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Increasing Access To Archival Knowledge


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paper presented at the ICA_SUV Seminar on "10 years of SUV : Past Achievments - Future Strategies" (Vienna Technological University, Austria, 20-21 August 2004) by Fe Angela M. Verzosa

Published in: Economy & Finance, Technology
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Increasing Access To Archival Knowledge

  1. 1. "Increasing access to archival knowledge through archival cooperation and partnerships: A proposal for   enhancing networking and linkage capabilities among academic archives in developing countries ” By Fe Angela M. Verzosa
  2. 2. <ul><li>ICA-SUV </li></ul><ul><li>collaborate </li></ul><ul><li>have partnering schemes </li></ul><ul><li>network </li></ul><ul><li>to bridge the digital divide… </li></ul>
  3. 3. Success … last 10 yrs. and future <ul><li>members exploit collaboration and networking opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>ICA-SUV </li></ul>
  4. 4. Early Attempts at Collaboration <ul><li>International cooperation difficult to achieve because of geographical distance </li></ul><ul><li>in Southeast Asia, what has been done </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seminar-workshops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>publication of journals </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Cooperative regional projects- <ul><li>Conference on Research Materials </li></ul><ul><li>1969 – Puntjak, Indonesia </li></ul>CONSAL 1970 - Singapore SARBICA 1971 - Manila <ul><li>Regional Microfilm Clearing house </li></ul><ul><li>SEA Microfilm Newsletter, Dec 1972-1993 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cooperative regional projects- <ul><li>Masterlist of SEA Microforms (MSEAM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>published 1978 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>updated 1985 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>36,000 entries from 44 institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Indonesia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thailand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2000 - SEACAP approved digitization </li></ul><ul><li>funded by Japan foundation </li></ul><ul><li>accessible at </li></ul>
  7. 7. … in the Philippines Research Mgt. & Archives Office (RMAO) Consejo Superior De Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) catalogs of centuries old documents during Spanish colonial period
  8. 8. Consortia in the Philippines <ul><li>shaped by needs and interests </li></ul><ul><li>informal and voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>borne from institutional linkages </li></ul><ul><li>established for inter-lending </li></ul><ul><li>government sponsored (2) </li></ul><ul><li>spearheaded by professional organizations </li></ul>
  9. 9. NCA - Nat’l Committee on Archives <ul><li>provide technical assistance to institutions </li></ul><ul><li>conduct training for potential archives </li></ul><ul><li>create a database of the Philippine’s archival resources </li></ul>
  10. 10. Barriers to Cooperation <ul><li>geography </li></ul><ul><li>lack of funding and commitment </li></ul><ul><li>episodic communication among cooperating partners </li></ul><ul><li>proper level of benefit </li></ul><ul><li>flexible, adaptive consortial arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>copyright issues </li></ul><ul><li>reluctance of major repositories to participate </li></ul>
  11. 11. Barriers to Cooperation <ul><li>others: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rivalry and competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mistrust and jealousy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>politics and personalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different institutional priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>indifferent institutional administrators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unequal development and parochialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skepticism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fear of loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reluctance to take risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pervasive lack of tradition of cooperation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Proposals for new avenues at Collaboration <ul><li>seek new avenues </li></ul><ul><li>better alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNET </li></ul><ul><li>free or low cost </li></ul><ul><li>expense becomes minimal </li></ul>
  13. 13. Internet: effective means of networking <ul><li>value and focus is full text rather than catalog of bibliographic information </li></ul><ul><li>there is a more urgent need for content on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>carefully explore content as the focus of cooperative projects </li></ul>
  14. 14. INTERNET as a cooperative medium - <ul><li>large volumes of paper do not have to be transported </li></ul><ul><li>lost electronic materials in transit are simply re-transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>offers immediacy, conservation, and retrievability </li></ul>
  15. 15. Joint publication of electronic journals <ul><li>open avenues for increasing access to archival resources </li></ul><ul><li>academic information pertaining to Asia and other remote regions will be available on the Web </li></ul><ul><li>scholars & researchers gain access to information extremely difficult to locate </li></ul><ul><li>solve complex problems of document delivery service </li></ul>
