IT Business Value


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Presentation made to top executives seeking to understand how to increase their ROI on IT investments. based on principles developed in my book, "The Ultimate Guide to the SDLC."

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  • Although most early adopters were large organizations looking to consolidate, there are many benefits for smaller organizations as well.Improved disaster recovery, increased availability (for preventive maintenance, rolling software upgrades as well an unplanned outages), faster provisioning of new servers and applications through VMs, and dynamic workload management are also huge benefits that drive smaller organizations to virtualize, even if consolidation is not a big issue.This means that storage and networking should be a key part of your evaluation and ongoing management process. This means that as the market and your organization move further towards cloud computing, virtualization will play a pivotal role.Initial benefits come immediately upon reducing the number of physical servers (and thus the space, power and cooling required). Full benefits require the right management tools and processes to support a dynamic IT infrastructure, from the applications down through the virtual and physical infrastructure.While the server virtualization market is fairly mature in terms of the hypervisors themselves, the management solutions and the overall virtualization ecosystem are still changing constantlyAlthough server virtualization got all the early press, desktop virtualization (which actually came first) is the newest virtualization buzz.If you are just starting out, you need to know that the road to virtualization still has a lot of potholes. Getting help from those who have already driven down this road can make for a much smoother ride. If you have a good relationship with a trusted provider or providers, start by finding out what vendor offerings they have and what expertise they have. Getting help from a provider you trust, and that has proven experience with the vendor/solution you choose can make a big difference in your speed of implementation and minimize the bumps in the road.Pick a single project to begin with, and look for the easy-to-virtualize servers/applications such as file servers, print servers, and Web servers.All of the available solutions will do the job of basic consolidation and even basic disaster recovery. The real benefits and the real challenges come in shifting the paradigm to a virtual infrastructure and moving towards a dynamic and agile IT environment.
  • IBM, for instance, announced its “Blue Cloud” initiative two years ago. The company has already built 13 massive datacenters around the world and is adding more every quarter. Private cloud services are run in datacenters managed by third parties such as, but also in private datacenters on company property managed by corporate IT staffs. Private clouds address the security concerns of large enterprises. They're scalable, growing and shrinking as needed. They're also managed centrally in a virtualized environment.It's no longer enough for a CIO to oversee rollouts, integrations and development projects. Instead, IT professionals need to focus on extracting the most business value from new technologies. Cloud computing helps them shed the burdens of technological implementation and concentrate on business processes. At the staffer level, coding and development skills will take a back seat to project management, quality assurance testing, business analysis and other high-level abstract thinking.In his book, "The Big Switch: Rewiring the World, From Edison to Google" (W.W. Norton, 2008), Nicholas Carr all but declares the pending death of IT. “In the long run, the IT department is unlikely to survive, at least in its familiar form,” he writes. “It will have little left to do once the bulk of business computing shifts out of private data centers and into ‘the cloud.’ Business units and even individual employees will be able to control the processing of information directly, without the need for legions of technical specialists.”The idea of storing critical business data on a third-party server to which multiple “tenants” have access seems inherently insecure. Better to keep that data in house, many IT professionals think. But what CFO keeps the corporate treasury locked in a safe in his office? Banks store everyone’s money together and people go in and out of banks all day long, knowing they're safer places to keep money than under mattresses. It's security procedures that matter, not physical walls between deposits of data.Today, cloud computing is just another way to pay for hardware and software. But a few SaaS vendors are partnering with professional services firms to provide expertise that makes applications actually useful.’s Successforce services let customers connect with either a Salesforce consultant or one of the company’s partners, such as Accenture or Deloitte. NetSuite allows its professional services partners to implement its services as software that is provided on-demand to NetSuite clients. H&R Block’s Tango consumer online tax-preparation service, for $70, includes unlimited round-the-clock access to tax experts. Tomorrow’s cloud will contain human intelligence as well as computational power.Vendors such as NetSuite are leasing all the computing power and applications that SMBs need, such as Microsoft’s Great Plains software, for far less than the cost of acquiring and implementing all the hardware, software and personnel required to run Great Plains in-house.Today, the paradigm of cloud computing is its implementation of best practices in standard ways. But that limits cloud computing to common-ground applications such as CRM. Extremely complex custom applications that provide competitive advantage, such as a travel reservation system, can’t be implemented on a cloud’s paradoxically flexible yet rigid platform. In the future, though, cloud-computing vendors will make their applications more customizable by end users. Then corporations will move mission-critical unique applications into the cloud.Enterprises are maintaining huge IT infrastructures, often with excess capacity. To unlock the value in that investment, corporate IT departments will create clouds within their IT infrastructure and lease cloud power to suppliers and customers. This is exactly what is doing with its S3 and Elastic Compute Cloud initiatives. There is no reason General Motors and Target can’t do that too.Local constraints on energy costs and capacities; space requirements for IT infrastructure; and up-front costs will disappear as companies become able to tap computing resources situated anywhere on the planet. A datacenter parked next to a hydroelectric dam—perhaps also owned by the datacenter—will be cheaper and more reliable than one in midtown Manhattan. Transformational IT projects that were stalled by localized constraints will move forward.Local applications will become passé and PCs will become slimmer, more agile gateways to the cloud where the heavy lifting is done. Client-server computing will return under a new name.
