Farthest Focal Point   (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism)   39
Measuring Accommodation Range                       Perfect vision                                Myopia              Hype...
Measuring Accommodation Range                       Perfect vision                                Myopia              Hype...
Measuring Accommodation Range                       Perfect vision                                Myopia              Hype...
Relaxed Eye                   Display                    AVirtual Point at                       Points the far limit     ...
Accommodated Eye                      DisplayMove points towards    each other                       A                    ...
Accommodated Eye                      DisplayMove points towards    each other                       A                    ...
Accommodated Eye                      DisplayMove points towards    each other                       A                    ...
Patterns for Alignment Task               A    B    A    B       A    B          A   B   A   B DisplayedSubject view      ...
Patterns for Alignment Task               A    B    A    B       A    B          A   B   A   B DisplayedSubject view      ...
Patterns for Alignment Task               A    B    A    B       A    B          A   B   A   B DisplayedSubject view      ...
Summary of Interaction                                   Accommodation Range              Farthest Point                  ...
Device Resolution                Channel Size                   25umResolution is a function of the display DPI   Samsung ...
Limitations• Children• Ability to align lines• Resolution is a function of the display DPI   – Samsung Behold II – 160 DPI...
Evaluation PrototypeTrial lenses simulate          Camera simulates   lens aberration              the perfect eye        ...
ACM SIGGRAPH 2010                    57
US + International Patent                            58
Chad FowlerFounder and CEO - YouTube   60
Early Awards + Recognition                   NETRA: $50K Innovation Grant                                                 ...
62
NETRA Prototypes Worldwide       29 partners in 14 countries.                                      63
Mumbai Slum Outreach: Lotus   Mumbai Optical Shop        Hyderabad Eye Clinic: LV Prasad Eye    Eye Hospital in Dharavi   ...
13 adults – 0.3D Average Difference                              5.00                              4.00                   ...
Frontiers In Optics & American Academy of Optometry                                      2010            66
mHealth Summit 2010                      67
NETRA Team at LVPEI, India                          29 adults – 0.5D Average Difference                                   ...
Association for Research on Vision and Ophthalmology                                                       69
OneSight, Kenya                  70
NETRA Team at Conceição, Brazil                    29 adults – 0.64D Average Difference            -4.00   -3.00    -2.00 ...
Pan-American and Brazilian Ophthalmology Congress                                                    72
Association for Research on Vision and Ophthalmology                                                       73
NETRA team at NECO             11 adults – 0.34D Average Difference         from Subjective Evaluation with no cycloplegia...
American Optometry Academy 2012   2012                           75
$300K Vodafone Award                       78
79
Ron GaranISS Astronaut   80
81
83  83
http://eyenetra.comPicture: Anderson Maciel.
Thesis Contributions                           TailoredNETRA          CATRA                           Displays            ...
CATRA: Interactive Measuring                        and Modeling of Cataracts                Vitor F. Pamplona Erick B. Pa...
CATRA: Quantitative Maps forSelf-assessment of Early Cataracts                                     89
Main Cause of Preventable Blindness                                      90
Slit-Lamp Microscope              92
93
CATRA        94
Four Resulting Maps                   Occlusion                                        Scattering Opacity Map             ...
Four Stages of Interaction                   Occlusion                                        Scattering Opacity Map      ...
Forward Scattering Sensed on Fovea                                Testing                               Sections   Project...
Forward Scattering Sensed on Fovea                                Testing                               Sections   Project...
Testing Sections of the Eye Lens  LCD1   LCD2   Lens                                   102
Trading Resolution for Brightness                        Testing                        Section   LCD1   LCD2   Lens      ...
Cataract Screening  Presence of    Cataracts(Binary Answer)                                       108
Detecting the Presence of CataractsMoving patterns   on LCD1     LCD1    LCD2                                      109
Detecting the Presence of Cataracts LCD1        LCD2                                      110
Detecting the Presence of Cataracts LCD1        LCD2    Eye lens                                      111
Detecting the Presence of Cataracts LCD1        LCD2    Eye lens   Perceived Image                                        ...
Cataract Screening  Presence of    Cataracts(Binary Answer)                                       113
Interactive Techniques and Maps  Presence of    Cataracts(Binary Answer)                   Position, Size                 ...
Estimating an Opacity MapMoving patterns   on LCD1  LCD1     LCD2                              115
Interactive Techniques and Maps  Presence of    Cataracts(Binary Answer)                   Position, Size                 ...
