“ Digital intiatives in archival preservation” By Fe Angela M. Verzosa University Archivist, DLSU
This presentation… <ul><li>Discusses digital archives as an emerging platform for cooperative preservation efforts  </li><...
Defining terms… <ul><li>&quot;Digital preservation&quot; or &quot;digital archiving&quot; means taking steps to ensure the...
Defining terms… <ul><li>&quot; digital archives ”   are materials that have been  converted  to  machine-readable   format...
Digitization… <ul><li>greatly enhances    access (faster and  easier) </li></ul><ul><li>allows remote access (via Internet...
More benefits… <ul><li>if digitized materials serve as surrogates to the originals, it  can enhance preservation  efforts ...
Digital Preservation… <ul><li>has an inherent appeal </li></ul><ul><li>growing amounts of born digital and born-again digi...
Digital Preservation… <ul><li>longevity of electronic records </li></ul><ul><li>increasing obsolescence of    computer har...
Digital Preservation issues <ul><li>Getting the information  into digital form </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping it in digital for...
<ul><li>difficulty and expense of  </li></ul><ul><li>preserving digital information  </li></ul><ul><li>digital preservatio...
More Issues… <ul><li>Costs of maintaining digital data </li></ul><ul><li>What form to keep digital data in? </li></ul><ul>...
More concerns…. <ul><li>establish as many websites and  </li></ul><ul><li>encourage cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>the more...
<ul><li>Digitization, however, must not  be viewed as a substitute for  other preservation activities. </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Internet:  effective means of networking   <ul><li>value and focus is  full text  rather than catalog of bibliographic inf...
<ul><li>includes four private, liberal arts colleges and the Amherst campus of the state university.  </li></ul><ul><li>we...
<ul><li>encompasses  54 online  collections </li></ul><ul><li>38,000 items </li></ul><ul><li>accessible through the  websi...
C e d a r s   curl exemplars in digital archives <ul><li>began in April 1998 and ended in March 2002.  </li></ul><ul><li>o...
Model digitization framework <ul><li>Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh Charette Digital Project   </li></ul><ul><li>O...
<ul><li>Managed by a group of volunteers working together to provide Internet websites for genealogical research </li></ul...
<ul><li>brings together historical materials from a variety of California institutions </li></ul><ul><li>over 120,000 imag...
Digital Projects <ul><li>ALA Archives Digital Collections  -  includes photographs of past ALA conferences and images of l...
Digital Projects <ul><li>Digital Gateway to Cultural Heritage Materials </li></ul><ul><li>538,485 metadata records from 32...
McGill University  (Montreal, Canada) <ul><li>Digital Collections  </li></ul><ul><li>Program (DCP)   </li></ul><ul><li>dig...
National Archives  -  Japan <ul><li>Asian historical records are from the  Meiji Restoration  in  1868  until end of WWII ...
National Archives  -  Japan <ul><li>spearheaded by Japan Center for Asian Historical Records  (JACAR) </li></ul><ul><li>pr...
<ul><li>results in a single point of access to digitized archival materials  </li></ul><ul><li>on evacuation and internmen...
… in the  Philippines  Select rare Filipiniana Holdings available in IIC libraries Develop search engine for management of...
De La Salle University <ul><li>on-line journal “Sinupang Lasalyano” </li></ul><ul><li>460 doctoral dissertations in 40 CDs...
National Archives   (RMAO)   <ul><li>started digitization project in  1998  </li></ul><ul><li>13 million ++   historic  do...
… at the  RMAO  Research Mgt. & Archives Office (RMAO) Consejo Superior  De Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) catalogs of...
<ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-Cumulative Index to  </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philippine Periodical...
Philippine eLib Project  <ul><li>govt-sponsored collaborative project </li></ul><ul><li>Involving core collections  from T...
<ul><ul><li>Digitization of library collection began April 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aims to be primary research in ...
Collaboration - <ul><li>an attractive alternative for poorer nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>better endowed  countries  exte...
Collaboration - <ul><li>can initiate  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating digital networks of institutional repositories, with ...
<ul><li>Solution-  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>require permission to the digital contents  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on w...
Conclusion <ul><li>Now is the time… </li></ul><ul><li>to initiate  </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative  </li></ul><ul><li>prog...