  • IT Business Value

    1. 1. IT Success in the 21stCentury<br />IT Business Value, Virtualization & the Cloud<br />
    2. 2. <ul><li>Gaining Competitive Advantage During Economic Downturns
    3. 3. Three-Legged Stool of Business Value
    4. 4. IT Governance
    5. 5. Project Management vs. System Development Life Cycle
    6. 6. Quality
    7. 7. Organizational Change Management
    8. 8. Trends</li></ul>Virtualization<br />Cloud Computing<br />Topics<br />
    9. 9. In an October 2009 Gartner Symposium, Dr. Howard Rubin1 said,<br />“The most opportunistic time for technology investment is during an economic downturn; it is the only area in which investment can change the operating profile of an organization—doing so effectively can create an insurmountable competitive gap. Bad IT economics will put you on the wrong side of this gap and may even be creating advantage for your competitors”<br />1 Gartner Senior Advisor, Founder Rubin Worldwide, MIT Center for Information Systems Research Associate,<br />Gain Competitive Advantage<br />
    10. 10. <ul><li>Reduce or eliminate capital expenditures</li></ul>Fewer new projects—only in-progress or mission critical <br /><ul><li>System consolidation
    11. 11. RIF
    12. 12. Keep the lights on
    13. 13. Failure to address the internal process issues that may have gotten us here in the first place</li></ul>Typical Downturn Response<br />
    14. 14. To gain competitive advantage during an economic downturn, smart executives invest in IT if they have the confidence in the IT organization to deliver that which is promised:<br /><ul><li>Quality products that meet or exceed customer expectations
    15. 15. On time delivery
    16. 16. Well managed budgets</li></ul>Investment = Executive Confidence<br />
    17. 17. <ul><li>For IT organizations to be successful today and tomorrow, they must evolve into values-based cultures that drive high performance, low turnover, and increased productivity without impeding creativity and innovation.
    18. 18. The organization must embrace defined, managed, measurable, repeatable and reusable practices that form the blueprint for their overall systems delivery strategy.</li></ul>Formula for IT Success<br />
    19. 19. Three-Legged Stool<br />Shareholder Value<br />IT Business Value<br />
    20. 20. <ul><li>Traditionally, board-level executives defer all key IT decisions to the company’s IT professionals
    21. 21. The truth is that many board-level executives don’t understand IT well enough to manage IT effectively
    22. 22. IT professionals don’t understand business initiatives well enough to decide how to invest in them
    23. 23. Deferring key decisions to the IT staff often leads to disconnects between the board’s strategic goals and real business initiatives and the investments IT makes
    24. 24. Frustration exists at all levels.</li></ul>Why IT Governance<br />
    25. 25. <ul><li>IT governance is a business-driven function which focuses on the investment and prioritization of IT systems, their performance, risk management and enhancing a company’s competitiveness
    26. 26. All companies have some sort of IT governance
    27. 27. IT governance includes: well defined and documented processes for work uptake, decision making, budgeting and estimating resources, approvals, IT value realization, project reporting and change management
    28. 28. Many IT governance committees are comprised of the senior most leaders from all strategic areas of the business, not just IT leaders</li></ul>IT Governance Defined<br />
    29. 29. Weill and Ross2assert that effective IT governance answers three questions:<br />What decisions must be made?<br />Who should make these decisions?<br />How will we make and monitor these decisions?<br />To further explain the first question, they say:<br />“Every enterprise must address five interrelated IT decisions: IT principles, IT architecture, IT infrastructure, business application needs, and IT investment and prioritization.”<br />2 Peter Weill, Director of the MIT Sloan School of Management Center for Information Systems Research (CISR) in Cambridge Massachusetts and Jean W. Ross, Principal Research Scientist<br />Effective IT Governance<br />
    30. 30. <ul><li>Executives ask: “How much will the project cost?”
