5.1 System Design Sustainability Tools Vezzoli Polimi 07 08 3.11

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5.1 System Design Sustainability Tools Vezzoli Polimi 07 08 3.11

  1. 1. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools course System Design for Sustainability subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS carlo vezzoli politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . Italy Learning Network on Sustainability contents Criteria, methods and tools A modular approach to system design for sustainability MEPSS Methodology’s phases Integrating the tool along the MEPSS methodology Sustainability Design-Orienting (SDO-mepss) Interaction story-board/spot carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  2. 2. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 5.1.1 Criteria, methods and tools In this chapter are described methods and tools for system design for sustainability developed within some European founded researches, among them the so called MEPSS (Method for Product- Service System development, European funded research project, 5FP, Growth), the HiCS (Highly Customerised Solutions, European funded research project, 5FP, Growth), and the SUHOUSE (Sustainable Household Strategies, European funded research project, 5FP, Growth). Before introducing and describing methods and tools, let's summarise the main acknowledgements reached so far. It has been argued that exists a potential role for the design for sustainability, in promoting and facilitating system innovation resulting in eco-efficient and socially equitable/cohesive enterprises/initiatives offering a mix of products and services, based on network-structured and locally-based model. A first key point is the approach to a design of stakeholders configuration, committed to create and promote innovative types of interactions and partnerships between appropriate socio-economic stakeholders of a system responding to a particular social demand. Consequently new skills are required from the designer: A designer must be able to design together products and services, related to a given demand of needs and/or desires satisfaction. A designer must be able to find, promote and facilitate innovative configurations (i.e. interactions/partnership) between different stakeholders (entrepreneurs, users, NGO, institutions, etc.), related to a given demand of needs and/or desires satisfaction. A designer must be able to operate/facilitate a participatory design process among entrepreneurs, users, NGO, institutions, etc. orientating this process towards environmentally sustainable solutions. Some tools developed for this purpose are introduced in this book are the (stakeholder) system map, the Interaction table (story-board), the Interaction story-spot, the Offering diagram and the AD poster (learning resource 5.3). A second key point, given that not all system innovations will have eco-efficient or socially equitable and cohesive results, underlines that design process should be somehow oriented towards sustainable solutions. Consequently new skills are required also from the designer: the ability to orientate the system design process towards eco-efficient solutions the ability to orientate the system design process towards socio-efficient1 solutions. For this reason alone we need new methods and tools to use in the design practice the criteria and guidelines that we have seen so far (chapters 3.2 and 4.3), i.e. to orientate the system design practice towards sustainable interactions and relationships between stakeholders. In order to comprehend how to use methods and tools to orientate design towards sustainable solutions is useful to use as a benchmark a simplified scheme of the phases of development of products, services or systems, where those phases can be underlined that lead to design of the 1 Economically competitive as well as socially equitable and cohesive. Cf. subject 4. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  3. 3. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 concept of the system, then to the development of executive design and finally lead to the related engineering. Scheme of systems development the phases and related methods/tools key objectives In the case of system development the configuration of actors in this system or rather the design of their interactions should be defined during the conceptual phase. Is rather obvious that integrating necessary requisites for sustainable outcome, i.e. appropriate methods and tools, during the first phases of the development is more efficient. In fact, series of tools have been developed that could be applied during different phases of development. Besides the singularities, more generally they are meant to assist the designer to accomplish three specific objectives: 1. setting sustainability priority (existing system analysis) 2. generating sustainability-focused idea (innovative system development) 3. checking/visualising sustainability improvement/worsening of developed concept/s (comparing existing and innovative system). One tool-kit developed for this purpose - the Sustainability Design-Orienting tool-kit (SDO) - is introduces in chapter 5.2.1. The description of the tools is introduced by a modular approach of system design for sustainability. 5.1.2 A modular approach of system design for sustainability carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  4. 4. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 Among the recently developed methods and the tools, elaborated with the support of the EU commission, is the MEthodology for Product-Service System development project, founded by EU 5FP (Growth), that has created the MEPSS method2. The MEPSS method is organised in a modular and flexible way. This allows for possible uncertainties and maximises the likelihood of smart business decision, focused on the innovation options that are most likely to succeed in the market. It can be used in full, applying the whole set of processes described for developing a ne Product-Service) System innovation, or alternatively in part, by choosing only selected modules according to the specific needs of the case under development. The MEPSS “phase model” thus allows for a flexible allocation of resources and optimisation of the business opportunity/risk ratio. The methodology could be applied by either a small team of experts or in a more participatory planning process. This modular method is schematically articulated in 5 phases: Strategic Analysis Exploring opportunities System Idea development System design System implementation. 