Interactive Techniques and Maps  Presence of                                      Brightness Test    Cataracts            ...
Estimating Attenuation Maps  Decreasing   Brightnesson the clear path     LCD1      LCD2                               118
Estimating Attenuation Maps  Decreasing   Brightnesson the clear path                           Same Perceived            ...
Estimating Attenuation MapsDecreasing Intensity                To Match Brightness of the Clear Path      LCD1            ...
Estimating Attenuation MapsDecreasing Intensity                To Match Brightness of the Clear Path      LCD1            ...
Interactive Techniques and Maps  Presence of                                      Brightness Test    Cataracts            ...
Interactive Techniques and Maps  Presence of                                      Brightness Test    Cataracts            ...
Contrast Test        Increasing ContrastLCD1          LCD2            Eye   Perceived Image       Rotated Low Contrast    ...
Contrast Test        Increasing ContrastLCD1          LCD2            Eye   Perceived Image       Rotated Low Contrast    ...
Contrast Test        Increasing ContrastLCD1          LCD2            Eye   Perceived Image       Rotated Low Contrast    ...
Contrast Test        Increasing ContrastLCD1          LCD2            Eye   Perceived Image       Rotated Low Contrast    ...
Interactive Techniques and Maps  Presence of                                      Brightness Test    Cataracts            ...
Interactive Techniques and Maps  Presence of                                                            Sub-aperture      ...
Point Spread Function Matching LCD1      LCD2    Eye   Perceived Image                                      132
Point Spread Function Matching LCD1      LCD2    Eye   Perceived Image                                      133
Point Spread Function Matching LCD1      LCD2    Eye   Perceived Image                                      134
Point Spread Function Matching LCD1          LCD2             Eye   Perceived Image            Sub-aperture        Point S...
Interactive Techniques and Maps  Presence of                                                            Sub-aperture      ...
Reducing Search Space for PSF  Presence of                                                            Sub-aperture        ...
140
Dual Monitor Stack                     141
Dual Monitor Stack                     142
Dual Monitor Stack                         Lens  MedicalMonochrome Monitors LCD Stack                                  143
DLP-Mask Prototype                           High Contrast                           DLP Projector                        ...
Cell Phone Prototype   LensPinhole Mask                            Stephen Wolfram                         CEO – Wolfram R...
Validation using Cameras  Thin Diffuser toSimulate Cataracts                        Estimated                     Attenuat...
Validation using Cameras                      Estimated     Measured        Estimated                     Opacity Map   At...
Scratching Contact LensesAdvanced        Mild             EarlyCataracts     Cataracts        Cataracts                   ...
Elderly Evaluation              18 volunteers              - 6 with early cataracts              - 12 with no cataracts   ...
Limitations• Active user participation• One clear light path• Retinal diseases                              Patience and c...
ACM SIGGRAPH 2011                    158
US + International Patent                            159
LVPEI CATRA Early Tests.                           160
Lotus University Trial                         161
Lotus University Trial                         162
Mexico VOSH/Rotary Trip.            0.00    5.00   10.00   15.00    20.00       25.00                                     ...
mHealth Summit 2011                      164
Awards: MIT Global Challenge & MIT Ideas CompetitionsEyeCatra: $5K Winner AwardMIT Ideas Competition 2011.EyeCatra: $5K Pu...
166
167
eyecatra.com                                             CATRA: Quantitative                                              ...
Thesis Contributions                           TailoredNETRA          CATRA                           Displays            ...
171with: Manuel M. Oliveira, Daniel Aliaga, Ramesh Raskar
172
173
174
175
176
177
Computer Generated GlassesFocusing Here            Focusing Here                Perfect vision Myopia                Focal...
Computer Generated Glasses                          Focusing Here          Focusing Here         Perfect vision Hyperopia ...
Tailoring is the easiest way   to create a hologram
Because uncorrected individuals are already focusing where you want.
Tailoring Process                             Myopic View: -3DFocusing Here           He can focus up to 33cm (12in)Distan...
Tailoring Process                                           Myopic View: -3DLight-field   Focusing Here           He can f...
Tailoring Process                                           Myopic View: -3DLight-field   Focusing Here           He can f...
Tailoring Process                                           Myopic View: -3DLight-field   Focusing Here           He can f...
