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Library Security And Safety: Current Trends and Development


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lecture presented at PAARL's Seminar-workshop on the theme "Library & Information Services: New Paradigm for the Digital Age" held at St. Paul Retreat House, Pico, La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines on 17 May 2006

Published in: Business, Education
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Library Security And Safety: Current Trends and Development

  1. 1. Library Security and Safety : Current Trends and Development by Fe Angela M. Verzosa
  2. 2. Library security and safety <ul><li>Overview: </li></ul><ul><li>procedures and physical aspects of buildings and equipment related to safeguarding of the collections as well as patron and staff safety, and </li></ul><ul><li>providing a safe environment for people and materials </li></ul><ul><li>computer system integrity as it relates to protecting the library’s digital assets and services, and </li></ul><ul><li>emergency preparedness. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Security/safety as basic function <ul><li>freedom from danger </li></ul><ul><li>protection from unauthorized access </li></ul><ul><li>loss avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>damage prevention </li></ul><ul><li>reduction of long-term threat posed by improper environmental conditions </li></ul>
  4. 4. Security <ul><li>“ the acquisition, organization and distribution of resources (human, physical, monetary) to ensure adequate protection of historical and cultural information of enduring value and access for present and future generations.” Paul Conway </li></ul>
  5. 5. Evaluating security needs <ul><li>Different types of libraries </li></ul><ul><li>university/college </li></ul><ul><li>government/public </li></ul><ul><li>special </li></ul><ul><li>research institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Different areas </li></ul><ul><li>stack and processing areas </li></ul><ul><li>reading/exhibit areas </li></ul><ul><li>office/staff areas </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a security plan </li></ul>
  6. 6. Security Plan <ul><li>Assess vulnerability </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the assets, threats </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate existing policies/procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Write-out policy statements </li></ul><ul><li>Establish priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Identify persons responsible and areas of responsibilities </li></ul>
  7. 7. Assets <ul><li>books and periodicals </li></ul><ul><li>audio-visual materials </li></ul><ul><li>archives and manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>computers and electronic resources </li></ul><ul><li>furniture and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>staff </li></ul>
  8. 8. identification of items <ul><li>conduct an inventory / holdings list </li></ul><ul><li>classify items of value </li></ul><ul><li>separate valuable originals </li></ul><ul><li>mark/label materials </li></ul><ul><li>service only processed materials </li></ul><ul><li>keep a record of checked-out items </li></ul>
  9. 9. Threats <ul><li>Theft or loss </li></ul><ul><li>Damage/Destruction by fire, earthquake, or flood </li></ul><ul><li>Damage by neglect </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vulnerability <ul><li>Open or closed areas </li></ul><ul><li>Trustworthy staff </li></ul><ul><li>High or low crime rate in area </li></ul><ul><li>Opening/closing hours </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster preparedness plan </li></ul><ul><li>Fire suppression system </li></ul><ul><li>Heat and humidity controls </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation program </li></ul>
  11. 11. assessment process <ul><li>begin with gathering info on existing policies to know the limits of what can/cannot be done. </li></ul><ul><li>determine the requirements of every area by conducting a survey of the exterior and the interior environments </li></ul><ul><li>identify possible threats to the holdings </li></ul><ul><li>examine archival/library operations, personnel movements, patron behavior, etc. </li></ul>
  12. 12. access policies <ul><li>physical access and / or intellectual access </li></ul><ul><li>free access vs. restricted access </li></ul><ul><li>open stacks vs. closed stacks </li></ul><ul><li>use of passwords for computer access </li></ul><ul><li>admittance regulations </li></ul><ul><li>who should have access </li></ul><ul><li>points of access </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>deterring thefts </li></ul><ul><li>identifying or marking items </li></ul><ul><li>controlling the exterior environment </li></ul><ul><li>securing the interior environment </li></ul><ul><li>insuring valuable materials/vital documents </li></ul>Loss avoidance
  14. 14. deterring thefts <ul><li>learn to think like thieves </li></ul><ul><li>install security devises - locks, grills, alarms, cameras, timers </li></ul><ul><li>engage in close supervision </li></ul><ul><li>conduct surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>put up signages </li></ul>
