Counter Disaster Planning, Response And Recovery


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presented at the three-day Seminar-Workshop on Effective Records Management held at the Carlos Dominguez Conference Hall, Ateneo de Zamboanga University, Zamboanga City, 2009 Mar 24-6

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  • Counter Disaster Planning, Response And Recovery

    1. 1. Effective Records Management Seminar Ateneo de Zamboanga, 5-6 February 2009 Counter-Disaster : Planning, Response and Recovery By Fe Angela M. Verzosa
    2. 2. Topics to be covered <ul><ul><li>The nature of disasters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster preparedness, response & recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating the disaster plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster Response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster Recovery: Salvage issues and strategies </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Focus <ul><li>Focus will be on collections disaster preparedness, response and recovery </li></ul>However, other factors, such as human safety, will be mentioned because the many players in a disaster need to work together.
    4. 5. Definitions <ul><li>Disaster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ An occurrence causing widespread destruction and distress; a catastrophe.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A serious situation or occurrence that happens unexpectedly and demands immediate action.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( American Heritage Dictionary . 3 rd ed., 1996) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 6. Cause of Disasters <ul><li>Natural causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Floods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typhoons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions </li></ul></ul>
    6. 7. Cause of disasters <ul><li>Man-made disasters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical spill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil disturbance and terrorism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical power failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic computer failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explosions (bombs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire (arson) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gas leak </li></ul></ul>
    7. 8. Cause of disasters <ul><li>Man-made disasters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human error and carelessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear disasters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robbery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sewage overflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidental sprinkler activation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strikes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxic fumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vandalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water overflows </li></ul></ul>
    8. 9. Disaster Planning <ul><li>95% of disasters result in water damage; even fire damage is accompanied by water damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries must be prepared for all disasters, natural and man made, that may occur at their institution. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of not being prepared may be loss of life, loss of the materials, or, ultimately, the loss of the institution or business. </li></ul>
    9. 10. Objectives of Disaster Planning <ul><ul><li>To protect people, libraries and materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To avoid a disaster by being pro-active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To reduce possibility of a disaster and to reduce effects if a disaster happens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To expedite response and recovery efforts in an organized and systematic manner if there is a disaster by having contacts and information needed consolidated in a single plan, and by familiarizing staff with disaster response options and activities </li></ul></ul>
    10. 11. Elements of a library disaster Plan <ul><li>Safety and security of people </li></ul><ul><li>The building </li></ul><ul><li>Administration records for “business continuity” </li></ul><ul><li>The collections </li></ul><ul><li>Library services </li></ul>Disaster Plan
    11. 12. Elements of a library disaster Plan
    12. 13. Activities in Disaster Planning <ul><ul><li>Disaster preparedness and prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster follow-up and planning update </li></ul></ul>
    13. 15. Tasks of disaster planning <ul><ul><li>Develop a working relationship with parent organization and community, i.e., university disaster team, city disaster management, fire department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment: Identify, assess and mitigate potential risks and hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify insurance policies, spending authority and emergency funds </li></ul></ul>
    14. 16. Disaster Preparedness involves these activities… <ul><ul><li>Assess collections and assign priorities for salvage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify disaster recovery resources, including institutional assistance, vendors, consultants, conservators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure a budget for supplies and training activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchase and distribute in-house supplies (which should be inventoried) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze impact on services </li></ul></ul>
    15. 17. Disaster Preparedness – more activities… <ul><ul><li>Review policies and procedures for disasters and/or emergencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write the disaster plan, distribute, or better, put on the website </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure offsite backups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct pre-planned tests of the plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review and report every emergency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modify plan from drills and experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update plan regularly </li></ul></ul>
    16. 18. Risk Assessment <ul><li>Identify and assess risks </li></ul><ul><li>What is the likelihood of something occurring? </li></ul>If something were to occur, what would be the loss?