Working Resolution: 1800 DPI                     Channel Size                       4.7um!$150 Vuzix HMD LCD              ...
Astigmatism Correction                         187
Tailoring for Astigmatism                                             Subject’s prescription                              ...
Single-Focus Multi-Depth Displays       For a given depth in focus           (accommodation),   a single object may be spl...
Wavefront Maps                    90 degrees                                             Sphere:           -2D            ...
InputsTailoring Process        f(k)           Light-field             Display           LCD1 LCD2 LCD1                    ...
Single-Focus Multi-Depth Displays                           Eye                                    197
Builds the Image Pixel by Pixel          Display                             Eye          A          B      d             ...
Scaling Pixels by Depth                DisplayScale                                 Eye                A                B ...
Mapping Light-Field Display <-> Retina                               f(k)            Display                              ...
201
Cataract Density Maps                   kNuclear Cataract       Cataract density in k   Sub-capsular Cataract             ...
Avoiding Cataracts   Display                     Eye                           203
Normalization Step   Display                     Eye                           204
Projector                     Camera – the “eye”Dual Stack of LCDs                        205
Lens ArrayVuzix Head Mounted       Display                     Vuzix Head Mounted                            Display      ...
3.25D Myopic                            1mm     Eye                                  Input Image     As Seen on a Regular ...
3.5D Myopic                                      CataractEye with Nuclear    Cataracts                                    ...
1mm1D Astigmatic  Eye at 180                         No Correction    Corrected                                           ...
210
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Users Prefer the Tailored Image                 100                                            100%                       ...
Users Prefer the Tailored Image100                                              46                                        ...
Users Prefer the Tailored Image                                                                                           ...
Multi-Focus Multi-Depth Display                    Input Image   Input Depth+0.5D from the Image Plane          -0.5D from...
ACM SIGGRAPH 2012                    223
INPI Patent              224
225
Tailored Display Limitations• Eyes fixed relative to the display  – Similar to 3D Displays  – Depends on the eye aberratio...
Need       227
Thesis Conclusions• NETRA: Optics and UI for Refraction   – The Inverse of Shack-Hartmann Aberrometer   – Myopia, Hyperopi...
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  1. 1. Interactive Measurements and Tailored Displays for OpticalAberrations of the Human Eye Vitor Pamplona Advisor: Manuel M. Oliveira Neto
  2. 2. Thesis Contributions TailoredNETRA CATRA Displays 2
  3. 3. Cell Phone-basedRefractive Measurements The Inverse of Shack-Hartmannwith: Manuel Oliveira, Ankit Mohan, Ramesh Raskar
  4. 4. CATRA: Quantitative Cataract Maps Unique, low-cost quantitative lens mappingwith: Erick Passos, Jan Zizka, Everett Lawson, Esteban Clua , Manuel M. Oliveira, Ramesh Raskar
  5. 5. 5with: Manuel Oliveira, Daniel Aliaga, Ramesh Raskar
  6. 6. Thesis Contributions TailoredNETRA CATRA Displays 6
  7. 7. NETRA: Measuring Refractive Errors and Focal Range
  8. 8. Thermometer for visionVitor F. Pamplona Ankit Mohan Manuel M. Oliveira Ramesh Raskar
  9. 9. Millions have poor vision, but are not getting corrected… Kenya 2B have refractive errors 0.6B have 5B have a URE cell phone India 7 Billion peopleSource: World Heath Organisation, Vision 2020 Tech Report. 9