  15. 15. what to do with thieves <ul><li>no action unless “caught in the act” </li></ul><ul><li>discreet apprehension w/ witness </li></ul><ul><li>detention for further investigation </li></ul><ul><li>prosecution (court action) </li></ul><ul><li>other disciplinary actions public / private apologies fines/penalties </li></ul><ul><li>suspension of archives/library privileges </li></ul>
  16. 16. controlling the exterior <ul><li>close watch of entrance/exits and access points </li></ul><ul><li>sufficient lighting </li></ul><ul><li>intrusion-detection system </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge of physical lay-out </li></ul><ul><li>obstructive landscaping </li></ul>
  17. 17. securing the interior <ul><li>know the physical lay-out </li></ul><ul><li>staff responsibility in closing </li></ul><ul><li>adequate lighting </li></ul><ul><li>area visibility from staff desk </li></ul><ul><li>user/visitor and staff logbooks </li></ul><ul><li>control of keys </li></ul>
  18. 18. insurance <ul><li>insure the building and its contents </li></ul><ul><li>insure only marketable items </li></ul><ul><li>consult appraiser for value </li></ul><ul><li>reappraise every five years </li></ul><ul><li>know the coverage of the policy </li></ul>
  19. 19. damage prevention <ul><li>environmental damage </li></ul><ul><li>fire and water damage </li></ul><ul><li>damage caused by pests </li></ul><ul><li>damage from mishandling, incorrect procedures, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>damage from frequent use </li></ul>
  20. 20. Guards as first line of security <ul><li>courteous and respectable </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge of the law and common sense </li></ul><ul><li>observant and alert </li></ul><ul><li>firm and thorough in the performance of duties </li></ul><ul><li>honest and diligent </li></ul><ul><li>focused on the job </li></ul>
  21. 21. Space considerations <ul><li>space for work, stack room, and reading room </li></ul><ul><li>free from flooding, dampness, and extreme temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>free from uncontrolled lighting conditions </li></ul><ul><li>security-safe, sheltered but accessible </li></ul>
  22. 22. facilities & equipment <ul><li>fireproofing </li></ul><ul><li>airconditioning </li></ul><ul><li>humidity control </li></ul><ul><li>smoke and heat detectors </li></ul><ul><li>double locks </li></ul><ul><li>security alarm </li></ul>
  23. 23. facilities & equipment <ul><li>ultraviolet filter screens </li></ul><ul><li>heavy curtains </li></ul><ul><li>acid-free boxes </li></ul><ul><li>acid-free folders </li></ul><ul><li>rust-free supplies </li></ul>
  24. 24. COMMON HAZARDS <ul><li>temperature </li></ul><ul><li>humidity </li></ul><ul><li>light </li></ul><ul><li>insects and rodents </li></ul><ul><li>fungi, mold, mildew </li></ul><ul><li>acid </li></ul><ul><li>fire </li></ul><ul><li>water </li></ul><ul><li>PEOPLE using ink/pens using adhesives laminating folding, tearing spilling food/drink bending, tracing stealing/ mutilating </li></ul>
  25. 25. Computer security <ul><li>Main threats – bugs, viruses, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Theft of computer equipment and accessories </li></ul><ul><li>Unauthorized changes to software settings </li></ul><ul><li>Unauthorized or illegal software applications </li></ul>
  26. 26. what is occupational safety and health? <ul><li>“ the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations” </li></ul><ul><li>“ the protection of workers in their employment from risks resulting from factors adverse to health” </li></ul><ul><li>“ the adaptation of work to man and of each man to his job” </li></ul><ul><li>ILO-WHO </li></ul>
  27. 27. What are the occupational risks in library work places ? <ul><li>Physical - muscoloskeletal disorders, and other discomforts, such as heat, pollution, dirt and dust, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Mental – such as work overload, ennui and boredom, lack of career advancement , etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional – such as time pressure, verbal abuse, sexual harassment, general working conditions causing stress </li></ul>
  28. 28. “ muscoloskeletaldisorders” or physical discomforts <ul><li>too much standing </li></ul><ul><li>too much sitting </li></ul><ul><li>too much reaching/arm-stretching </li></ul><ul><li>prolonged and close exposure to electric and magnetic fields from a VDT </li></ul><ul><li>prolonged computer keyboard operation </li></ul>
  29. 29. Library Concerns <ul><li>promotion of awareness of OSH in library environments </li></ul><ul><li>adoption of common measures that will ensure OSH in library work places </li></ul><ul><li>collaboration in the areas of training and education, research, information </li></ul><ul><li>networking and dissemination, and monitoring and evaluation </li></ul>