 
 
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Digital initiatives in archival preservation

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presented at the International Conference on Challenges in Preserving and Managing Cultural Heritage Resources, held on 2005 October 19-21 at the Institute of Social Order, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines

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  • Introduction - First, I wish to express my appreciation to the organizers for inviting me to speak on a topic that is close to my heart, that is, “Digital initiatives in archival preservation.”
  • Digital initiatives in archival preservation

    1. 1. “ Digital intiatives in archival preservation” By Fe Angela M. Verzosa University Archivist, DLSU
    2. 2. This presentation… <ul><li>Discusses digital archives as an emerging platform for cooperative preservation efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Explores local digital initiatives here and through the Internet to view the different frameworks and models </li></ul><ul><li>Recommends digital technology as a means towards preservation of original archival materials </li></ul>
    3. 3. Defining terms… <ul><li>&quot;Digital preservation&quot; or &quot;digital archiving&quot; means taking steps to ensure the longevity of electronic documents. </li></ul><ul><li>documents are either &quot;born digital&quot; and stored on-line or products of conversion </li></ul><ul><li>- Alison Bullock </li></ul>
    4. 4. Defining terms… <ul><li>&quot; digital archives ” are materials that have been converted to machine-readable format , usually for the sake of preservation or to make them more accessible to users. </li></ul><ul><li>Also refers to information originally created in electronic format, and preserved for its archival value. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Digitization… <ul><li>greatly enhances access (faster and easier) </li></ul><ul><li>allows remote access (via Internet/cd networking) by simultaneous users </li></ul><ul><li>generates publicity for institutions because it gives them the opportunity to showcase their rare or unique collections online </li></ul>
    6. 6. More benefits… <ul><li>if digitized materials serve as surrogates to the originals, it can enhance preservation efforts by reducing handling of original documents, and thereby helps to protect them from loss/mutilation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>low cost distribution of huge data </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced long-term storage costs and reduced document storage space </li></ul>
    7. 7. Digital Preservation… <ul><li>has an inherent appeal </li></ul><ul><li>growing amounts of born digital and born-again digital material now require our attention </li></ul><ul><li>primary goal of digital archives is long-term preservation of information in a form that guarantees sustained access and dissemination in the future </li></ul>
    8. 8. Digital Preservation… <ul><li>longevity of electronic records </li></ul><ul><li>increasing obsolescence of computer hardware and software </li></ul><ul><li>storage problem for digital media , or its ‘shelf life’ </li></ul><ul><li>problem of developing a continuing program to assure access to preserved information over time </li></ul>
    9. 9. Digital Preservation issues <ul><li>Getting the information into digital form </li></ul><ul><li>Keeping it in digital form </li></ul><ul><li>Standards to ensure a high quality result </li></ul><ul><li>Copyright/intellectual property implications </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining the integrity of digitized information over time </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>difficulty and expense of </li></ul><ul><li>preserving digital information </li></ul><ul><li>digital preservation is largely experimental and replete with the risks associated with untested methods </li></ul><ul><li>digital preservation strategies are shaped by the needs and constraints of repositories with little consideration for the requirements of current and future users of digital scholarly resources. - Margaret Hedstrom </li></ul>more issues…
    11. 11. More Issues… <ul><li>Costs of maintaining digital data </li></ul><ul><li>What form to keep digital data in? </li></ul><ul><li>Technological obsolescence - migration or emulation? </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Additional information we need to keep (metadata - description of a digital object or &quot;data about data&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>) </li></ul>
    12. 12. More concerns…. <ul><li>establish as many websites and </li></ul><ul><li>encourage cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>the more participants involved, </li></ul><ul><li>the better to achieve efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>the need to integrate technology and content is evident </li></ul><ul><li>outside funding and the commitment of volunteers in digital initiatives are critical to success. </li></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Digitization, however, must not be viewed as a substitute for other preservation activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Microfilming remains the preferred long-term preservation method in this age of technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Preserving the original materials increases the intrinsic value of the original as evidence </li></ul>More concerns….