    31. 31. IT responds with a SWAG or ROM and ROI calculation based on guesstimates and/or very limited investigation
    32. 32. Executives are impressed with the projected derived business value and ROI and approves the project.
    33. 33. Problem: Actual requirements have not been elicited</li></ul>Ineffective IT Governance<br />
    34. 34. Importance of Good Requirements <br />The root cause of many modern day systems development project overruns, failures and rework are directly attributable to poor requirements. Look at these study conclusions published over a 13 year period beginning in 1995:<br />“Requirements problems have been proven to contribute to 20-25% of all project failures. The average project overran its budget 189% and its schedule by 222%”—Chaos Report/The Standish Group 1995<br />“Requirements Errors account for 70% to 85% of rework”—Liffingwell, 1997<br />“Poor requirements account for 71% of project failures”—Grady, 1999<br />“Between 40 and 60 per cent of all software defects can be attributed to bad requirements”—Abbott, 2001<br />“Only 34% of projects expected to finish on time; 52% had proposed functionality; 82% had time overruns; 43% had budget overruns”—The Chaos Chronicles/ The Standish Group 2004<br />“Flawed Requirements Trigger 70% of Project Failures”—Infotech Research, 2005<br />“Gaps in the Technical Requirements accounted for more than 70% of program problems” —United States Government Accountability Office, 2008<br />
    35. 35. Effective IT Principle<br />An effective approach to governance includes performing some requirements elicitation and analysis before submitting the final project proposal/request. This is tricky because it requires investment.<br />
    36. 36. <ul><li>Much confusion exists over the difference between a project management method and the SDLC
    37. 37. In terms of importance to a project, the SDLC and a project management method are co-equals which complement each other
    38. 38. Neither can stand on its own to deliver high value to the business
    39. 39. Throughout the life cycle both of these methods work together to achieve business goals, drive the value equation and progress organizational maturity
    40. 40. Though their activities differ greatly, they interrelate and harmonize to produce superior results</li></ul>Project Management vs. SDLC<br />
    41. 41. <ul><li>A project management method provides detailed instructions for the discipline of planning, organizing, controlling, reporting and managing project resources to successfully complete project goals and objectives
    42. 42. It includes all of the activities for managing a project
    43. 43. A project is temporal in nature
    44. 44. It has a defined beginning and end
    45. 45. The project management method begins with project inception and closes when its product is delivered
    46. 46. When a project is over, the project manager moves onto something new</li></ul>Project Management<br />
    47. 47. <ul><li>Project management is often expressed in terms of the constraints of scope, time and cost
    48. 48. This is also known as the project management triangle
    49. 49. Each side of the triangle represents a constraint
    50. 50. No side can be changed without affecting the others
    51. 51. At one time, “quality” or “performance” was considered a component of scope. The model has since been refined to delineate quality as a fourth constraint</li></ul>Project Management Expressed<br />
    52. 52. <ul><li>Time is the period available to complete a project
    53. 53. Cost is the project’s budget
    54. 54. Scope is what must be done to complete the project's deliverables
    55. 55. The three constraints often compete with each other:</li></ul>Scope creep means increased time and higher cost<br />A tight time frame may mean higher costs and less scope<br />A tight budget may mean less time and reduced scope<br /><ul><li>Quality may be at risk if there are changes to any of the constraints.</li></ul>Project Management Constraints<br />
    56. 56. <ul><li>The SDLC provides a framework that describes the activities performed during each phase of a systems development project
    57. 57. The SDLC is about quality, consistency and product delivery. It is about the realization of a product’s requirements
    58. 58. Products are of a more permanent nature than a project because products continue to exist long after the projects that delivered them have closed. Therefore, the SDLC’s framework provides guidelines for supporting the product post production
    59. 59. Guidelines include practices for knowledge transfer, training, document turnover, maintenance and on-going support
    60. 60. When a product is to be retired, the project management method takes over to sunset the system. It is a full circle in a system’s life cycle.</li></ul>System Development Life Cycle<br />
