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  1. 1. “Metal Bio-indicator Plant Species of the Philippines” A PROJECT OF PCIEERD - DOST AND DLSU IN SEARCH OF:
  2. 2. “Metal Bio-indicator Plant Species of the Philippines” is a De La Salle University Project under the PCIEERD-DOST PROGRAM FOR REHABILITATION AND RESTORATION OF MINING AREAS THROUGH PHYTOTECHNOLOGIES with Ateneo de Manila University and University of the Philippines Los Banos 2012-2013
  3. 3. THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM ARE: To identify and study the biology-ecology and chemistry of indigenous metallophyte species that can be used in phytotechnologies to restore mined-out areas To develop a protocol for propagating metallophyte species for use as metal bio- indicators, phytostabilization and post-mining metal recovery
  5. 5. SURVEY PLANTS IN METALLIFEROUS SOILS AND MINED OUT AREAS CONDUCT collection and taxonomic identification of plants that are metallophytes (or those plants that thrive even in metal-rich soil conditions); and within the metallophyte species, identify those that are obligate or facultative and those that are hyperaccumulators because these plant species can then be used as bio-indicators of heavy metal contamination and / or used for restoring mined-out areas (in phytostabilization) as well as recovery of the metal. DETERMINE THE METAL CONTENT OF THESE PLANT (ROOT, STEM AND LEAVES) AND SOIL SAMPLES CONDUCT measurement of the heavy metal concentration of samples collected from metalliferous soils compared with those collected from non-metalliferous soils using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) ProgramMethodology
  6. 6. CLASSIFY PLANT SPECIES BASED ON CAPACITY TO EXTRACT METAL FROM THE SOIL AND ACCUMULATE METAL IN THEIR TISSUES Determine which plant species are capable of bio-indication, phyto- extraction, and phyto-stablization using the ratio of metal content in soil to plant tissue to determine capacity to “remove” metal from soil Program Methodology, continued
  7. 7. THE GOAL OF THE DLSU METAL BIO-INDICATOR PROJECT is to develop an easy-to-use and cheap technology, using plants, to detect the presence of heavy metals in soils, making pollution detection, monitoring and eventually the clean-up of mining areas easier for the mining sector and citizens to accomplish.
  8. 8. AND ALSO TO: provide the mining sector and citizens the capacity to recognize and identify plant species that can ONLY survive in the presence of heavy metals (or obligate metallophytes) and recognize the CHANGES (adaptations) that occur in the morphology of plants that survive both soils with high and low heavy metal concentrations (as facultative metallophytes).
  9. 9. PROJECT OBJECTIVE 1: Create a database of metal hyperaccumulator plant species naturally occurring in metal rich (or ultramafic) soils Specifically: 1.1 Conduct a taxonomic survey, with gross morphological descriptions, of metallophyte species (both hyperaccumulators and non- hyperaccumulators) and other associated vascular plant species thriving in metal rich and adjacent non-metal rich soils in six sites. These include: 1) Kalinga, 2) Marinduque Island, 3) Rapu-Rapu Island, Albay 4) Cebu, 5) Negros, and 6) Compostela Valley which are representative of phytogeographic regions following the distribution of ultramafics (metal rich or metalliferous substrates) in the Philippines FOR YEAR 1 (2012-13) OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
  10. 10. SPECIFIC PROJECT OBJECTIVE 1 (CONTINUED…) 1.2 Compare the species found in metal rich soils with the species found in adjacent non- metal rich soils and relate the distribution of hyperaccumulator, non-hyperaccumulator and non-metallophyte (metal tolerant or non-tolerant) species to soil chemistry. 1.3 Determine the distribution of the metals in the roots, stem and leaves of hyperaccumulator plant species; identify the ligands; and compare the protein profiles of selected hyperaccumulators with other metallophytes and non-metallophytes.