    17. 19. Risk Assessment <ul><li>1- Survey Building </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Site of building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building materials and structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire Protection (sprinklers, type) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities (water, electrical, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Custodial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication Systems </li></ul></ul>
    18. 20. Risk Assessment <ul><li>2- The conclusion of the Assessment should be to know: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where are my biggest risks? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3- Take preventive actions or regularly monitor or “alarm” those risks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What can we do to bring the greatest good? </li></ul></ul>
    19. 21. Risk Assessment <ul><li> Category Probability and Effect Examples </li></ul><ul><li>1 High probability- High Effect Fire, typhoon </li></ul><ul><li>flood, roof leaks </li></ul><ul><li>2 High probability- Low Effect theft, vandalism </li></ul><ul><li>3 Low probability- High Effect earthquake, </li></ul><ul><li>nuclear war, </li></ul><ul><li>tsunami, explosion </li></ul><ul><li>4 Low probability- Low Effect collapse of bookshelf, collapsed ceilings </li></ul>
    20. 22. Elements of a Disaster Plan <ul><ul><li>1- Quick Reference Guide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedures for immediate response to most common disasters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Done with Security and Building personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2- Basic information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency phone numbers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building officer/personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post evacuation meeting locations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Location of disaster supplies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>List of vendors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floor plans with fire alarms, exits, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3- Disaster Team </li></ul></ul>
    21. 23. Disaster Team <ul><li>The disaster management team will depend on individual institution size, resources and staffing patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Staff selected should have experience with : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration activities, i.e., public relations, finance, & personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The physical building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The collection and materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library services, including reference, circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer services </li></ul></ul>
    22. 24. Disaster Team - examples
    23. 25. Disaster Team - examples <ul><ul><li>Head of Preservation Department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head of Administrative Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head of Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation Librarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reference Librarian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branches /Special Collections representative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems Head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster response and recovery coordinator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building manager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collection recovery coordinator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Services recovery coordinator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer systems recovery coordinator </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation manager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bibliographic services manager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Library personnel Head </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 26. Elements of a disaster plan <ul><li>4- Collection priorities </li></ul><ul><li>Priority 1 : Irreplaceable materials </li></ul><ul><li>Priority 2 : Materials essential to provide basic services or to library operation, materials required by law </li></ul><ul><li>Priority 3 : Replaceable materials, i.e., core collections, areas of excellence, materials of high research value </li></ul><ul><li>Priority 4 : Nice to have, but not essential </li></ul><ul><li>Priority 5 : “Do not salvage” list </li></ul>
    25. 27. Elements of a Disaster Plan <ul><ul><li>5- Disaster scale and recovery operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 1: Emergency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minor incidents that do not interrupt library operations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handled by minimal staffing in less than 4 hours </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any damaged materials are handled in-house </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 2: Small disaster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to isolated area </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damages of less than 100 items </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Requires 1-3 staff members </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disruptions resume within a day </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supplies available in-house </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged materials treated in-house </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 28. Elements of a Disaster Plan <ul><ul><li>5- Disaster scale & recovery operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 3: Medium disaster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damages of less than 500 items </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Service operations resumed within 48 hours </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outside vendors may be needed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level 4: Major/large scale disaster or wide-area disaster </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 29. Elements of a Disaster Plan <ul><ul><li>6- Procedures for disaster recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>General Guidelines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery of mold materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing of materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum freeze drying </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum drying or thermal vacuum drying </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freezer drying </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dehumidification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air drying of materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guidelines for paper-based materials </li></ul></ul></ul>