  16. 16. Sinupang Lasalyano <ul><li>on-line journal of DLSU Archives </li></ul><ul><li>on trial </li></ul><ul><li>indexed </li></ul><ul><li>searchable by OAI engines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>open journal system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>designed by Public Knowledge Project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>freely distributed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support the open access publishing of scholarly resources </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. facilitates collaborative action <ul><li>members participating in this project </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organize the open archives on a discipline-oriented basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decide the party(ies) responsible for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>launching, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>managing, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>maintaining the system </li></ul></ul></ul>ICA-SUV
  18. 18. Digital Archives Collaboration <ul><li>establish as many websites and encourage cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>the more participants involved, the better to achieve efficiency and effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>IT enables archival information to be accessed anywhere anytime by anyone </li></ul>
  19. 19. National Archives - Philippines <ul><li>started digitization project in 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>13 million ++ historic documents </li></ul><ul><li>not accessible in the world wide web </li></ul><ul><li>How many more such digital projects are ongoing but are not accessible in the web? </li></ul>
  20. 20. National Archives - Japan <ul><li>spearheaded by Japan Center for Asian Historical Records (JACAR) </li></ul><ul><li>provides image data of official documents of relationship between Japan and its Asian neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>offers &quot;anyone, anytime, anywhere&quot; access </li></ul><ul><li>free of charge </li></ul>
  21. 21. National Archives - Japan <ul><li>Asian historical records are from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until end of WWII in 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>download and print it out easily </li></ul><ul><li>6.5 M images scanned </li></ul><ul><li>2 M images every year will be added </li></ul><ul><li>documents were microfilmed/ converted into digital format </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>results in a single point of access to digitized archival materials </li></ul><ul><li>on evacuation and internment of thousands of Japanese Americans during WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Curatorial and digital collaboration was made possible through California Digital Library’s Online Archive of California </li></ul><ul><li>a big contribution to academic research. </li></ul>Japanese American Relocation Digital Archive
  23. 23. Collaboration - <ul><li>attractive alternative for poorer nations </li></ul><ul><li>better endowed countries extend assistance by providing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>required funds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>needed technical expertise and training, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technology infrastructure or network mechanism </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Collaboration - <ul><li>SUV can initiate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>launching of an international network of institutional repositories, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>matching institutions with common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interests, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>needs, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>requirements. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Solution- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>require permission to the digital contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on works free from copyright </li></ul></ul>Copyright Concerns - <ul><li>one of the most serious barriers </li></ul>
  26. 26. International Collaboration on archival training & education <ul><li>SEA academic archivists have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>limited opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>funded are government archivists and records manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>grants are limited to government-to-government arrangements </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. State Archives Department - Vietnam <ul><li>sent its staff to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Algeria, Indonesia, China, Japan, France & Laos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>accepted archivists from neighboring countries </li></ul><ul><li>trained 25 Vietnamese on conservation and restoration in Hanoi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>held jointly with the Tokyo Conservation and Restoration Center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>under a Japan Foundation grant </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Internet-based distance education <ul><li>offers an alternative to the more expensive traditional teaching </li></ul><ul><li>offers the opportunity to develop archival training through distance education </li></ul>
  29. 29. Academic archivists in the Philippines <ul><li>no formal education in archival studies </li></ul><ul><li>post-appointment training limited to 2-3 days on basic courses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>appraisal, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arrangement and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>description </li></ul></ul><ul><li>conducted by archivists who lack formal education in archival studies </li></ul>
  30. 30. SUV’s on-line training <ul><li>tap a team of archival educators </li></ul><ul><li>decide what teaching competencies needed for online educators to become effective in handling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in-service professional postgraduate distance training in basic archival courses </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. ICA-SUV <ul><li>leading the way... </li></ul>
  32. 32. Good day to all!