    61. 61. Amajor focus of any SDLC is software, but when you think of all the projects that are undertaken in an IT organization, every project team has a responsibility to:<br /><ul><li>Elicit and analyze requirements
    62. 62. Develop systems specifications
    63. 63. Define success metrics
    64. 64. Produce clear, consistent and unambiguous artifacts
    65. 65. Deliver products that comply with the highest quality standards that meet or exceed customer expectations
    66. 66. Transfer knowledge to operational support and maintenance personnel, sometimes to outsourced, off-shore locations
    67. 67. Train end users and support resources
    68. 68. Offer post deployment support and maintenance</li></ul>Consistent reusable processes and practices across the entire IT organization are critical for an organization’s absolute success<br />It’s “Systems” and not “Software”<br />
    69. 69. <ul><li>The SDLC is expressed in terms of quality, consistency and product delivery
    70. 70. Quality, consistency and product delivery are the outputs of a defined, managed, measurable, repeatable and reusable set of processes and practices
    71. 71. Processes, practices and techniques form the core framework of the SDLC
    72. 72. Where a project is defined by its constraints, the SDLC is defined by its freedoms and empowerment
    73. 73. The SDLC empowers a project team to choose from among several approved pathways to deliver the highest quality products possible in the shortest amount of time and at the lowest possible cost</li></ul>SDLC Expressed<br />
    74. 74. <ul><li>Scope is a project constraint that SDLC processes liberate by managing scope creep
    75. 75. Consistency of process helps keep the cost constraint under control by practicing repeatable, measurable and defined algorithms
    76. 76. The schedule constraint is complemented by the SDLC’s timely delivery of a quality product that meets or exceeds customers’ expectations
    77. 77. If we manage scope creep effectively and are consistent in our ability to repeat and improve our processes, not only will we deliver a product on time, there may even be enough wiggle room in the schedule to address lower priority items or deliver the product ahead of the due date</li></ul>SDLC Mitigates Project Constraints<br />
    78. 78. Triangles Compared<br />SDLC Triangle<br />Project Management Triangle<br />
    79. 79. Process Groups Compared<br />SDLC Process Groups<br />Project Management Process Groups<br />
    80. 80. Quality is everyone’s responsibility. Everyone means all stakeholders and project team members. Quality is not the responsibility of or owned by a single group or department. Everyone means everyone! Every person in an organization contributes to the achievement of quality in the following ways: <br /><ul><li>Process Quality: the achievement of quality in the activities in which any person is involved
    81. 81. Product Quality: the contribution to the overall achievement of quality in each artifact being produced</li></ul>Who Owns Quality? <br />
    82. 82. <ul><li>Quality Control focuses on the product or deliverable, is reactive and emphasizes testing of products to uncover defects after the fact, in other words, after the product is built.
    83. 83. Quality Assurance focuses on the process, is proactive, attempts to improve and stabilize production and associated processes to avoid or at least minimize issues that lead to defects in the first place.</li></ul>Quality Control ≠ Quality Assurance<br />
    84. 84. Why have an Organizational Change Management Strategy?<br /><ul><li>The Balanced Scorecard Collaborative published the following statistics:</li></ul>90% of all companies fail to execute strategy successfully<br />Only 5% of the workforce understands their company strategy<br /><ul><li>The Gartner Group said, “$75 billion spent annually on failed IT projects and poor management is the culprit.”
    85. 85. An 11 year study by Kotter and Heskett demonstrates the correlation between change adaptive companies to their revenues and stock value. The results of the study revealed:</li></ul>RevenuesNet Income Stock Price<br />Change adaptive companies 602% up 756% up 901% up<br />S&P Index 265% up<br />Companies not adaptive to change 166% up 1% up 74% up<br /><ul><li>Shareholder value of companies practicing sound organizational change management principles outpaced the S&P Index over the 11 year period by 340%</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Virtualization—of servers, applications, client systems, storage and networks—has been one of the hottest topics in IT for the past several years.
    86. 86. Adoption of server virtualization has reached over 90% of organizations overall, with early adoption coming from enterprise organizations, and more recent adoption becoming widespread in smaller businesses.
    87. 87. Server virtualization is a top priority for mid-size businesses in 2011.
