Concurrent oral shedding of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus 1 in cats with chronic gingivostomatitis Oral Microbiol Immunol. April 2003;18(2):131-4.M J Lommer1, F J M Verstraete 1 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA. Abstract Oral mucosal salivary samples were collected from 25 cats with chronic gingivostomatitis and 24 cats with periodontal disease. Viral culture and isolation of feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus 1 were performed. Eighty-eight per cent of cats with chronic gingivostomatitis were shedding both viruses, compared to 21% of cats without chronic oral inflammatory disease. Cats with chronic gingivostomatitis are significantly more likely to concurrently shed both feline calicivirus and feline herpesvirus 1 than are cats with classical periodontal disease
THE ASSOCIATION OF BARTONELLA SPP. INFECTION WITH CHRONIC STOMATITIS IN CATS. KL Dowers, MR Lappin. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.
Stomatitis is a debilitating disease in cats that leads to oral pain, anorexia, weight loss, and occasionally euthanasia in intractable cases. The syndrome is thought to have multiple causes; recent work suggests that Bartonella spp. may play a role in some cases. Establishing a causative link between bartonellosis and stomatitis would justify routine testing of stomatitis cases and might suggest use of alternative antibiotic therapies, such as azithromycin. The objective of this clinical study was to determine the prevalence of Bartonella spp. DNA in blood and B. henselae serum antibodies in client-owned cats with histopathologically documented stomatitis as well as age- and geographically-matched healthy control cats. Blood and serum samples from 34 affected cats and 34 age-matched healthy control cats were submitted by veterinarians from around the United States. DNA of Bartonella spp. was amplified from blood via a previously validated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and serum antibody titers against B. henselae were determined by ELISA. All cats were tested for FeLV antigen and FIV antibodies. For cases where oral biopsy samples were obtained at the time of blood sampling, the PCR assay was also performed on tissue samples. Survey information regarding housing status (multiple or single cat households), previous FeLV and FIV testing, flea exposure, vaccination history and history of upper respiratory infections (URI) were collected for both affected and control cats, and lesion details and treatment trials were collected for affected cats. No significant differences in the prevalence rates for PCR-positive cats between affected (8.89%) and control cats (8.89%) nor for antibody-positive cats between the affected group (67.6%) and the control group (58.8%) were found. The only survey factor with significant correlation with stomatitis was history of URI [p<0.05]. Of the 18 oral tissue samples submitted, only 1 was PCR-positive. This study underscores the difficulty of correlating Bartonella spp. test results with clinical disease in individual cats because of the high prevalence rates of antibody-positive animals within the healthy population, as reported in this and other studies. Treatment with anti-Bartonella spp. antibiotics may still be appropriate in refractory stomatitis cases, but a larger scale epidemiologic study should be conducted to further assess the usefulness of Bartonella spp. antibody and PCR testing of cats with chronic stomatitis.
FCV has been isolated fro up to 100% of FCGS cases compared with 25 % in healthy cats. (Counts 94) Hennet &#x2013; carrier state may be a prerequisite (2003) However when inoculating calici into SPF cats they could not produce stomatitis. (but did produce acute calinvirus. Clinical cases of FCGS are not related to distict FCV biotypes but the carrier stateThe role of FCV in the development of FCGS is unclear. FCV has been isolated from up to 100 per cent of FCGS cases compared with up to 25 per cent of cats in a healthy cat population (Coutts and others 1994), indicating that the carrier state may be a pre-requisite for the induction of chronic stomatitis (Knowles and others 1991, Hennet and Boucraut-Baralon 2003 7 ). However, FCV isolated from cats with FCGS and then inoculated into specific pathogen free cats produced signs of acute calicivirosis but not FCGS, suggesting that other factors contribute towards the development of the oral inflammation. Clinical cases of FCGS are not related to distinct FCV biotypes (Poulet and others 2000), but the chronic carrier state is characterised by the emergence of antigenically distant viruses. It is postulated that the rapid genetic and antigenic change seen in FCV may lead to immune escape and the development of persistent infections. This would suggest that development of FCGS is more likely associated with the host immune response to chronic FCV infection rather than the development of particularly pathogenic distinct FCV strains. Cats with FCGS have been shown to have raised serum concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM and IgA and raised salivary concentrations of IgG and IgM but significantly lower concentrations of IgA (Harley and others 2003). IgA neutralises pathogens and toxins in the oral cavity, inhibits the adherence or growth of microorganisms on the oral mucosa or teeth and enhances non-specific defence factors. It is unclear whether the Ig pattern described is a cause or a result of the inflammatory disease. Histological examination of tissue from persistently infected cats indicates that FCV replicated only in epithelial cells of the superficial tonsilar epithelium or adjacent fossa mucosa (Dick and others 1989). Localisation occurs in the tonsils in the acute phase of FCV infection, possibly as a consequence of their function as a filter. The degree of tissue damage and viral invasion is insufficient to induce signifi- cant inflammation (Dick and others 1989). Most carriers are asymptomatic. It is possible that, in cats with some form of immune deficiency, the balance of this carrier state is affected and increase in virus
UNCORRECTED PROOF replication and invasion stimulates a more severe immune response. The most common reported clinical sign associated with FIV is gingivostomatitis (Tenorio and others 1990, Willia 8 ms and Aller 1992), supporting the supposition that immune deficiency is an important factor in the development of FCGS. This case demonstrated a clear relationship between initiation of treatment with FeIFN, cessation of shedding of FCV and resolution of FCGS. This supports the view that FCV is an important factor in the development of FCGS (Addie and others 2003). However, the fact that FCGS often resolves in FCVpositive cats after the extraction of all teeth and the consequent reduction in dental plaque suggests that other antigenic stimuli are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. As far as the authors are aware, this is the first case where the FCV status of a cat has been monitored before, during and after treatment with FeIFN and that FCV shedding ceased rapidly after the initiation of treatment. It is unclear whether the cessation of shedding is related to immunomodulatory or antiviral effects of FeIFN. One hypothesis is that, through its immunomodulatory effect, FeIFN reduces the inflammation associated with FCGS which eliminates the chronically inflamed tissue that FCV requires to replicate. This, however, ignores the fact that most cats shedding FCV are asymptomatic, with little or no oral inflammation, suggesting that chronic inflammation is not a prerequisite for the FCV carrier state or viral shedding. Therefore, it remains possible that the antiviral effect of FeIFN is more significant. FCGS resolves in many FCV-positive cats following full-mouth extractions without any specific antiviral treatment, supporting the hypothesis that a number of factors are involved in its development. Teeth provide the main surface for plaque accumulation in the oral cavity. Multiple tooth extraction will therefore greatly reduce oral plaque levels. It is possible that it is the sum of the total antigenic stimulation from plaque bacteria and viruses that is significant for the development of FCGS. Five other cases of FCGS (all of which were FCV positive, FeLV and FIV negative and had had surgical extraction of at least all premolar and molar teeth) have been treated with FeIFN in a similar way by the authors. FeIFN was given at 1 mega unit/kg by subcutaneous injection on alternate days for five doses, and this was repeated 30 days after the first injection. No oral FeIFN was given. Three of the five cases resolved. One cat improved but needed long-term management by flushing the oral cavity with 012 per cent chlorhexidene gluconate daily. The fifth case relapsed soon after the end of the treatment. Interestingly, this case has since completely resolved after a single treatment with intra-lesional injections of 5 mega units of FeIFN. No adverse effects following administration of FeIFN were noted in any of the above cases. FCGS is a common and debilitating condition in cats. Approximately 80 per cent of cases resolve with multiple tooth extraction. Treatment of the 20 per cent of non-responsive cases can be frustrating. The clinical improvement seen in the cases reported here would suggest that FeIFN therapy may be useful in cases that are refractory to surgical treatment. Retrospective Study of Full Mouth Extractions for Treatment of Chronic Stomatitis in 60 Calicivirus-positive Cats N. Girard, Ph. Hennet &#xA0; Sixty cats were included in this retrospective study. Cats included in the study were referred for treatment of so-called feline chronic gingivo-stomatitis. All cats were under medical treatment at the time of inclusion. Inclusion criteria were presence of &#x201C;palatoglossitis&#x201D; lesions (caudal stomatitis), chronic Calicivirus oral carriage (detected par PCR), extraction of at least premolar and molar teeth, and at least 6 months of clinical follow-up following dental extractions. Various factors were statistically analysed (effect of disease duration, effect of previous treatment, effect of remaining inflammation, effect of dentakl treatments etc&#x2026;). The main result on curing rate (Success Rate) can be summarized as such: &#xA7;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0; SR Score 