  10. 10. 2.4 Billion People w/out Glasses who need them around the world Billions of People with Uncorrected Refractive Error, by 1.70 Region 1.80 1.6 Billion 2.4 Billion 1.60 1.40 1.20 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.20 0.13 0.10 0.02 0.00 Emerging Africa & Latin Europe North Asia Middle America America EastSource: Essilor, Infomarket 2009, CPB Research, numbers may not add due to rounding 10
  11. 11. Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor Wavefront aberrometerExpensive; Bulky, Requires trained professionals 11
  12. 12. Shack-Hartmann Wavefront SensorSpot Diagram Laser Planar Sensor Microlens Wavefront Array 12
  13. 13. Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor Spot Diagram Laser SensorDisplacement = Local Slopeof the Wavefront 13
  14. 14. NETRA = Inverse of Shack-HartmannSpot Diagram on LCD Cell Eye Phone Piece Display 14
  15. 15. Inverse of Shack-Hartmann User interactively creates the Spot DiagramSpot Diagram on LCD 15
  16. 16. Inverse of Shack-Hartmann User interactively creates the Spot DiagramSpot Diagram on LCD 16
  17. 17. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye Point Blurredat infinity point Focusing Range perfect vision myopia hyperopiainfinity ~10cm 18
  18. 18. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye Pinholes Point Distinctat infinity image points Focusing Range perfect vision myopia Scheiner’s Principle hyperopia infinity ~10cm 19
  19. 19. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye Display A Virtual point Distinct at infinity image B points Focusing Range perfect vision myopia hyperopiainfinity ~10cm 20
  20. 20. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye Display Move spotstowards each other A Distinct image Virtual point B pointsat finite distance Focusing Range perfect vision myopia hyperopia infinity ~10cm 21
  21. 21. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye Display Move spotstowards each other A Points overlap Virtual point Bat finite distance Focusing Range perfect vision myopia hyperopia infinity ~10cm 22
  22. 22. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye Display Move spotstowards each other A Points overlap Virtual point Bat finite distance d Focusing Range perfect vision myopia hyperopia infinity ~10cm 23
  23. 23. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye 1 dPoint at Pointsinfinity overlap d Focusing Range perfect vision myopia hyperopia infinity ~10cm 24
  24. 24. Relaxed Eye with Myopia Eye Display Move spotstowards each other c A a Points overlapVirtual red point Bat finite distance f t d Focusing Range perfect vision fa hyperopia myopia d = +t infinity ~10cm 2c 25
  25. 25. Interactive Method Farthest Focal Point (myopia, hyperopia) 26
  26. 26. Interactive Method Farthest Focal Point (myopia, hyperopia) 27
  27. 27. Interactive Method Farthest Focal Point (myopia, hyperopia) 28
  28. 28. Astigmatism: angle-dependent refractive error http://www.elizabethpope.co.uk/eyeinfo/astigmatism.html
  29. 29. Astigmatism: angle-dependent refractive error http://www.elizabethpope.co.uk/eyeinfo/astigmatism.html
  30. 30. Astigmatism: angle-dependent refractive error http://www.elizabethpope.co.uk/eyeinfo/astigmatism.html
  31. 31. AstigmatismCross or points may never meet with a 1d search ! 32
  32. 32. AstigmatismLines reduce the problem to a 1d search 33
  33. 33. Interactive Method Farthest Focal Point (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) 34
  34. 34. Interactive Method Farthest Focal Point (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) 35
  35. 35. Interactive Method Farthest Focal Point (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) 36
  36. 36. Interactive Method Farthest Focal Point (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) 37
  37. 37. Best fitting on a Astigmatic Curve 2 P( C sin ( ) S Unknowns: Cylinder Axis Cyl. Sphere 38
  38. 38. Interactive Method Farthest Focal Point (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) 39
  39. 39. Measuring Accommodation Range Perfect vision Myopia Hyperopia Infinity ~10cm Step 1: Far limit Step 2: Near limit 40