    14. 14. Internet: effective means of networking <ul><li>value and focus is full text rather than catalog of bibliographic information </li></ul><ul><li>there is a more urgent need for content on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>carefully explore content as the focus of cooperative projects </li></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>includes four private, liberal arts colleges and the Amherst campus of the state university. </li></ul><ul><li>web site provides access to digitized versions of archival records and manuscript collections relating to women's history -- particularly women's education at the Five Colleges. </li></ul><ul><li>among the collections are official college publications, letters, photographs, articles, oral histories, diaries, and more.  </li></ul>Five Colleges Consortium
    16. 16. <ul><li>encompasses 54 online collections </li></ul><ul><li>38,000 items </li></ul><ul><li>accessible through the website </li></ul><ul><li>electronic finding aids on websites of each institution </li></ul><ul><li>records in their online catalogs </li></ul>Five Colleges Consortium
    17. 17. C e d a r s curl exemplars in digital archives <ul><li>began in April 1998 and ended in March 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>objective was to explore digital preservation issues - acquiring digital objects, their long-term retention, sufficient description, and eventual access. </li></ul><ul><li>included a number of &quot;test sites&quot; designed to test different aspects of digital archiving with various types of digital materials </li></ul><ul><li>test sites include 3 universities in UK (Birmingham, Exeter, and Univ. College London), the British Library, and Birmingham Central Library </li></ul><ul><li>Primary funding provided by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) through its eLib and Digital Preservation Focus programmes. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Model digitization framework <ul><li>Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh Charette Digital Project </li></ul><ul><li>Online access to Charette magazine </li></ul><ul><li>(vols. 1-54, 1920-1974), </li></ul><ul><li>Primary stages of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify copyright </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and obtain all issues of Charette </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning to be done by Digital Library Initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize journal delivery and navigation functionality using the DIVA system (CMU’s library system) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop web interface </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Managed by a group of volunteers working together to provide Internet websites for genealogical research </li></ul><ul><li>also sponsors important Special Projects at the national level </li></ul><ul><li>One project was developed to present actual transcriptions of public domain records on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Another project is to make available to genealogists, useful, readable, high quality maps, where both archival maps and newly made maps based on scholarly research are accessible. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>brings together historical materials from a variety of California institutions </li></ul><ul><li>over 120,000 images; 50,000 pages of documents, letters, and oral histories; and 8,000 guides to collections are available </li></ul><ul><li>offers easy-to-use search and viewing tools </li></ul><ul><li>organizes images into thematic and institutional collections, such as historical topics, nature, places, and technology. </li></ul>California Digital Library, Oakland, CA
    21. 21. Digital Projects <ul><li>ALA Archives Digital Collections - includes photographs of past ALA conferences and images of library buildings around the country </li></ul><ul><li>Art Museum Image Consortium - contains over 100,000 works of art, including paintings, sculptures, drawings and watercolors, photographs, and more available only to those with library accounts.. </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Cultural Heritage Community - Materials from East Central Illinois local area museums, archives and libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Global Cultural memory Project - Integrates materials from collaborating institutions, focusing on the past fifty years of cultural history in Champaign County, Ill. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Digital Projects <ul><li>Digital Gateway to Cultural Heritage Materials </li></ul><ul><li>538,485 metadata records from 32 collections of images, text, sheet music, websites, museums and archives. </li></ul><ul><li>Alex Catalogue of Electronic Texts , a collection of public domain documents from American and English literature as well as Western philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>2820 scanned maps representing rare 18th and 19th century North and South American cartographic history from the David Rumsey map collection </li></ul><ul><li>3127 images of coins and other artifacts </li></ul>
    23. 23. McGill University (Montreal, Canada) <ul><li>Digital Collections </li></ul><ul><li>Program (DCP) </li></ul><ul><li>digitally captures and provides electronic access to McGill University's unique rare and special collections via the World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>collections include rare books, maps, manuscripts, prints, photographs, sound recordings, and more. </li></ul><ul><li>has produced more than forty digital projects covering a wide array of subjects including, art, architecture, history and literature, engineering, medicine, maps, music, and urban design. </li></ul><ul><li>collections range from archival inventories to bibliographic databases which provide access to items in the collection; image databases, and full-text collections </li></ul>