  11. 11. PROJECT OBJECTIVE 1: Create a database of obligate and facultative metallophyte species that naturally occur in metal rich and adjacent non-metal rich soils in the six study sites. More specifically to: FOR YEAR 1 (2012-13) OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION 2.1 Identify the obligate metallophytes (which may also be hyperaccumulator) species, or those that are found thriving only in metal rich soils; and facultative species , or those that are present in both metal rich and non-metal rich soils. 2.2 Describe and compare the gross morphological, morphometric and physiological characteristics of obligate, facultative metallophyes including hyperaccumulator species and non-metallophyte species..
  12. 12. Marinduque: Philippines Magmatic Arc Southern Luzon Geographic Region Compostela Valley Philippine Magmatic Arc Mindanao Biogeographic Region Negros: Masbate-Negros Magmatic Arc Western Visayas Biogeographic Region Kalinga: Luzon Central Cordillera Arc Northern/Southern Luzon Geographic Region Rapu-Rapu, Albay: Philippines Magmatic Arc Northern/Southern Luzon Geographic Region Location of the SIX STUDY SITES Cebu: Central Philippines, Central Visayas Geographic Region
  13. 13. SUMMARY TABLE OF THE SAMPLING SITES WITHIN THE SIX STUDY SITES METALLIFEROUS NON-METALLIFEROUS LUZON Kalinga Pasil near copper mining area Balbalan Balbalan (Sesec-an) gold mining area Balbalasan Marinduque Bocboc small scale mining gold, iron Torrijos Kapayang abandoned open pit copper Mt. Malindig Putting Buhangin abandoned open pit Pili-Butansapa tailings copper Rapu-Rapu Barangay Akal near copper mining Mainland Bacacay Barangay Lumang Bisita copper mining Barangay Binosawan mining discharge VISAYAS Cebu Lutopan (inside Carmen Balamban Copper Corporation) Sudlon Tabuna Negros Negros Occidental Negros Occidental Bulata near copper mining Campuestuhan watershed Maricalum, Sipalay closed copper mine Negros Oriental Negros Oriental Basay closed copper mine Valencia MINDANAO Compostela Valley Barangay Tupaz small scale mining gold Mt. Candalaga Barangay Pamintaran copper mining Cagayan de Oro Barangay Cambagang gold processing New Katipunan (Poblacion) Iron mining
  14. 14. STUDY SITE 1: Kalinga (LUZON) SAMPLING SITES: Metalliferous (Metal Rich Sites) - Pasil - Balbalan (Sesec-an) Non-Metalliferous (Non-metal Rich Sites) - Balbalan - Balbalasan
  15. 15. Plant and soil samples were collected from the copper, zinc, gold mining sites STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON) Kapayang Puting Buhangin SAMPLING SITES Metalliferous Non-Metalliferous Bocboc Torrijos Kapayang Mt. Malindig Putting Buhangin Pili-Butansapa
  16. 16. Plant and soil samples were collected from the site where Marcopper Mining Company mine tailings spilled from a fractured drainage tunnel of an overburdened tailings dam (the old mined out pit of Mt. Tapian); where toxic wastes reported to have reached Boac River. Pili-Butansapa STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON)
  17. 17. Samples were collected from the site of an old copper mine pit; based on visual observation, site is showing signs of re-vegetation. Pili-Butansapa STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON)
  18. 18. Samples were collected where Marcopper Mining Corporation mine tailings eventually spilled; site still suspected of being contaminated with heavy metals. Sudden vegetation cover / re-colonization was observed after flooding. Bocboc Sudden re-vegetation of site observed STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON)
  19. 19. Samples were collected from sites where copper, gold and zinc may be present STUDY SITE 3: Rapu-Rapu Island, Albay (LUZON) SAMPLING SITES Metalliferous Barangay Akal Barangay Lumang Bisita Barangay Binosawan
  20. 20. Plant and soil samples were collected along the stream (said to be) water directly discharging from the mining site (Company still locally referred to a “Lafayette” although officially owned by Rapu- Rapu Processing Inc. Barangay Binosawan is the community right next to the mining activiities. STUDY SITE 3: Rapu-Rapu Island, Albay (LUZON)
  21. 21. STUDY SITE 4: Cebu (VISAYAS) SAMPLING SITES Metalliferous Lutopan (Inside Carmen Copper Corporation) Non-Metalliferous Balamban Sudlon Tabunan