    88. 88. Server virtualization offers immediate benefits to organizations of all sizes, although the benefits may differ between large and small.</li></ul>Virtualization<br />
    89. 89. <ul><li>Virtualization is defined as an abstraction or separation of compute resources away from the hardware or software layer running below them.
    90. 90. Virtualization can be implemented at many layers of the computing "stack" and across different computing resources, including servers, desktops, applications, storage, and networking.
    91. 91. Server virtualization, the focus of this discussion, is abstracting the computing operating system away from the underlying server hardware.
    92. 92. The virtualization software layer that runs on the server hardware is called a Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) or hypervisor.</li></ul>It manages all of the hardware resources and creates a platform on which individual Virtual Machines (VMs) can be run.<br /><ul><li>Each VM "looks and feels" like a complete, separate copy of the operating system to the applications being run and to the users of those applications.</li></ul>What is Virtualization<br />
    93. 93. Top Reasons Why Businesses Buy<br />
    94. 94. Server virtualization is one of those rare IT solutions that has actually delivered on its promise. According to users who have implemented virtualization, the actual benefits achieved match those described in the marketing literature, including:<br /><ul><li>Increased utilization of resources;
    95. 95. Reduced space, power and cooling;
    96. 96. Reduced TCO and increased ROI of servers;
    97. 97. Improved IT agility and reduced provisioning time; and
    98. 98. Improved disaster recovery and availability.</li></ul>Benefits Achieved<br />
    99. 99. 10 Things You Need to Know<br />It’s not just for large enterprises.<br />It’s not just for consolidation. <br />It should be viewed as part of an overall virtual infrastructure. <br />It’s a key enabler for private/public/hybrid cloud. <br />Management is critical to achieve the full benefits. <br />Virtualization and the vendor landscape are changing constantly.<br />Consider your desktop plans as part of your decision process.<br />Get help from those with experience.<br />Start with the low-hanging fruit.<br /> Think strategically even as you act tactically. <br />
    100. 100. Cloud Computing<br /><ul><li>Put simply, cloud computing is a service that hosts your business’s Web applications on a provider’s infrastructure, the “cloud.”
    101. 101. Recognized by Gartner as one of the top 10 strategic technologies of 2010, cloud computing is being embraced by organizations of all sizes and across all industries.
    102. 102. For all the interest—and investments made—in cloud computing, vendors and consumers can’t pin down a single definition of this rapidly evolving space.
    103. 103. Cloud computing is just like the weather; it blows this way and that, and no one really knows exactly where it’s going or what the cloud will cover.
    104. 104. In general, everyone agrees that cloud computing delivers scalable and elastic IT resources as a service via Internet technologies
    105. 105. It should make IT provisioning faster, more efficient, and more cost effective with on-demand resources, pay-as-you-go or subscription pricing, and scalability beyond what most enterprise networks are capable of internally.
    106. 106. Forrester Research Inc. described cloud computing as “enterprise technology packaged to fit the needs of small businesses and startups.” Moreover, the research institution said the technology “has the potential to completely upend IT as we know it.”</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Cloud computing offers many benefits, some similar to those of other IT-hosting services and some completely unique.
    107. 107. It allows for significant cost savings as well as an affordable, redundant disaster-recovery solution.
    108. 108. Beyond that, companies that jump into the cloud will experience unparalleled provisioning speeds; the easy collaboration that comes with no organizational boundaries limiting developers; and an environment that enables technical innovations.
    109. 109. Because cloud-computing providers tend to be either major Web presences or established hosting vendors, they already have high performing, extremely reliable networks in place. Their services give users access to the type of low-latency, highly available network-leading Web services on which companies rely.
    110. 110. An additional benefit of cloud computing is reliable disaster recovery; even if a server in the cloud fails, the provider’s redundant network will keep users’ Web applications available.</li></ul>Benefits of Cloud Computing<br />
    111. 111. Major Cloud Providers<br />Cloud computing providers include:<br /><ul><li>’s flagship Amazon EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) includes’s S3 (Simple Storage Service) and is in beta.
    112. 112. GoGrid: Currently in beta, GoGrid is a ServePath company and offers pre-pay monthly plans as well as a pay-as-you-go billing model.
    113. 113. Google:The Google App Engine is a free preview release with size limitations.