  40. 40. Measuring Accommodation Range Perfect vision Myopia Hyperopia Infinity ~10cm Step 1: Far limit Step 2: Near limit 41
  41. 41. Measuring Accommodation Range Perfect vision Myopia Hyperopia Infinity ~10cm Step 1: Far limit Step 2: Near limit 42
  42. 42. Relaxed Eye Display AVirtual Point at Points the far limit B overlap 43
  43. 43. Accommodated Eye DisplayMove points towards each other A Points B overlap Virtual point getting closer Subject Accommodates to fix the “blur” 44
  44. 44. Accommodated Eye DisplayMove points towards each other A Points B overlap Virtual point getting closer Subject Accommodates to fix the “blur” 45
  45. 45. Accommodated Eye DisplayMove points towards each other A Points B overlap Virtual point getting closer Subject cannot accommodate more than the previous point 46
  46. 46. Patterns for Alignment Task A B A B A B A B A B DisplayedSubject view A B A B A B A B A B DisplayedSubject view Visual 47 Cryptography [NaorShamir94]
  47. 47. Patterns for Alignment Task A B A B A B A B A B DisplayedSubject view A B A B A B A B A B DisplayedSubject view Visual 48 Cryptography [NaorShamir94]
  48. 48. Patterns for Alignment Task A B A B A B A B A B DisplayedSubject view A B A B A B A B A B DisplayedSubject view Visual 49 Cryptography [NaorShamir94]
  49. 49. Summary of Interaction Accommodation Range Farthest Point Nearest Point(myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) (presbyopia) 52
  50. 50. Device Resolution Channel Size 25umResolution is a function of the display DPI Samsung Behold II – 160 DPI = 0.35D Google Nexus One – 250 DPI = 0.20D Apple iPhone 4 – 326 DPI = 0.14D 53
  51. 51. Limitations• Children• Ability to align lines• Resolution is a function of the display DPI – Samsung Behold II – 160 DPI – 0.35D – Google Nexus One – 250 DPI – 0.2D – Apple iPhone 4G – 326 DPI – 0.14D 55
  52. 52. Evaluation PrototypeTrial lenses simulate Camera simulates lens aberration the perfect eye MinificationLCD Display 56
  53. 53. ACM SIGGRAPH 2010 57
  54. 54. US + International Patent 58
  55. 55. Chad FowlerFounder and CEO - YouTube 60
  56. 56. Early Awards + Recognition NETRA: $50K Innovation Grant 61 NETRA: $50K Research Grant
  57. 57. 62
  58. 58. NETRA Prototypes Worldwide 29 partners in 14 countries. 63
  59. 59. Mumbai Slum Outreach: Lotus Mumbai Optical Shop Hyderabad Eye Clinic: LV Prasad Eye Eye Hospital in Dharavi Institute Primary vision center Chennai Optical Shop School, Nairobi, KenyaHyderabad Eye Hospital: LV Prasad Eye Institute Patient’s home, Teresina, PI, Brazil Mumbai Optical Shop 64
  60. 60. 13 adults – 0.3D Average Difference 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00Netra (D) 0.00 -5.00 -3.00 -1.00 1.00 3.00 5.00 -1.00 -2.00 -3.00 -4.00 -5.00 Subjective Refraction (D)NETRA vs Manifest Refraction 65
  61. 61. Frontiers In Optics & American Academy of Optometry 2010 66
  62. 62. mHealth Summit 2010 67
  63. 63. NETRA Team at LVPEI, India 29 adults – 0.5D Average Difference 7.00 5.00 3.00 1.00 Netra (D) -7.00 -1.00 -2.00 3.00 -3.00 -5.00 -7.00 Retinoscopy (D) NETRA vs Retinoscopy 68
  64. 64. Association for Research on Vision and Ophthalmology 69
  65. 65. OneSight, Kenya 70
  66. 66. NETRA Team at Conceição, Brazil 29 adults – 0.64D Average Difference -4.00 -3.00 -2.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 NETRA -1.00 -2.00 -3.00 -4.00 -5.00 AR1 AR2 SR Reference NETRA vs Auto-Refractor 71
  67. 67. Pan-American and Brazilian Ophthalmology Congress 72
  68. 68. Association for Research on Vision and Ophthalmology 73
  69. 69. NETRA team at NECO 11 adults – 0.34D Average Difference from Subjective Evaluation with no cycloplegia -8.00 -7.00 -6.00 -5.00 -4.00 -3.00 -2.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 -1.00 -2.00NETRA -3.00 -4.00 -5.00 -6.00 -7.00 -8.00 AR Subj Reference 71% of the measurements have a max error of 0.5D 74
  70. 70. American Optometry Academy 2012 2012 75
  71. 71. $300K Vodafone Award 78
  72. 72. 79
  73. 73. Ron GaranISS Astronaut 80
  74. 74. 81
  75. 75. 83 83
  76. 76. http://eyenetra.comPicture: Anderson Maciel.