  22. 22. With help from Carmen Copper Corporation (CCC) Environmental Unit and De La Salle – Don Andres Soriano Memorial College faculty and staff, samples were collected from different sites within the operational copper mining area. STUDY SITE 4: Cebu (VISAYAS)
  23. 23. STUDY SITE 5: Negros (VISAYAS) Samples were collected from a closed down mining site in Sipalay (Maricalum Mining Corporation, copper mining) with help from partner institution, University of St. La Salle, volunteer researchers. SAMPLING SITES Metalliferous Negros Occidental Bulata Maricalum, Sipalay (closed mining site) Negros Oriental Basay (closed mining site) Non-Metalliferous Negros Occidental Campuestohan Negros Oriental Valencia
  24. 24. Samples were collected along a stream directly discharging from one of the retention ponds (according to our LGU guides) in a closed mining site in Basay, Negros Oriental (leased to Copper Development Corporation CDC, in Hinobaan). STUDY SITE 5: Negros (VISAYAS)
  25. 25. Samples were collected from non- metalliferous soils in Campuestohan (Part of Negros Forest and Ecological Foundation Inc. site in the watershed that supplies water for Bacolod City residents; also suspected of being high in Cd by USLS researchers) and in Valencia, Negros Oriental (not shown in these pictures) STUDY SITE 5: Negros (VISAYAS)
  26. 26. Samples were collected from copper, iron, gold mining sites and a gold processing facility. STUDY SITE 6: Compostela Valley (MINDANAO) SAMPLING SITES Metalliferous Barangay Tupaz (gold mining site) Barangay Pamintaran (copper mining site) Barangay Cambagang (Iron mining site) New Katipunan (Poblacion) in a gold processing facility Non-metalliferous soils Mt. Candalaga Brgy Tupaz (gold mining) Sitio Salaysayon, Brgy Cambagang (iron Mining site)
  27. 27. Although multiple minerals (polymetals) are mined in Maragusan, Compostela Valley, all mining activities are small scale operations. Margusan LGU officials and employees assisted in the collection of data and providing assistance. Purok Centennial, Brgy New Katipunan (Poblacion) – gold processing facility Brgy Pamintaran (copper mining site) STUDY SITE 6: Compostela Valley (MINDANAO)
  28. 28. “Metal Bio-indicator Plant Species of the Philippines” A PCIEERD-DOST PROJECT YEAR 1 (OCTOBER 2012-2013) UPDATE
  29. 29. YEAR 1 EXPECTED OUTPUTS for Objectives 1 and 2 * A database (that is accessible and useful as reference to the mining sector, restoration scientists and citizens) of bioindicator, hyperaccumulator plant species naturally occurring in metal rich (or ultramafic soils) and other metalliferous soils including those from mining sites; and an extensive database of bioindicator hyperaccumulator, obligate and facultative plant species in the six study sites * Description of the gross morphological, morphometric and physiological characteristics of obligate and facultative metallophyes, including bioindicator hyperaccumulator species, as well as associated non-metallophyte species submitted.
  30. 30. Update on Database and Website Development • PLANTS COLLECTED from the six study sites were processed (washed, pressed, dried for preservation) to prepare voucher specimens for species identification. Identification was done with the help of consultants, Dr. Domingo Madulid and John Rey Callado of the National Museum of the Philippines, using reference specimen from the Philippine National Herbarium. • Voucher specimen (Herbarium specimen) collected through the PCIEERD-DOST Bio- Indicator Project were accessioned into the DLSU Herbarium Collection and identified as PCIEERD-DOST Project Collection. • Data on plants collected through the PCIEERD-DOST Project, accessioned into the DLSUH, were entered into the DLSU HERBARIUM Database using the Botanical Research and Herbarium Management System (BRAHMS Database software, Developed at Plant Science, University of Oxford) • A Website serving as the internet portal for the public (and target audience, e.g. mining sector and citizens living in close proximity to sites suspected of contamination) to access information on bio-indicator plant species or those that can be used in phytoremediation technologies like phytostabilization, phytoextraction and phytomining technologies.
