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Preservation conservation program

lecture presented at the Records Management Seminar sponsored by InfoManagement Specialists Inc. on 24-26 April 2014 at Tagbilaran, Bohol

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Preservation conservation program

  1. 1. Preservation/ Conservation Program by Fe Angela M. Verzosa
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Conservation Surveys Conservation Program Summary Conservation Guidelines Causes of Damage Conservation Treatments Preservation Strategies 1 Preservation Strategies 2
  3. 3. Preservation vs Conservation – ANY DIFFERENCE?
  4. 4. What’s the difference? Preservation is a branch of library and information science concerned with maintaining or restoring access to artifacts, documents and records through the study, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of decay and damage. Conservation refers to the treatment and repair of individual items to slow decay or restore them to a usable state. (Source: reservation_(library_and_arc hival_science)
  5. 5. PRESERVATION deals with the acquisition, organization, and distribution of resources (human, physical, monetary) to ensure adequate protection and access to historical and cultural information of enduring value for present and future generations of users. encompasses three aspects: planning, implementation, prevention
  6. 6. PRESERVATION: who is responsible? library manager archivist conservator personnel users Librarians/archivists: •keep them under best conditions •determine which require special facilities or handling •decide which merit conservation Conservator: advises the best treatment undertakes the repair/conservation Personnel: Handle library materials gently. Set a good example for users. Users: Handle materials gently. Safeguard materials for future users.
  7. 7. CONSERVATION program that deals with the physical or chemical treatment of documents encompasses three functions: examination preservation restoration
  8. 8. conservation functions examination - procedure taken to determine the original makeup of an item and extent of its deterioration, alteration, and loss. preservation - action taken to retard/prevent deterioration or damage by control of their environment and/or treatment to maintain their original state, as far as possible. restoration - action taken to return a deterio- rated or damaged item to its original form.
  9. 9. Implementing a conservation program Surveys Management Support directive conservation committee conservation policy organizational structure budget Conservation Facilities Conservation Staff
  10. 10. preservation surveys comprehensive - a recognized tool in collection management; it evaluates the condition of a collection as a whole and proposes solutions to improve conditions. environmental - assesses the suitablity of the building and its facilities for storage. condition - assesses the physical condition and state of repair of the library’s holdings.
  11. 11. Comprehensive surveys pre-survey planning - reviews a full range of documentation, mission statement, policies & procedures, construction records, floor plans, existing preservation program, insurance, etc. on-site visit- a walk-through examination of the building and its facilities. the report- a technical report summarizing all the findings and recommendations. institutional actions- implementing follow-up
  12. 12. Environmental Survey the building itself: roof and walls - leaks? insulation? dampness? environment in the building: temperature and humidity controls? lighting conditions? building security: locks? alarms? extinguishers? sprinkler system? storage areas and workrooms: pest control? ventilation? types of shelves?
  13. 13. Condition Survey best means of gathering data needed to evaluate treatment priorities survey instrument should be as extensive as possible survey form should be simple to fill out survey data may include the following:
  14. 14. Collection Location Date of survey Conducted by Box and folder no. Type of material Inclusive dates Format Media Type/Quality of storage containers Condition of collection: general appearance insect damage tears/abrasions harmful means of surface dirt/dust attachment (clips, pins) water/other stains enclosures (flowers, clip- discoloration pings, photos, etc) embrittlement other observations: evidence of mold/mildew __________________ Use of collection: Priority ranking of collection for treatment: _________ Recommended treatment: _____________________
  15. 15. Conservation priorities high-quality informational content significant current/projected use physical condition of original format cost-effectiveness of treatment
  16. 16. administrative order outlines priorities and goals short-term intermediate long-term provides a conservation policy statement designates responsibility for the conservation effort
  17. 17. Conservation Committee knowledge of nature of collections knowledge of conservation, or enthusiasm, interest, willingness to learn conservation skills formal appointment authority to gather information, plan the program, review facilities and environment, execute the program
  18. 18. Conservation Policy Statement must be written approved by the Conservation Committee adheres to basic principles in conservation contains manual of procedures that should serve as helpful guide and training aid lists specific “do’s and dont’s”
  19. 19. Organizational Structure C o n s e r v a t i o n C o n s u l t a n t ( s ) C o n s e r v a t i o n S c i e n t i s t ( s ) c o n s e r v a t i o n t e c h n i c i a n ( s ) P r e s e r v a t i o n O f f i c e r L i b r a r y D i r e c t o r / C u r a t o r C o n s e r v a t i o n C o m m i t t e e
  20. 20. Budget must be a line item in the institutional budget at least 15-20 % of total budget expenses should include archival storage materials extermination services subscription to literature on conservation expanded projects such as establishment of conservation laboratory, microfilming, etc.