  77. 77. Thesis Contributions TailoredNETRA CATRA Displays 87
  78. 78. CATRA: Interactive Measuring and Modeling of Cataracts Vitor F. Pamplona Erick B. Passos Jan Zizka Manuel M. Oliveira Everett Lawson Esteban Clua Ramesh RaskarMIT Media Lab – Camera Culture
  79. 79. CATRA: Quantitative Maps forSelf-assessment of Early Cataracts 89
  80. 80. Main Cause of Preventable Blindness 90
  81. 81. Slit-Lamp Microscope 92
  82. 82. 93
  83. 83. CATRA 94
  84. 84. Four Resulting Maps Occlusion Scattering Opacity Map Attenuation Map Contrast Map PSF Map(position, size) (brightness) (contrast) C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C 95
  85. 85. Four Stages of Interaction Occlusion Scattering Opacity Map Attenuation Map Contrast Map PSF Map(position, size) (brightness) (contrast) C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C 0.6mm 3mm 99
  86. 86. Forward Scattering Sensed on Fovea Testing Sections Projection on the FoveaLight Box LCD1 LCD2 Lens 100
  87. 87. Forward Scattering Sensed on Fovea Testing Sections Projection on the FoveaLight Box LCD1 LCD2 Lens 101
  88. 88. Testing Sections of the Eye Lens LCD1 LCD2 Lens 102
  89. 89. Trading Resolution for Brightness Testing Section LCD1 LCD2 Lens 103
  90. 90. Cataract Screening Presence of Cataracts(Binary Answer) 108
  91. 91. Detecting the Presence of CataractsMoving patterns on LCD1 LCD1 LCD2 109
  92. 92. Detecting the Presence of Cataracts LCD1 LCD2 110
  93. 93. Detecting the Presence of Cataracts LCD1 LCD2 Eye lens 111
  94. 94. Detecting the Presence of Cataracts LCD1 LCD2 Eye lens Perceived Image 112
  95. 95. Cataract Screening Presence of Cataracts(Binary Answer) 113
  96. 96. Interactive Techniques and Maps Presence of Cataracts(Binary Answer) Position, Size and Shape (Opacity Map) 114
  97. 97. Estimating an Opacity MapMoving patterns on LCD1 LCD1 LCD2 115
  98. 98. Interactive Techniques and Maps Presence of Cataracts(Binary Answer) Position, Size and Shape (Opacity Map) 116
  99. 99. Interactive Techniques and Maps Presence of Brightness Test Cataracts (Attenuation Map)(Binary Answer) Position, Size and Shape (Opacity Map) 117
  100. 100. Estimating Attenuation Maps Decreasing Brightnesson the clear path LCD1 LCD2 118
  101. 101. Estimating Attenuation Maps Decreasing Brightnesson the clear path Same Perceived Brightness LCD1 LCD2 119
  102. 102. Estimating Attenuation MapsDecreasing Intensity To Match Brightness of the Clear Path LCD1 LCD2 Eye Perceived Image 120
  103. 103. Estimating Attenuation MapsDecreasing Intensity To Match Brightness of the Clear Path LCD1 LCD2 Eye Perceived Image 121
  104. 104. Interactive Techniques and Maps Presence of Brightness Test Cataracts (Attenuation Map)(Binary Answer) Position, Size and Shape (Opacity Map) 122
  105. 105. Interactive Techniques and Maps Presence of Brightness Test Cataracts (Attenuation Map)(Binary Answer) Position, Size Sub-aperture and Shape Contrast Test (Opacity Map) (Contrast Map) C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C 124
  106. 106. Contrast Test Increasing ContrastLCD1 LCD2 Eye Perceived Image Rotated Low Contrast Letter C 125
  107. 107. Contrast Test Increasing ContrastLCD1 LCD2 Eye Perceived Image Rotated Low Contrast Letter C 126
  108. 108. Contrast Test Increasing ContrastLCD1 LCD2 Eye Perceived Image Rotated Low Contrast Letter C 127
  109. 109. Contrast Test Increasing ContrastLCD1 LCD2 Eye Perceived Image Rotated Low Contrast Press the right key Letter C 128
  110. 110. Interactive Techniques and Maps Presence of Brightness Test Cataracts (Attenuation Map)(Binary Answer) Position, Size Sub-aperture and Shape Contrast Test (Opacity Map) (Contrast Map) C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C 129