  31. 31. Plant Species (or Genera Families Samples Specimens) Marinduque 178 81 37 29 Rapu-Rapu 280 121 36 29 Cebu 75 43 11 13 Negros 403 184 30 25 Compostela Valley 194 116 41 28 Total 545 SUMMARY TABLE OF PLANT SAMPLES AND SPECIES COLLECTED
  32. 32. Summary Table of number of samples collected and plant species identified Study Site Sampling Site Species Plant Samples Marinduque Island Bocboc 9 21 Kapayang 4 7 Putting Buhangin 16 33 Pili 25 64 Torrijos 11 22 Mt. Malindig 16 31 Rapu Rapu Island Akal 11 29 Lumang Bisita 26 50 Binosawan 23 53 Napulingan 41 117 Bulusan 5 Kaka 15 31 Cebu Island Lutopan 43 75 Negros Basay 48 119 Bulata 49 104 Sipalay 78 163 Campuestuhan 9 17 Compostela Valley Tupaz 52 85 New Katipunan 8 12 Cambagang 27 49 Pamintaran 29 48
  33. 33. STUDY SITE 1: Kalinga (LUZON) • Preliminary data collection conducted from first site visit, additional data collected through interviews also conducted; no plant collections have been conducted as of YEAR 1 end of October, 2013. • Networking visits to DENR (Regional, Provincial and CENRO), NCIP (Provincial and Regional) and to institutional partner, Kalinga State University conducted • Community’s permission and from NCIP (Regional and Provincial) through Free Prior Informed Consent (FPIC) application initiated
  34. 34. STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON) • four collection trips were conducted; with Marinduque State College (MSC) faculty, staff and LGU participation - • hundred seventy one (171) Plant and soil samples were collected from six sampling sites. • eighty one (81) specimens belong to 29 Families, and 37 Genera were identified • characterization / chemical analysis (AAS) to determine metal content in samples is on-going A fractured drainage tunnel from an old mining pit being used as tailings pit led to the Marcopper Mining accident in 1996. Marcopper Mining Corporation abandoned site and operations. The parent company has since been sold to new owners. No big mining operations resumed in the island.
  35. 35. The island of Rapu-Rapu may be entirely metalliferous. Mining officially ceased in March 2013, but Mining Lease Agreement (MLA ) covers most (or 80% ) of the island. STUDY SITE 3: Rapu-Rapu Island, Albay (LUZON) • 280 Plant and soil samples were collected from selected sites throughout the entire island with two trips conducted • 126 specimens belong to 29 Families, 36 Genera • characterization / chemical analysis (AAS) to determine metal content in the samples is on-going
  36. 36. STUDY SITE 4: Cebu (VISAYAS) • 75 Plant and soil samples were collected from three different sites within the Carmen Copper Corporation mining site in two trips; Plant and soil collection were also conducted in nearby intact forests • 43 specimens belong to 13 Families, 11 Genera • Taxonomic data and chemical analysis Data completed • select fern species subjected to morphometric measurements and ultrastructure examinations (SEM-EDX). Further analysis underway.
  37. 37. STUDY SITE 5: Negros (VISAYAS) • 403 Plant and soil samples collected from five sampling sites with support and participation from University of St. La Salle faculty, staff and students • 184 specimen belong to 25 Families and 30 Genera • characterization / chemical analysis (AAS) to determine metal content in the samples is on-going Contrast is visible between a forest reserve in the Campuestohan watershed (above) and reforestation planting with a few species in the Basay site.
  38. 38. STUDY SITE 6: Compostela Valley (MINDANAO) • 192 Plant and soil samples were collected from five sampling sites • 112 specimens belong to 28 Families and 41 Genera • characterization / chemical analysis (AAS) to determine metal content in the samples is on-going Mining activities in Maragusan, Compostela Valley are well regulated (based on interviews) by an LGU that is keen on developing Maragusan as an ecotourism destination. Fewer fatalities in mining communities were experienced in Maragusan (compared to Diwalwal) despite devastation from typhoon Pablo. Contract growing of bananas serve as viable alternative to extractive activities.