    28. 30. General Emergency Guidelines <ul><li>Use common sense </li></ul><ul><li>Know the location of emergency exits </li></ul><ul><li>Know the location of building alarms, how and when to use them </li></ul><ul><li>Locate the Disaster Response Kit </li></ul><ul><li>When the emergency is over, record and report the incident </li></ul>
    29. 31. Guidelines for Paper-based Materials <ul><li>Books </li></ul><ul><li>Freeze or dry within 48 hours to avoid mold growth and to minimize distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Immediately freeze books with coated paper, keeping them wet until they can be frozen </li></ul><ul><li>Work first on books that have fallen on the floor, coated paper, the wettest materials </li></ul><ul><li>If books are wet and tightly packed on shelves, remove one or two so that they do not burst off the shelves as they swell (and incur further damage as they fall) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not open volumes, or close those that have fallen open </li></ul><ul><li>Handle one item at a time, using both hands </li></ul><ul><li>Do not press water out of wet books--the paper is too fragile when wet </li></ul>
    30. 32. Guidelines for Paper-based Materials <ul><li>Unbound Paper </li></ul><ul><li>Stable materials - freeze or dry within 48 hours to avoid mold growth </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble inks and pigments - immediately freeze or dry </li></ul><ul><li>Coated paper - immediately freeze or dry </li></ul><ul><li>Do not try to separate single sheets (except to air dry) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep documents in order and retain documentary information </li></ul><ul><li>Do not blot surfaces of documents that have soluble media </li></ul>
    31. 33. Recovery Methods for Wet Paper-based Materials <ul><li>Air Drying - Materials are dried by spreading them out and/or interleaving them with absorbent paper in a work space in which the temperature and relative humidity are kept below 65° F and 35% RH, and fans are used to keep air circulating. </li></ul><ul><li>Freezing - Wet materials are stabilized by freezing to allow time to plan for recovery. Freezing is an interim step. Materials must be air dried or vacuum freeze dried after being removed from the freezer. Mold will not grow, and further distortion is halted once materials are frozen. Rapid freezing minimizes damage from ice crystals. </li></ul>
    32. 34. <ul><li>- Stand books on </li></ul><ul><li>their heads </li></ul><ul><li>Interleave </li></ul><ul><li>absorbent paper </li></ul><ul><li>every 50 pages </li></ul><ul><li>Use fan to keep </li></ul><ul><li>air circulating </li></ul><ul><li>Keep temperature </li></ul><ul><li>below 65 degree F </li></ul><ul><li>When dry, lay books </li></ul><ul><li>flat but not stack </li></ul><ul><li>up together </li></ul>Air-drying
    33. 35. Recovery Methods for Wet Paper-based Materials <ul><li>Vacuum Freeze Drying - After materials are frozen to prevent further distortion and mold growth, frozen materials are dried in a vacuum chamber. Materials remain frozen as water is removed. The water passes from a solid state (ice) directly to a vapor state. </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuum Drying (vacuum thermal drying) - Wet or frozen materials are dried in a vacuum chamber. A vacuum is drawn, heated air is put into the chamber, and a vacuum is applied again to pull out the moisture. Books distort more than when vacuum freeze dried. A lower-cost alternative for materials of lesser value, esp. large quantities of unbound paper without intrinsic value . </li></ul>
    34. 37. Recovery Methods for Wet Paper-based Materials <ul><li>Dehumidification - Materials are dried in their place on shelves by large commercial dehumidifiers that are brought on site. Temperature and relative humidity in the area should be controlled. Books distort more than when vacuum freeze dried. Use for moderately wet books. </li></ul><ul><li>Freezer Drying - Materials are put in a freezer for months. Over time moisture sublimates out of the materials. Use for a few wet books. </li></ul>
    35. 38. Disaster Response <ul><li>The actual response to an </li></ul><ul><li>emergency or disaster depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope of the disaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nature of the disaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing of the disaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of the facility and collection affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff available for response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Available supplies and equipment </li></ul></ul>
    36. 39. Disaster Response <ul><li>The speed and manner of disaster response is often critical to the recovery, rehabilitation, and final outcome. </li></ul>
    37. 40. Checklist of First Response <ul><li>Step 1 – Make sure people are safe. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 – Make a rapid assessment of the emergency situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3 – Protect the collections from further damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4 – Notify, or verify notification of, people and programs that are designated to respond in an emergency. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 6 – Work with Facilities staff members to stabilize the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 7 – Do a comprehensive assessment of damage to the collections. </li></ul>
    38. 41. Step 7 – assessment of damage <ul><li>Identify the types of materials damaged, and estimate quantities: </li></ul><ul><li>Bound volumes </li></ul><ul><li>Unbound paper </li></ul><ul><li>Microforms </li></ul><ul><li>Photographic prints and negatives </li></ul><ul><li>Videotape, audio tape </li></ul><ul><li>Motion picture film </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the nature of the damage, e.g., materials might be: </li></ul><ul><li>Damp </li></ul><ul><li>Wet </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke-damaged </li></ul><ul><li>Fire-damaged </li></ul><ul><li>Dirty </li></ul><ul><li>Contaminated by bacteria or other dangerous substances </li></ul><ul><li>Photograph affected areas. </li></ul>
    39. 42. Checklist - Others <ul><li>Step 8 – Determine if an outside commercial response service is required. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 9 – If an outside service is not required, implement salvage activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 10 – Keep detailed records: </li></ul><ul><li>Areas affected </li></ul><ul><li>Items affected </li></ul><ul><li>Locations of items being salvaged </li></ul><ul><li>Salvage methods </li></ul>