  111. 111. Interactive Techniques and Maps Presence of Sub-aperture Brightness Test Cataracts PSF Match (Attenuation Map)(Binary Answer) (PSF Map) Position, Size Sub-aperture and Shape Contrast Test (Opacity Map) (Contrast Map) C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C 131
  112. 112. Point Spread Function Matching LCD1 LCD2 Eye Perceived Image 132
  113. 113. Point Spread Function Matching LCD1 LCD2 Eye Perceived Image 133
  114. 114. Point Spread Function Matching LCD1 LCD2 Eye Perceived Image 134
  115. 115. Point Spread Function Matching LCD1 LCD2 Eye Perceived Image Sub-aperture Point Spread Function 135
  116. 116. Interactive Techniques and Maps Presence of Sub-aperture Brightness Test Cataracts PSF Match (Attenuation Map)(Binary Answer) (PSF Map) Position, Size Sub-aperture and Shape Contrast Test (Opacity Map) (Contrast Map) C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C 136
  117. 117. Reducing Search Space for PSF Presence of Sub-aperture Brightness Test Cataracts PSF Match (Attenuation Map)(Binary Answer) (PSF Map) Low Attenuation Position, Size Sub-aperture and Shape Contrast Test (Opacity Map) (Contrast Map) C C C C C C C C High C C C C Attenuation C C C C C C C C 139
  118. 118. 140
  119. 119. Dual Monitor Stack 141
  120. 120. Dual Monitor Stack 142
  121. 121. Dual Monitor Stack Lens MedicalMonochrome Monitors LCD Stack 143
  122. 122. DLP-Mask Prototype High Contrast DLP Projector Mask Lens Eye 144
  123. 123. Cell Phone Prototype LensPinhole Mask Stephen Wolfram CEO – Wolfram Research 145
  124. 124. Validation using Cameras Thin Diffuser toSimulate Cataracts Estimated Attenuation Map Estimated PSF Map 146
  125. 125. Validation using Cameras Estimated Measured Estimated Opacity Map Attenuation AttenuationSimulated Cataract (Pictures) (User Interaction) 147
  126. 126. Scratching Contact LensesAdvanced Mild EarlyCataracts Cataracts Cataracts Measured: 0.5mm2 Estimated: 0.45mm2 148
  127. 127. Elderly Evaluation 18 volunteers - 6 with early cataracts - 12 with no cataracts 149
  128. 128. Limitations• Active user participation• One clear light path• Retinal diseases Patience and concentration are required to follow steps 157
  129. 129. ACM SIGGRAPH 2011 158
  130. 130. US + International Patent 159
  131. 131. LVPEI CATRA Early Tests. 160
  132. 132. Lotus University Trial 161
  133. 133. Lotus University Trial 162
  134. 134. Mexico VOSH/Rotary Trip. 0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 25.00 20.00 CATRA 15.00 10.00 5.00 0.00 LOCS III Reference 84% Correlation for 37 eyes. 163
  135. 135. mHealth Summit 2011 164
  136. 136. Awards: MIT Global Challenge & MIT Ideas CompetitionsEyeCatra: $5K Winner AwardMIT Ideas Competition 2011.EyeCatra: $5K Public Choice AwardMIT Global Challenge 2011. 165
  137. 137. 166
  138. 138. 167
  139. 139. eyecatra.com CATRA: Quantitative Cataract Maps Unique, low-cost quantitative lens mappingwith: Erick Passos, Jan Zizka, Everett Lawson, Esteban Clua , Manuel M. Oliveira, Ramesh Raskar
  140. 140. Thesis Contributions TailoredNETRA CATRA Displays 170
  141. 141. 171with: Manuel M. Oliveira, Daniel Aliaga, Ramesh Raskar
  142. 142. 172
  143. 143. 173
  144. 144. 174
  145. 145. 175
  146. 146. 176
  147. 147. 177
  148. 148. Computer Generated GlassesFocusing Here Focusing Here Perfect vision Myopia Focal Range Focal Range Subject’s Focal Point Does Not Change 178
  149. 149. Computer Generated Glasses Focusing Here Focusing Here Perfect vision Hyperopia Focal Range PresbyopiaFocal Range Subject’s Focal Point Does Not Change 179
  150. 150. Tailoring is the easiest way to create a hologram
  151. 151. Because uncorrected individuals are already focusing where you want.