  21. 21. Conservation Facilities air conditioning dehumidifier fumigation chamber or vacuum fumigators vacuum / freeze-drying chamber
  22. 22. Conservation Supplies Japanese tissue paper, matboard Mylar polyester sheets blotter paper soft brushes cleaning pads hygrometer (RH instrument tool) polyethylene-lined kraft paper
  23. 23. Conservation Staff restoration work must be done only by trained personnel staff training is an ongoing responsibility training and orientation must be directed toward staff at all levels the number of staff involved will depend on the size and type of the institution, and on the extent of conservation program
  24. 24. Causes of Damage/Deterioration acid – internal factors affecting quality of paper light - ultraviolet rays in sunlight and fluorescent light cause chemical changes in the paper and accelerate the process of fading temperature and humidity - accelerates the growth of mold and the internal decomposition of paper air pollution - causing discoloration, embrittlement and disintegration of the paper fibers Insects and rodents
  25. 25. Causes of Damage/Deterioration Water damage is a fairly common cause and one that should be anticipated in most disaster prevention/ planning programs Photocopying frequently damages bound volumes Shelving - Leaning books cause undue strain on the spine, and tightly packed books are harmed with shelving and removal. Book drops Wear and tear from use
  26. 26. retarding deterioration temperature and humidity control filtration screens against dirt and air pollutants filters against ultraviolet and infrared rays deacidification acid-free/rust-free storage facilities careful handling good housekeeping (and pest control)
  27. 27. Principles in Conservation rule of reversibility - no procedure or treatment should be undertaken that cannot later be undone. compatibility of problem and solution - the chosen treatment to be applied should not be greater or weaker than the problem. It may be best to do nothing at all if no acceptable treatment solution is compatible to the problem.
  28. 28. more principles ... rule on restoration - how far reconstruc- tion may be undertaken without losing or diminishing the integrity of the item or document. documentation - maintaining a complete and accurate record of all treatments. narrative description checklist of work done photographic record (before, during, and after)
  29. 29. Do not use any measure, treatment, or program that: cannot be reversed if necessary cannot be used properly will not last a long time is harmful to people changes the physical property of material dissolves or damages any part of the material
  30. 30. Conservation Guidelines light control pest control temperature and humidity control handling of materials by staff handling of materials by users acidity control
  31. 31. Conservation Guidelines store materials in acid-free containers remove paper clips, staple wires, pins, string, tape, etc. while processing (use plastic clips, fasteners, etc instead) use metal shelving at least 4- 5 inches above floor level Acid:
  32. 32. Conservation Guidelines store materials away from light keep lights off or low install ultraviolet filters avoid using original items in displays and exhibits monitor light levels regularly (50 to 150 lux) Light control:
  33. 33. Conservation guidelines temperature of 20 to 25 0 C or 60-65 0 F wide fluctuations should be avoided low RH (below 20%) leads to dessication and embrittlement of paper high RH (over 60%) accelerates chemical and biological deterioration recommended level is 50 % temperature & humidity:
  34. 34. Conservation guidelines check incoming materials for signs of infestation separate infested materials for treatment never eat/drink in storage/research areas keep archives/library clean and uncluttered set traps/poison baits to catch rodents contact services of an exterminator insects and rodents:
  35. 35. Conservation Guidelines handle materials as little as possible never use ink or adhesive tape do not write on any part of the material except to make notations using soft pencil substitute copies for originals do not overpack in boxes or in shelves handling of materials:
  36. 36. Conservation Treatments Fumigation Dry cleaning, washing and bleaching Deacidification Mending, reinforcement, and support using Japanese paper lamination encapsulation Freeze-drying
  37. 37. Deacidification process…
  38. 38. Pressing mended documents using flat iron…
  39. 39. Book-binding process
  40. 40. Reinforcing / binding process
  41. 41. Lamination process…
  42. 42. Mending with Japanese tissue
  43. 43. Basic Repair Procedures relaxing and flattening documents removal of paper fasteners (pins, clips) / adhesives appropriate means of attachment surface cleaning of paper records testing for ink solubility ph-testing for acidity mending with Japanese paper
  44. 44. Salvage Techniques air-drying interleaving pages with absorbent paper and books placed upright pressing when dry hair-drying on cool setting dehumidification freezing (at minus 20 o F ) Vacuum drying
  45. 45. Preservation Strategies for Libraries and Archival Resources
  46. 46. How to handle library materials ?