0 (cats do not take any treatment anymore):&#xA0; 50% of the cats &#xA7;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0; SR Score 1 (cats take a lesser amount of medications than prior to dental treatment):&#xA0; &#xA0;&#xA0;37% of the cats &#xA7;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0; SR Score 2 (cats take same amount of medications than prior to dental treatment:&#xA0; 13% of the cats &#xA0; &#xA0; &#xB7;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0;&#xA0; Relationship Between Oral Calicivirus & Herpesvirus Carriage & Palatoglossitis Lesions. Ph. Hennet, C. Boucraut-Baralon &#xA0; Abstract of the paper: Sixty cats presented for treatment of &#x201C;chronic gingivo-stomatitis&#x201D; and showing inflammation of the mucosa lateral to the palatoglossal fold (caudal stomatitis) and 30 cats presented for the same condition but without caudal stomatitis were studied. Location and severity of oral lesions were recorded and oral calicivirus (FCV) and herpes virus (FHV) carriage was assessed through PCR technology. Buccostomatitis was observed in 83% of the cats presenting with caudal stomatitis. Prevalence of FCV carriage and FHV carriage in cats with caudal stomatitis was respectively 97% and 15% versus 30% and 14% in cats without caudal stomatitis. In cats without caudal stomatitis, prevalence of FCV carriage was 10% when cats with other Calicivirus-related oral lesions were excluded. FCV detection was significantly correlated to the presence of caudal stomatitis (p<0.0001). FHV carriage was not correlated with caudal stomatitis neither in cats non infected with FCV nor in cats coinfected with FCV. We suggest that chronic caudal stomatitis may be a calicivirus-associated lesion. Cats with chronic gingivo-stomatitis should be assessed for the presence or absence of caudal stomatitis.
then start 25mg Atopica QD or 50mg EOD.
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To isolate ASCs, first the veterinarian performs a lipectomy in one of a number of locations including the thoracic wall. The fat sample is shipped in validated boxes to our lab. Through a process of enzymatic digestion, washing and centirfugation, the stromal vascular fraction is isolated. The SVF is a heterogenous mixture of cells including&#x2026;.next page
Used in conjuction with probing, GR and bone loss.
Oral SCC Therapy: Single modality therapy = 60-90 days NC Postorino et al; JAHHA Sept &#x2018;93 Mandibulectomy and RT = 12-14 months CA Hutson et al; JAVMA Sept &#x2018;92 Controversial amongst oncologists Not been able to be reproduced Most oncologists feel median survival = 4-6 months Tri-modality therapy (sx/RT/chemo) Being investigated presently Anecdotally appears to be 6-9 months 1 year survival rarely exceeds 10% in cats following any modality.
Oral SCC Generally POOR - GRAVE prognosis Human HNSCC (head & neck SCC) Also extremely invasive w/poor prognosis Overexpress EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) Increased growth rate Increased chemoresistance Increased radioresistance EGFR inhibitors alone in people = responses EGFR inhib + chemo/RT = dramatic responses
Leaf-cutter ant Scientific name: Atta cephalotes Country: Trinidad and Tobago Continent: North America Diet: Fungus - Fungivore Food & feeding: Herbivore Habitats: Tropical rainforest Conservation status: Not Threatened Relatives: Honeybee Description: Leaf-cutter ants have powerful jaws which vibrate a thousand times a second to slice off pieces of leaf. Size for size, their bodies are amazingly powerful, able to carry pieces of leaf that weigh at least 20 times their own body weight - that's the same as a human carrying a one ton load. Like bees, their colonies contain different sorts of workers. Soldier leaf-cutters have huge jaws, strong enough to cut through leather and gardener leaf-cutters work beneath ground and process the pieces of the leaf that the harvesters bring back. The nest also contains a queen and she lays all the eggs needed to keep the colony supplied with new workers. Lifestyle: Leaf-cutting ants cannot eat leaves. Instead, they carry the cut pieces back to the nest and use it as compost to cultivate the fungus. The fungus cannot survive outside the nest or reproduce without the ants help. Amazingly, if the ants collect plant material that is toxic to the fungus, the fungus seems to release a chemical signal which stops the ants collecting that particularly plant material. Family & friends: There can be three to eight million ants in a single colony, which can measure 15 m across and 5 m deep. Keeping in touch: The ants forage for leaves some distance from their nest. They find their way home by producing and laying down pheromone (scent) trails as they move away from the nest. These pheromones are so powerful that each ant produces only one billionth of a gram. One gram of this pheromone would easily be enough to make an ant trail all around the world.
Leaf-cutter ant Leaf-cutting ants harvest more greenery in South American forests than any other animal. In fact, within the rain forest, leaf-cutter ants consume almost 20% of the annual vegetation growth! In its lifetime, a colony of these ants may move over 20 tons of soil.