  30. 30. safety training <ul><li>teaches employees how to prevent and respond to work-related illness and injury, through on-the-job safety equipment training and weekend seminars or a video during employee orientation. </li></ul><ul><li>Training should include proper use of equipment, appropriate storage of equipment and materials , how to handle hazardous materials , report injuries and problems, and how to respond to injuries on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective workplace safety policies can lead to an increase in workers compensation claims. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Safety survey <ul><li>Are safety procedures adequate in your area? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you trained sufficiently in safety procedures? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you know how to recognize hazards and problems? </li></ul><ul><li>Is safety equipment readily available for you? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there enough people assigned for you to do your job safely? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have adequate equipment and materials to do your job safely? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Safety survey <ul><li>Is the facility adequately cleaned? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the facility adequately maintained? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you report problems? </li></ul><ul><li>Are safety/security problems corrected in a timely manner in your area? </li></ul><ul><li>Are you held accountable for working in a safe manner? </li></ul><ul><li>Do managers and supervisors take prompt action to correct or prevent mishaps? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Definition of Ergonomics <ul><li>a way to work smarter--not harder by designing tools, equipment, work stations and tasks to fit the job to the worker --NOT the worker to the job: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout / type of controls & displays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighting & Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process (Heights, reaches, weights) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Why worry ? <ul><li>Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) are fastest-growing injury/illness category </li></ul><ul><li>$13 to 20 billion total injury cost / year </li></ul><ul><li>More lost workdays </li></ul><ul><li>(ave. = 30 days for </li></ul><ul><li>a Carpal Tunnel injury ) </li></ul>
  35. 35. MSD injury data <ul><li>600,000 MSDs require time off from work. </li></ul><ul><li>Women suffer more ergonomic injuries due: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to having jobs requiring more heavy lifting, repetitive tasks and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>awkward postures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70% of Carpal Tunnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>62% of Tendonitis </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Ctd injury factors <ul><li>Lesions to tendons of the neck, back, shoulders, arms, wrists or hands </li></ul><ul><li>Primary causes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitive movements over long periods of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awkward postures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of excessive forces </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Ctd risk control: posture <ul><li>NEUTRAL & COMFORTABLE : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrists straight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulders relaxed with elbows close to body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>head / shoulders & back in vertical alignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent breaks when bent postures can’t be avoided </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome <ul><li>Occurs with repetitive </li></ul><ul><li>motion of hands & wrists </li></ul><ul><li>Incidence up to 15% in certain industries. </li></ul><ul><li>A “natural” keyboard and good wrist support can help most PC users avoid problems </li></ul><ul><li>GOOD NEWS : Have dropped about 30% since 1990--which most attribute to strong workplace ergonomics programs </li></ul>
  39. 39. Computer Ergonomics <ul><li>Routine PC user defined as spending 20 hours or more per week working at a computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies of PC users have not shown a risk of eye damage... although fatigue very possible. </li></ul><ul><li>S tudies have not indicated a radiation hazard nor pregnancy risk from PC usage. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers using bi/tri-focal glasses before beginning PC use may need special purpose glasses for computer work. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Adjustable back height </li></ul><ul><li>Adjustable arm rests </li></ul><ul><li>Chair on left NOT ergonomically designed </li></ul>Ergonomic Chairs
  41. 41. PC Station design
  43. 43. Model computer work station <ul><li>Keyboard trays WITH wrist support. </li></ul><ul><li>Split &quot;Natural&quot; keyboards to facilitate neutral wrist angle </li></ul><ul><li>Fully adjustable ergonomic chair </li></ul><ul><li>Document holder to minimize head / eye & neck movements </li></ul><ul><li>Corner desk units to position monitor directly in front of employee </li></ul><ul><li>Foot rest where requested. </li></ul><ul><li>Re-organization of working materials within employee arm reach. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Computer ergonomics on human posture
  45. 45. Effects of neglect of workers’ occupational safety and health <ul><li>absenteeism or tardiness </li></ul><ul><li>accidents resulting in injuries and/or deaths </li></ul><ul><li>chronic illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>low employee morale </li></ul><ul><li>poor performance at work </li></ul><ul><li>increased costs due to workdays lost </li></ul><ul><li>hidden costs due to manpower failure </li></ul>
  46. 46. Thank you very much . <ul><ul><li>Let’s all have a nice day . </li></ul></ul>