    40. 43. Disaster Response <ul><li>Disaster response activities include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1- Stabilize the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control the temperature & humidity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase ventilation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Turn on air conditioning if possible to retard mold </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety or security problems? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arrange for environmental testing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Continue environmental monitoring of the whole building </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 44. Disaster Response <ul><ul><li>2- Assess the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct the walk through </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Look for structural damage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Level of damage to the collections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide documentation and photographs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review service areas and other patron accessible areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Review staff offices and work space </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 45. Disaster Response <ul><ul><li>4- Perform initial recovery preparations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify staging area for collection recovery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Setting up a command center and/or off-site recovery area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5- If necessary, activate the disaster plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3- Estimate time of reoccupation or need for relocation site </li></ul>
    43. 46. Disaster Response Guidelines <ul><li>DO NOT </li></ul><ul><li>touch anything electrical </li></ul><ul><li>remove collection items from the disaster area </li></ul><ul><li>enter the area until Security determines it is safe to do so </li></ul>
    44. 47. DO <ul><li>wear protective clothing (gloves, aprons, masks, and helmets) in the disaster area </li></ul><ul><li>use supplies from the disaster bins, which contain supplies to protect yourself, protect collection items or to clean up the area </li></ul><ul><li>contact Security immediately </li></ul>
    45. 48. Safety in the Workplace <ul><li>DO: </li></ul><ul><li>*carry loads close to the body and use leg </li></ul><ul><li>muscles to lift </li></ul><ul><li>*avoid twisting, side bending or excess bending of your back </li></ul><ul><li>*use kick stools or steps to remove items from </li></ul><ul><li>shelves, working from the top to the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>*vary work tasks to prevent muscle strain </li></ul><ul><li>*rotate tasks every 30 minutes </li></ul>
    46. 49. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>includes all operations after the initial response including restoration of the collections and/or services </li></ul>
    47. 50. Disaster Recovery <ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlibrary Loan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer access to online catalog and electronic resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other patron services, i.e., children’s story hour </li></ul></ul>1- Provide continuity of service for :
    48. 51. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>2- Restore the collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather data on the collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Status of online database </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Record of holdings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typical information the insurance people might ask for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide the immediate action plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salvage priorities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instructions for special formats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of supplies and equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor or in-house recovery </li></ul></ul></ul>
    49. 52. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>3- Create and implement a plan for processing materials back into the collection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review options: restoration, repurchase, gifts, discard and start anew, alternate format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review specifications, staffing, budget, space, supplies, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine the role of experts or consultants </li></ul></ul>
    50. 53. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Time for recovery may be as short of a few hours or up to several years. </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever the damage, the collection will never be exactly the same. </li></ul>
    51. 54. Disaster Follow-up <ul><li>All activities performed to mitigate another disaster, including : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revision of the disaster plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change in policies and procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of the disaster management team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retraining of staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modification of the facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of risk management needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review of insurance needs </li></ul></ul>
    52. 55. Disaster Plan Testing <ul><ul><li>Identify scope, objectives, format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine type of test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set time and duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide if scheduled or unscheduled?? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify participants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish reporting and evaluation process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate outcomes </li></ul></ul>
    53. 56. Disaster Plan Testing <ul><li>Types of tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checklist testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short planned drills, i.e., fire drill, earthquake drill, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Table top exercise (talk through the exercise) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-planned exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation testing (disaster is acted out) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full disaster plan test </li></ul></ul>
    54. 57. Contact Questions?