2 The method is described in detail in the book “Methodology for Product-Service System Innovation. How to develop clean, clever and competitive strategies in companies” edited by van Halen, Vezzoli, Wimmer, Van Gorcum, The Netherlands, 2005 or could be . carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  5. 5. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 MEPSS MEthodology for Product-Service System development, 5 phases and modular; EU, 5FP, Growth Each of the phase is subsequently structured in steps, and steps are described by a series of processes. This “phase-steps-process” hierarchy has been developed to offer a systematic and a layered innovation model. Finally, three main action grounds are: Design Environmental assessment Consumer acceptance. And three of those - Exploring opportunities, System Idea development, System design - are related to design. 5.1.3 MEPSS Methodology’s phases 5.1.3.1 Strategic analysis This first phase of the MEPSS methodology has the objective of building a thorough and systematic understanding of the company's markets, organisation and production and value chain. The strategic analysis will define the starting position for the System design process. It will generate a common understanding of the behaviour of the overall system and define orientations for the next actions and steps to enable the design of a successful and sustainable new System. The central issue of the analysis is the context in which a new system innovation will be integrated. This context includes the whole business system, starting with the human capital, business culture and the vision and mission of the company, through to its strategy and the daily operation that generates and commercialises the 'package' of products and services offered. Special interest will have to be paid to the role of the company in the value chain and to the life cycle of the company’s products (resources, supplies, production, use and end-of-life). Its main aim is to generate realistic options and alternatives for the business based on System thinking. Knowing the initial situation of a company makes it easier to make decisions on which parts of the MEPSS model are most relevant in determining future options. The idea is to create a new business concept which makes optimal use of the capabilities and market access of the company. Key questions are: what are the core competences of my company (in supply chain perspective, which real value do we offer )? who are our key stakeholders? what are the main strengths and weaknesses of my business model? what value do we deliver to our clients? what do my clients expect from me (today and tomorrow)? In which direction/how should we improve the current system (people, planet, profit)? 5.1.3.2 Exploring opportunities The objective of this second phase of the MEPSS methodology is to look at possible System innovation routes for the future. Phase 2 stimulates creativity and invites all stakeholders into a participatory process of System idea creation. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  6. 6. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 The ultimate in innovation is not merely to come up with incremental improvements of products and services but to create entirely new offers and markets that have not existed before. It is to reinvent the way we work, play, communicate, recreate, etc. Key questions are: what are main System scenarios to guide me into the future? which set of evaluation criteria (priorities) for System should be used according to the company's priorities? do the ideas generated bring about an improvement with regards to environmental/social impacts and how? 5.1.3.3 System idea development The design team starts the design of the most promising System idea on the basis of the company’s strategic decisions and assessment outputs from the “Exploring Opportunities” phase. The “System Idea Development” phase aims at developing the selected System idea from a general description and visualisation to a more precise version, and at evaluating and selecting the most promising design version for further development prior to being put on the market. System idea design is a collaborative process coordinated by a project leader through which people are involved in different moments, depending on the competencies required, and work on common design tools. Key questions are: what does each System Innovation solution generated really offer (functionality, perceived value)? what are the main actors involved and how should the System Innovation interact with the client for each solution? how do the generated ideas entail improvements on environmental/social impacts? 5.1.3.4 System development The System development phase starts from a well defined idea and brings the project to the detailed version necessary for its realisation. In order to describe a coherent and potentially successful System, the design activities will be strictly integrated with stakeholders’ involvement and user acceptance evaluation processes. The main objective of this phase is the detailed design of each System dimension and the elaboration of the specifications (specs) for the system implementation. System development is a complex collaborative process coordinated by a project leader. Staff members are involved in different moments of the design process depending on the required competencies. This phase foresees the involvement of an enlarged project team made up of people with the required competencies for the System development and evaluation. The project team will be enlarged to include internal and external actors (advertising agency, interior design studio, web design agency, etc.) who will be in charge of implementing System components, such as representatives of stakeholders directly involved in the future System supply. Key questions are: what is the set of primary and secondary functionalities offered and the quality level? what are the roles, the interactions and the business models of each player in the system (in detail)? what are the expected improvements (for people, planet, profit)? what are the investment requirements? carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  7. 7. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 5.1.4 Integrating the tool along the MEPSS methodology A tool-kit available to orientate the design process towards sustainable system innovation, is: 1. Sustainability Design-Orientating tool-kit (SDO)3 Other tool-kits available, that are orientated to strategical design system innovations are: 2. System map4 3. Interaction table (story-board)5 4. Interaction story-spot6 5. Offering diagram7 6. AD poster8. They are all applicable on differently detailed levels of MEPSS phases: Strategic Analysis, Exploring opportunities, System Idea development and System design. 3 A tool developed by Carlo Vezzoli and Ursula Tishner included in the MEPSS EU 5th FP, Growth projects. 4 A tool developed by Francois Jegou (Dalt) included both in the HiCS and MEPSS EU 5th FP, Growth projects. 5 A tool developed by Daniela Sangiorgi included in the MEPSS EU 5th FP, Growth projects. 6 A tool developed by Design and system Innovation Research Unit, Politecnico di Milano as a follow up of the Interaction story board. 7 A tool developed by Francois Jegou (Dalt) included both in the HiCS and MEPSS EU 5th FP, Growth projects. 8 A tool developed by Francois Jegou (Dalt) included both in the HiCS and MEPSS EU 5th FP, Growth projects. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  8. 8. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 SDS tools overview within MEPSS phases 1, 2 and 3 5.1.5 Sustainability Design-Orienting toolkit (SDO) 5.1.5.1 Objective The objective of this tool is to orientate the design process towards sustainable System solutions, setting sustainability priorities and analysing sustainable best practice (using checklist), using sustainable design orienting guidelines (using Idea Tables) and checking and visualizing (through checklist and proper radar diagrams) the improvements in relation to an existing reference system and its sustainability priorities. In itself it is modular, so that it could be used partly depending on the need and circumstances. In other terms, the SDO goals (in the integration with the design process, per each sustainability dimension and with an increasing the detail level) are: priorities sustainability criteria/guidelines (existing system analysis) [criteria/check-list] identify sustainable existing options (best practice analysis) [criteria/check-list/radar diagramm] generating ideas focused on sustainability [idea tables/guidelines] sustainability improvement/worsening check/representation of concept/s under development [check-list/radars] The key elements in the SDO structure are the criteria and guidelines, structured in a multi- dimensional structure. In fact, 3 sustainability dimensions are taken into consideration: carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  9. 9. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 environmental, socio-ethical, economic. So, on every dimension the same type of procedure could be applied. For each dimension there are 6 criteria. Criteria are intended as a way to assess a certain system as well as a way to orientate the designing process. In fact, each criterion is a heading of a set of guidelines. SDO structure: sustainability dimensions<criteria<guidelines This tool is meant and has been developed to be a “bridge” between language, data and tools of the sustainability assessment quot;worldquot; and the designer’s quot;worldquot;, when dealing with complex systems. In fact, it is a qualitative tool that allows everything concerning sustainability system assessments to make preliminary assessment or to integrate quantitative assessments with preliminary ones. 5.1.5.2 Putting into Practice When and why should this tool be used? All along the phases of the methodology, the System ideas generated and their associated scenarios will be oriented using guidelines (and related idea table). Guidelines are an effective support tool used to orientate a decision-making process towards given objectives (sustainable solutions). They inspire and indicate the solutions with highest sustainable potentials. The software can be used to fulfil 3 objectives building on each other throughout the phases of the methodology (see fig. ??)9: 1. Strategic Analysis: A: Identify the sustainability design priorities for the company; B: Identify the options that favour sustainability and are already in best practices 2. Exploration System Opportunities: C: Generate sustainable ideas on a scenario level (1); D: Check and visualise achieved improvements (for internal and external communication). 3. System Idea Development: Cf. the scheme in chapter 5.2.7. 9 carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  10. 10. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 D: Redefine the sustainability design priorities for the company if necessary; C’: Generate sustainable ideas on a product-service level (2); D’: Up-date, check and visualise the achieved improvements (for internal and external communication); 4.System Development: D’’: Up-date, check and visualise the achieved improvements (for external communication). SDO: integration in the design process per each sustainability dimension (increasing detail level) The multidisciplinary project team, with the designers in the leading role should be involved. The project manager could also implement the tool with some team members (e.g. marketing alone). It is also possible to include customers and stakeholders. Who should use this tool? The multidisciplinary project team, with the designers in the leading role should be involved. The project manager could also implement the tool with some team members (e.g. marketing alone). It is also possible to include customers and stakeholders. 