    24. 24. National Archives - Japan <ul><li>Asian historical records are from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 until end of WWII in 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>download and print it out easily </li></ul><ul><li>6.5 M images scanned </li></ul><ul><li>2 M images every year will be added </li></ul><ul><li>documents were microfilmed/ converted into digital format </li></ul>
    25. 25. National Archives - Japan <ul><li>spearheaded by Japan Center for Asian Historical Records (JACAR) </li></ul><ul><li>provides image data of official documents of relationship between Japan and its Asian neighbors </li></ul><ul><li>offers &quot;anyone, anytime, anywhere&quot; access </li></ul><ul><li>free of charge </li></ul>
    26. 26. <ul><li>results in a single point of access to digitized archival materials </li></ul><ul><li>on evacuation and internment of thousands of Japanese Americans during WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Curatorial and digital collaboration was made possible through California Digital Library’s Online Archive of California </li></ul><ul><li>a big contribution to academic research. </li></ul>Japanese American Relocation Digital Archive
    27. 27. … in the Philippines Select rare Filipiniana Holdings available in IIC libraries Develop search engine for management of the digitized information To share the digitized collection with other libraries Inter-Institutional Consortium 1998 – Preserving Selected Filipiniana in digital format
    28. 28. De La Salle University <ul><li>on-line journal “Sinupang Lasalyano” </li></ul><ul><li>460 doctoral dissertations in 40 CDs </li></ul><ul><li>2,224 master’s theses in 76 CDs </li></ul><ul><li>473 born-digital masters theses </li></ul><ul><li>Born-again yearbook </li></ul><ul><li>(Green and White) </li></ul>
    29. 29. National Archives (RMAO) <ul><li>started digitization project in 1998 </li></ul><ul><li>13 million ++ historic documents </li></ul><ul><li>not accessible in the world wide web </li></ul><ul><li>How many more such digital projects are ongoing but are not accessible in the web? </li></ul>
    30. 30. … at the RMAO Research Mgt. & Archives Office (RMAO) Consejo Superior De Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) catalogs of centuries old documents during Spanish colonial period
    31. 31. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-Cumulative Index to </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philippine Periodicals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(1995-2000) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2-Harry Whitfield Harnish Collection (1898-1907) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>3-Board of Regents Minutes of Meetings (1925-2006) </li></ul><ul><li>4-Filipiniana, UP publications, researches, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>5-UP theses and dissertations </li></ul>UP Diliman Libraries
    32. 32. Philippine eLib Project <ul><li>govt-sponsored collaborative project </li></ul><ul><li>Involving core collections from TNL, DOST, DA, and UP Library System </li></ul><ul><li>aims to make Philippine materials available in digital format (24M images) </li></ul><ul><li>to provide cooperative acquisition and sharing of expensive online databases </li></ul><ul><li>to house data center at TNL, with data recovery site at UP Diliman </li></ul><ul><li>uses open source/standard tools, which can be replicated </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><ul><li>Digitization of library collection began April 2004 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aims to be primary research in the speedy delivery of justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves the entire Judiciary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available online: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SC Decisions and Resolutions </li></ul><ul><li>Rules of Court </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative Matters </li></ul><ul><li>Circulars and Orders </li></ul><ul><li>Manuals of Clerks of Courts </li></ul><ul><li>Memorabilia Section </li></ul>Supreme Court eLibrary
    34. 34. Collaboration - <ul><li>an attractive alternative for poorer nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>better endowed countries extend assistance by providing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>required funds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>needed technical expertise and training, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>technology infrastructure or network mechanism </li></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Collaboration - <ul><li>can initiate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating digital networks of institutional repositories, with rare heritage collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>matching institutions with common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>interests, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>needs, and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>requirements. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>Solution- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>require permission to the digital contents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on works free from copyright </li></ul></ul>Copyright Concerns - <ul><li>one of the more serious barriers </li></ul>
    37. 37. Conclusion <ul><li>Now is the time… </li></ul><ul><li>to initiate </li></ul><ul><li>collaborative </li></ul><ul><li>programs for </li></ul><ul><li>the future </li></ul><ul><li>access to preserved digital and </li></ul><ul><li>born-again digital materials for the </li></ul><ul><li>sake of posterity. </li></ul>

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