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Consciousness

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A quick treatment of consciousness from a cultural and scientific perspective.

Published in: Education
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Consciousness

  1. 1. Consciousness
  2. 2. What is consciousness?
  3. 3. No consciousness?
  4. 4. Unconscious?
  5. 5. How about CHANGED consciousness?
  6. 6. Often illegal
  7. 7. Changed consciousness
  8. 8. Why ILLEGAL?
  9. 9. Not normal AWARENESS
  10. 10. Not truly AWARE
  11. 11. Sometimes legal
  12. 12. Why LEGAL?
  13. 13. Changed consciousness is OK in some cultures?
  14. 14. But not in others
  15. 15. IMPORTANT in some cultures
  16. 16. Some cultures NEED this?
  17. 17. Sometimes TOLERATED in the west
  18. 18. Legal in SOME places
  19. 19. But NOT in others
  20. 20. Why is consciousness so important?
  21. 21. What is the MIND?
  22. 22. Where does the MIND end?
  23. 23. And the BODY begin?
  24. 24. Or is mind and body the same?
  25. 25. Dangerous and consciousness-altering
  26. 26. But legal
  27. 27. Normal AWARENESS?
  28. 28. Dangerous and consciousness-altering
  29. 29. But legal
  30. 30. How about AWARENESS?
  31. 31. How about a spirit world?
  32. 32. Encouraged in some cultures
  33. 33. Important part of BELONGING
  34. 34. Religious ceremonies
  35. 35. NECESSARY for JOINING!
  36. 36. Cast OUT of society!
  37. 37. Very big CULTURAL divide
  38. 38. Traditional cultures: spirit world is important
  39. 39. Experience is NECESSARY for growth
  40. 40. Oneness
  41. 41. No big split between dream and reality
  42. 42. “Modern” societies
  43. 43. Dualism
  44. 44. MIND and MATTER
  45. 45. CONSCIOUSNESS and THINGS
  46. 46. Big split between REALITY and dream
  47. 47. What is the SCIENTIFIC view?
  48. 48. The “WESTERN” view: consciousness is electical signals
  49. 49. Brain activity
  50. 50. Just electrical signals
  51. 51. No signals = brain dead
  52. 52. Brain dead = dead person
  53. 53. Brain dead = you don’t need your body
  54. 54. Other people can take your organs
  55. 55. Clear MIND-BODY split
  56. 56. A modern, RATIONAL view
  57. 57. “Traditional” societies see connections
  58. 58. Everything is connected
  59. 59. Difficult to split MIND and BODY
  60. 60. Consider recent scientific experiments
  61. 61. Coma patient
  62. 62. Vegetative
  63. 63. Vegetative = no response
  64. 64. Vegetative = not truly aware
  65. 65. Vegetative = cannot answer questions
  66. 66. Vegetative = cannot respond
  67. 67. No response = no consciousness?
  68. 68. No RESPONSE = no CONSCIOUSNESS?
  69. 69. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  70. 70. Experiments on “vegetative” patients
  71. 71. Brain scan
  72. 72. Evidence of activity
  73. 73. Imagine different things
  74. 74. Different brain activity
  75. 75. Different imaginings …
  76. 76. … different kinds of activity
  77. 77. Imagine playing tennis
  78. 78. Imagine walking around the house
  79. 79. Try it!
  80. 80. Imagine walking around the house
  81. 81. Imagine playing tennis
  82. 82. Really imagine it!
  83. 83. You should FEEL a big difference
  84. 84. And brain activity IS different
  85. 85. Let’s say TENNIS = yes
  86. 86. WALKING = no
  87. 87. Imagine walking around the house
  88. 88. Yes
  89. 89. No
  90. 90. Vegetative coma patient
  91. 91. fMRI scanner
  92. 92. Imagine playing tennis
  93. 93. NORMAL response
  94. 94. NORMAL tennis response
  95. 95. NORMAL response = consciousness
  96. 96. So the VEGETABLE was CONSCIOUS!
  97. 97. Another patient …
  98. 98. … same result
  99. 99. This time …
  100. 100. … the scientists taught the yes-no code
  101. 101. Yes
  102. 102. No
  103. 103. Scientists asked lots of questions about life history?
  104. 104. What kind of questions? • Are you a man? • Did you live in New York? • Is your wife’s name Anne? • etc
  105. 105. The patient answered correctly!
  106. 106. Eyes closed
  107. 107. No sign of consciousness
  108. 108. But correct responses
  109. 109. So MUST be conscious
  110. 110. Lots of patients did this
  111. 111. So it’s proof
  112. 112. But what IS consciousness
  113. 113. The most basic questions …
  114. 114. … still not answered
  115. 115. Whose idea of consciousness is better?
  116. 116. Rational, dualistic West?
  117. 117. Irrational traditional societies?

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