  152. 152. Tailoring Process Myopic View: -3DFocusing Here He can focus up to 33cm (12in)Distance Display-Eye: 50cm 182
  153. 153. Tailoring Process Myopic View: -3DLight-field Focusing Here He can focus up to 33cm (12in) Display Distance Display-Eye: 50cm 183
  154. 154. Tailoring Process Myopic View: -3DLight-field Focusing Here He can focus up to 33cm (12in) Display Distance Display-Eye: 50cm 184
  155. 155. Tailoring Process Myopic View: -3DLight-field Focusing Here He can focus up to 33cm (12in) Display Pixel Size of 96um at 33cm 1-arc minute Distance Display-Eye: 50cm Resolution 185
  156. 156. Working Resolution: 1800 DPI Channel Size 4.7um!$150 Vuzix HMD LCD 186
  157. 157. Astigmatism Correction 187
  158. 158. Tailoring for Astigmatism Subject’s prescription -2D -1D @ 90Light-field Two Points in Focus He focus at 30cm to 50cm. Display 50cm 30cm Where the Subject’s Accommodate 188
  159. 159. Single-Focus Multi-Depth Displays For a given depth in focus (accommodation), a single object may be splitted into anisotropic instances that are placed at distinct depths 189
  160. 160. Wavefront Maps 90 degrees Sphere: -2D Cylinder: -1D Axis: 90° 0 degrees k Lens focal length in kZernike Functions 190
  161. 161. InputsTailoring Process f(k) Light-field Display LCD1 LCD2 LCD1 191
  162. 162. Single-Focus Multi-Depth Displays Eye 197
  163. 163. Builds the Image Pixel by Pixel Display Eye A B d t d 198
  164. 164. Scaling Pixels by Depth DisplayScale Eye A B d t d 199
  165. 165. Mapping Light-Field Display <-> Retina f(k) Display k Eye R S1 S2 t a æ -k k - S2 ö R(S2 , k) = a ç + ÷+ k è f (k) t ø 200
  166. 166. 201
  167. 167. Cataract Density Maps kNuclear Cataract Cataract density in k Sub-capsular Cataract 202
  168. 168. Avoiding Cataracts Display Eye 203
  169. 169. Normalization Step Display Eye 204
  170. 170. Projector Camera – the “eye”Dual Stack of LCDs 205
  171. 171. Lens ArrayVuzix Head Mounted Display Vuzix Head Mounted Display 206
  172. 172. 3.25D Myopic 1mm Eye Input Image As Seen on a Regular Display As Seen on a Tailored Display 207
  173. 173. 3.5D Myopic CataractEye with Nuclear Cataracts 7.9mm 0.9mm p = 20mm Input No Cataracts No Cataract Tailoring Tailored for Cataracts 208
  174. 174. 1mm1D Astigmatic Eye at 180 No Correction Corrected 23.5 23.2 23.0 22.7 Normal Light Field Corrected Light Field 209
  175. 175. 210
  176. 176. 211
  177. 177. 212
  178. 178. 213
  179. 179. 214
  180. 180. 215
  181. 181. 216
  182. 182. 217
  183. 183. 218
  184. 184. Users Prefer the Tailored Image 100 100% 100% 98% 80Preferability ( %) 97% 60 +5D Lens 40 54% No Lens 46% 3% 2% 20 0 1D (1m ) 2D (50cm ) 3D (33cm ) 4D (25cm ) 5D (20cm ) Optical Power of the Projected Image (D) 13 Volunteers, 16 votes each. 219
  185. 185. Users Prefer the Tailored Image100 46 44 98% 80 42 90% 60 +4D Ast. Lens No Lens 40 10% 66% 34% 2% 20 0 0D (Inf) 2D (50cm ) 4D (25cm ) Optical Power of the Projected Image (D) 10 Volunteers, 16 votes each. 220
  186. 186. Users Prefer the Tailored Image 48 47 46 100 45 100% User Perspective (%) 44 80 43 42 92% Diopters 41 60 8% 40 How subject saw it 0% 20 Corrected Duplicated 0 0D (Inf) Keratoconus Correction of the Projected Image 1 Volunteer, 80 votes. 221
  187. 187. Multi-Focus Multi-Depth Display Input Image Input Depth+0.5D from the Image Plane -0.5D from the Image Plane 222
  188. 188. ACM SIGGRAPH 2012 223
  189. 189. INPI Patent 224
  190. 190. 225
  191. 191. Tailored Display Limitations• Eyes fixed relative to the display – Similar to 3D Displays – Depends on the eye aberrations• High-resolution LCD panels (PPI) – Giga-pixel displays for monitors• Other ocular diseases may affect our results. 226
  192. 192. Need 227
  193. 193. Thesis Conclusions• NETRA: Optics and UI for Refraction – The Inverse of Shack-Hartmann Aberrometer – Myopia, Hyperopia, Astigmatism, Focal range – Accuracy and Resolution close to Standard Practice• CATRA: Optics and UI for Cataracts – Forward Scattering and Foveal Projection – Four brand new Maps• Tailored Displays: Compensate for Aberrations – First-of-its-kind Multi-Depth Display – High-order Aberrations and Cataracts 228

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