  47. 47. Handle library materials with clean, dry hands.
  48. 48. Keep work stations and patron areas clean, orderly and uncluttered.
  49. 49. STRICTLY NO FOOD/DRINK in work and user areas. This will attract vermin and insects.
  50. 50. Avoid tall piles of books that can topple over.
  51. 51. Use flat cotton tape or ribbon to secure damaged books.
  52. 52. Do not use post-it notes, paper clips,…
  53. 53. pressure sensitive tape, or rubber bands in conjunction with library materials.
  54. 54. Do not use double-sided security strips, as they will cause pages to stick together.
  55. 55. Support book spines and covers when holding books to open...
  56. 56. …or to stamp.
  57. 57. Use bookmarks that are thin, clean, non-acidic, and will not damage or distort bindings.
  58. 58. Avoid exposing library materials to harmful environments. High light levels can cause book covers to fade, and water to stain.
  59. 59. How to handle archival materials ?
  60. 60. Handling of archival materials do not leave users unattended only issue a limited number of docu- ments or folders, or one box at a time do not allow material to be taken out from reading room do not allow materials to be rearranged only staff should take charge of photocopying examine materials after use
  61. 61. Keep manuscripts/records in acid-free folders and boxes. Remove only one folder at a time.
  62. 62. Maintain the order or arrangement of documents in each folder.
  63. 63. Never remove manuscript pages from folders.
  64. 64. Wear gloves when handling photographs.
  65. 65. Always use a pencil, never a pen or marker.
  66. 66. Do not rest your hand, arm, or place any object on a book or manuscript.
  67. 67. Keep folders and pages flat on table, do not hold in hands.
  68. 68. Keep volumes flat on table, do not hold in hands.
  69. 69. Use a book cradle and special weights, if they are provided.
  70. 70. When leaving for a short time, close the volume, folder or box.
  71. 71. Notify staff if any materials are damaged or out of sequence. Do not attempt to re- arrange them yourself.
  72. 72. Food and drink are not permitted because they can damage collections and attract vermin and insects.
  73. 73. Summarizing a preservation program... examine the environment improve the environment examine the materials / establish priorities for treatment separate materials for in-house treatment from those requiring professional care establish a work room for remedial treatment supervise in-house repairs and restoration work with a professional conservator keep informed
  74. 74. preservation options conditions actions damagedfragile and endangered fragile and endangeredfrequently used pest-infested • in-house treatment • deacidification • lab conservation • encapsulation • lamination • digitization • microfilming • photocopying • fumigation
  75. 75. Legal and ethical Issues •Intellectual Property Rights •Reproduction rights of Libraries and Archives in Copyright laws •Legal constraints in use of reprographic and digital copies • Access and security issues •Privacy and Confidentiality issues •Keeping the integrity of originals
  76. 76. Acknowledgement/Credits and references: Library Preservation at Harvard Library of Congress Preservation New York University Libraries
  77. 77. Contact Questions?