    114. 114. Joyent Inc.:Joyent Accelerator is a production service priced by the amount of RAM to which users subscribe.
    115. 115. Layered Technologies:GridLayer, which is based on 3tera Inc.’s AppLogic OS, includes Virtual Private Data Center packages.
    116. 116. Mosso:Mosso is a Rackspace company and offers The Hosting Cloud as a single monthly package.
    117. 117. erremark:Enterprise Cloud was launched in June 2008
    118. 118. Xcalibre:FlexiScale is a pay-as-you-go production service based in the U.K.
    119. 119. It’s important to note that several additional vendors, including IBM, Dell and 3tera sell the software, hardware and services necessary for an enterprise to build its own cloud </li></li></ul><li>There are three different classes of cloud computing: public clouds, private clouds, and hybrid clouds. They all share the same basic features—the differences are in who is allowed access to the different clouds.<br />Types of Clouds<br />
    120. 120. <ul><li>Public cloud computing is the most widely adopted class as well as the most thoroughly understood—it's often considered the standard model of cloud computing.
    121. 121. In a public cloud, a service provider makes IT resources, such as collaboration, CRM or payroll applications, storage capacity, or server compute cycles, available to any customer via the Internet.
    122. 122. A few public cloud offerings have already become such an ingrained part of the business community, such as Cisco's WebEx meeting space and's Sales Cloud</li></ul>Many of their users aren't even aware that they're accessing applications in a cloud environment.<br /><ul><li>In a public cloud, IT services are easy to set up via browser-based UIs, inexpensive with zero hardware and software costs, and can scale up or down depending on how much capacity you need at that moment.
    123. 123. For many enterprise organizations, these benefits come with certain risks: no control over the resources in the cloud, the security of confidential data, network performance issues, and interoperability.</li></ul>Public Clouds<br />
    124. 124. <ul><li>Private clouds mitigate the concerns of public clouds, with the security of an internal network.
    125. 125. The customer owns all of the equipment powering the cloud environment (often a very large data center)
    126. 126. The customer has complete control over the IT resources as well as the data and is responsible for securing it.
    127. 127. Enterprise IT resources are consolidated and pooled so users across the company can have self-service access and increased scalability.
    128. 128. Like a public cloud, a private cloud makes provisioning an automated service request rather than a manual task processed by IT.
    129. 129. Unlike a public cloud, setting up shop in a private cloud requires expertise with network integration as well as with sophisticated virtualization and cloud platform technologies; you'll have to run your own hardware, storage, networking, hypervisor, and cloud software.</li></ul>Private Clouds<br />
    130. 130. <ul><li>Hybrid clouds use a combination of internal resources, which stay under the control of the customer, and external resources delivered by a cloud service provider.
    131. 131. Like the private model, a hybrid cloud lets an organization continue to use their existing data center equipment and keep sensitive data secured on the organization's own network.
    132. 132. Like the public cloud, a hybrid model lets an organization take advantage of a cloud's almost unlimited scalability. It's a way to solve some of the trust issues of the public cloud while getting the public cloud's benefits.</li></ul>Hybrid Clouds<br />
    133. 133. <ul><li>Whether private, public, or hybrid, every model of cloud computing allows organizations to use—and pay for—only the IT services, including application hosting, SaaS, infrastructure as a service (IaaS), and platform as a service (PaaS), employees actually need.
    134. 134. Companies are increasingly turning to cloud computing as a way to cut costs as well as to modernize the way they deliver IT resources to users.
    135. 135. The 2009, Aberdeen Research “Business Adoption of Cloud Computing” said:</li></ul>“For  businesses of all sizes, cloud computing can deliver operational efficiencies while establishing the building blocks for the next major wave of IT innovation and business architectures.”<br />Cloud Conclusions<br />
    136. 136. 10 Cloud Trends to Watch<br />Large enterprises are building their own private clouds. <br />Cloud computing will shift the skills needed by IT workers. <br />IT departments will shrink as users go directly to the cloud for IT resources.<br />Concerns about information security will abate as CIOs “get” the cloud paradigm. <br />Professional services will be bundled with commodity cloud services.<br />SMBs, as well as large enterprises, will be run on the cloud. <br />Cloud-computing resources will become more customizable. <br />Large enterprises will become part-time cloud-computing vendors.<br />Cloud computing will unleash innovation. <br />The browser will be all the desktop software you need. <br />