5.1.5.3 Implementation The key concept of this tool is to integrate the concept design generation process by “feeding” it with sustainable idea to be developed in brainstorming sections. Hence guidelines are given with priorities connected with the existing reference system to be redesigned. A software has been developed to integrate in a user-friendly way the sustainability priorities setting section, with the idea tables/guidelines and with the visualisation radar diagrams. Implementation of the tool in the development process carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  11. 11. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 0. Start up In the starting data page insert some general information about the project, defining also the satisfaction unit, which refers to the client satisfaction provided by the service, and the existing system of reference. Save the project through the save project button. 1. Strategic Analysis A. Prioritise sustainability criteria/guidelines The purpose is to find out and define which are the sustainable priorities of the existing system of reference (and also of a possible case study). This step is related to the sustainability dimensions section of the software, which contains the Environmental, Socio-ethical and Economic sub-sections. The priorities represent the basis to orientate the design decisions and efforts towards the most relevant sustainable solutions. They are referred to 6 criteria, which represent separated area of concern of environmental/socio-ethical/economic sustainability in such a form that is understandable by a designer. They allow a sustainability check in terms of relative priority setting (among the various criteria). The criteria are also the headers of various sets of design guidelines. Furthermore, a dimension needs to be chosen and set priorities/existing system selected. The criteria are visualized and to each of them corresponds a series of questions (Checklist), which enables to pinpoint the priority for the given criterion. In the text box you can insert answers and comments on the checklist. At the end you should be able to define the priority, selecting the high/medium/low/no button (fig.??). If you go in the View section you can visualise the graphical result of this process. Select the existing system and one of the three dimensions. The related radar diagram visualizes the existing system (bold circle), and its priorities for each criterion (fig ??). Then in the radar diagram within the given blank spaces texts could be typed highlighting the most critical issues of the existing system (with their qualitative evaluation) to be used a synthetic report for following idea generations. It is recommended to save the project, in the menu Options/save. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  12. 12. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 Check-list answers on existing system and indication of criteria’s priorities In order to orientate a system scenario/idea towards sustainable solutions, you should start from those criteria having the highest score in terms of priorities, i.e. weighing the efforts according to the their relevance (high, medium, low, no). B. Analysis of existing sustainable best practices In order to have sustainable inputs and insights for the design process, existing sustainable solutions should be researched. The SDO toolkit lets you to compare those with a reference situation to better highlight, what could be most promising in sustainable terms. The sustainability qualities for each criteria of each of the three sustainability dimensions in the set priorities and case study section can be checked. There the sustainability checklists have to be answered filling proper fields. This enable then to choose one of the following options: radical improvement (++), incremental improvement (+), no significant change (=), worsening (-). Then in the radar diagram within the given blank spaces texts could be typed highlighting the most interesting options (with their qualitative evaluation) to be used a synthetic report for following idea generations. SDO/set priorities/case study. criteria’s checklist/radar diagram (see fig. ??). carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  13. 13. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 Radar diagram based on check-list evaluation of a best practice showing promising options 2. Exploring opportunity C. Generate sustainability-focused scenarios’ ideas To achieve this, a series of guidelines, referred to each criterion, aims at orientating the scenarios/ideas in the “right” direction. In the Sustainability dimensions section of the Menu, choose a dimension and go to orientate concept, select scenario on the top: you will get to idea to orientate concept, select scenario on the top: you will get to idea tables section. The criteria are visualised, with the related priorities you defined and with a series of related guidelines (level 1). Perform an idea generation brainstorming, starting from those criteria having the highest priorities. Write in the related “post it” boxes the ideas that emerged (click on the circles on the left and right sides). It is recommended to save the project, in the menu Options/save. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  14. 14. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 Image of IDEAS TABLE/guidelines level 1 with some ideas written on “post it” boxes If Resource reduction is a high priority, you should start by the idea table referred to this criterion, getting inspiration from the related guidelines. At the same time, if transportation/distribution reduction has a low priority, you will give less attention to it (or even no attention if it has “no” priority). D. Check and visualise sustainability improvements of developed system scenario In the Sustainability dimensions section of the Menu, choose a dimension and go to check concept. Write in the text box the synthesis of the System Scenario developed in the Scenario workshop. The button Environmental/socio-ethical/economic check of system concept leads to the check-lists, which will help you to define the improvement of the scenario in relation to the existing system. Mark the improvement: worsening (-), equal (=), incremental improvement (+), radical improvement (++). Going through the check-list you may realize something can be improved or changed; go to modify concept description button and update the previous concept definition. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  15. 15. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 Radar with the “sail” of the concept and with the improvement indications If you go in the View section of the Menu, you can visualise the graphical result of the improvement. Select concept and the sustainability dimension you are interested in. The radar diagram will enable to visualise an area on the diagram, which represents the improvement of the scenario in relation to the existing system (bold circle) or to the case study. It is recommended to save the project, in the menu Options/save. If you have more than one scenario you may copy the file you are working on, saving it with the name of the other scenario (= name of the project in the starting data page). Then you will modify all previous scenario data. In each file there can be only one scenario. 3. System idea development Save one of the projects with the name of the new System idea (= name of the project in the starting data page). If you haven’t done any scenario project before, start with a new project. C’. Generating sustainability-focused system ideas (more detailed, guidelines level 2). In the Sustainability dimensions section of the Menu, choose a dimension and go to orientate concept; select System idea on the top. The criteria are visualised, with the related priorities you defined and with a series of related guidelines (level 2 – more detailed). Perform a brainstorming starting from those criteria having both the highest priorities (reference existing system) and the lowest improvements (System scenario): write the emerged ideas in the “post it” boxes (click on the circles on the left and right sides). It is recommended to save the project, in the menu Options/save. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  16. 16. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 Image of IDEAS TABLE/guidelines level 2 with some ideas written on the “post it” boxes D’. Check and visualise sustainability improvements of developed product-service system ideas In the Sustainability dimensions section of the Menu, choose a dimension and go to check concept. Write in the text box a synthesis of the System idea developed (in case up-dating what was written for the System scenario). The button Environmental/socio-ethical/economic check of System concept leads you to the check-lists, which will help you to define (in case up-dating what was written for the System scenario) the improvement in relation to the existing system. Mark the improvement: worsening (-), equal (=), incremental improvement (+), radical improvement (++). Going through the check-list you may realize how the System idea can be improved or changed; if so go to modify concept description button and update the previous concept definition. If you go in the View section you can visualise the graphical result of the improvement. Select concept and the sustainability dimension you are interested in. The radar diagrams will enable to visualise an area (shaped like a boat sail) which represents the improvement of the System idea, in relation to the existing system (bold circle) or to the case study. It is recommended to save the project, in the menu Options/save. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  17. 17. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 4. System development D’’. Check and visualise sustainability improvements of developed system In the Sustainability dimensions section of the Menu, choose a dimension and go to check concept. The button Environmental/socio-ethical/economic check of system concept leads to the check-lists, which will help you to up-date the improvement (worsening, equal, incremental improvement, radical improvement) of the system in relation to the existing system. If you go in the View section you can visualise the graphical result of the improvement in the radar diagrams. 5.1.5.4 Result Various set of ideas oriented towards sustainability. Visualisation of different set of sustainable scenarios/ideas by radar diagrams of sustainability improvement. 5.1.5.5 Software support Two versions of SDO are available for free: one to be used on Local Area Network (LAN) and another on-line version. An English and Italian version are available at www.mepss-sdo.polimi.it. A Portuguese version is available at www.design.ufpr.br/nucleo. 5.1.5.6 Call on Resources This tool requires approximately 1 or 2 hours for setting priorities; 1 or 2 hours for performing brainstorming through guidelines (idea table); 1 hour to evaluate the improvement. 5.2.1 Interaction story-spot The interaction story-spot is a clipping from an interaction story-board. It covers less and focuses better than a storyboard, and it is meant to visualise key interaction in relation to a specific aim, i.e. how certain concept would help to achieve a given sustainability goal. The key elements are: differentiated colours to identify each stakeholder (e.g. provider and client) can be shown together with a system map highlighting and contextualizing the visualized part some possibilities to add notes to highlight main achieved goal. carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  18. 18. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 Interaction story-spot elements (1/3) Interaction story-spot elements (2/3) carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability
  19. 19. course System Design for Sustainability . subject 5. Methods and tools for SDS . learning resource 5.1 System design for sustainability tools . year 2007-2008 Interaction story-spot elements (3/3) carlo vezzoli . politecnico di milano . INDACO dpt. . DIS . faculty of design . italy Learning Network on Sustainability

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