  40. 40. Selected Noteworthy Plants Collected from Toledo, Cebu Pityrogramma calomelanosDicranopteris linearisBlechnum orientale Aglaomorpha sp.Nephrolepis sp. Pteridium aquilinum
  41. 41. Fe Cu Cd Pb Zn 10,000.00 300.00 100.00 1,000.00 3,000.00 SCIENTIFIC NAME P LANT PART Pityrogramma calomelanos Shoots 904.93 244.21 6.99 1,224.97 231.07 Roots 625.15 426.00 2.10 1,286.29 67.61 Lycopodiella cernua Shoots 339.58 35.06 2.06 1,371.83 76.29 Roots 261.44 137.31 4.36 1,473.30 223.80 Pteridium aquilinum Shoots 272.52 9.09 0.18 4.33 28.50 Roots 238.26 18.68 0.90 1.36 82.51 Dicranopteris linearis Shoots* 350.70 86.76 1.70 23.55 42.24 Roots* 327.62 13.69 0.43 5.91 Melastoma malabathricum Shoots 171.03 3.67 25.53 1,635.34 217.14 Roots 418.85 252.84 2.62 574.27 245.47 Nephroplepis sp. Shoots 112.82 2.07 2.85 114.82 Rhizome 471.47 2.19 175.63 84.60 Metal Concentration (PPM) in shoots and roots of selected plants from Toledo, Cebu (number below metal indicate the threshold concentration beyond which a species may be considered a hyperaccumulator of that metal
  42. 42. Pityrogramma calomelanos – Cu Hyperaccumulator species may be facultative Nephrolepis sp. Is another potentially the facultative Cu bioindicator species Potential Copper Bio-indicator Plants from Cebu
  43. 43. Comparison of plants collected from metalliferous soils (top) and nonmetalliferous soil (bottom) in Cebu Curling, irregular leaflets and reddening can be observed in plant from Biga Pit bench Plants (ferns) collected from Sudlon forest
  44. 44. Nephrolepis sp. collected from mining site in Lutopan Nephrolepis sp. collected from a forest reserve (Sudlon) Nephrolepis sp. is a potential facultative bio-indicator fern species showing adaptation to high copper mining soils with the curling of pinna (leaflets) and the irregularity or gaps in sori.
  45. 45. Nephrolepis sp. Showing pinna curling and irregular distribution of sori Pteris melanocaulon showing irregularities (presence of gaps) in the sori Gross morphological adaptations in ferns observed in field collected plant samples
  46. 46. “Metal Bio-indicator Plant Species of the Philippines” A PCIEERD-DOST PROJECT OTHER YEAR 1 OBJECTIVES
  47. 47. PROJECT OBJECTIVE 4: Establish a protocol and a training kit to build the capacity of environmental managers and stakeholders to detect heavy metal contamination in soils using bio-indicator species. Also, establish a network of DOST partner institutions and La Salle affiliated schools; as well as provide training to network members in the identification, monitoring, propagation and conservation of bioindicator (or hyperaccumulator) species in the six sites. FOR YEAR 1 (2012-13) OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
  48. 48. 4.2 Develop a mechanism for cooperation and information sharing with partner institutions (academic, LGUs, GOs, NGOs) to sustain the network of institutions focused on monitoring and the conservation of hyperaccumulator and other noteworthy plant species in the six sites. Specifically, 4.1 Train personnel of partner institutions in the collection of taxonomic data, plant samples, seeds or propagules, and engage them in monitoring and in the conservation of bio-indicator (hyperaccumulator) species in the six sites. Project Objective 4 (Continued…)
  49. 49. YEAR 1 EXPECTED OUTPUTS for Objective 4 • A network of DOST partner institutions and De La Salle University affiliated schools within the vicinity of the study sites which will participate in the completion of the project. • Training protocol and training materials for environmental managers to recognize bio-indicator plant species
  50. 50. NETWORKING ACTIVITIES UPDATE • Metatl Bio-indicator Species Network is in place; network members include 3 La Salle Schools; 2 State Universities and College (SUCs); 6 NGOs, Church based POs and LGUs • Training of partners conducted in five study sites completed • Network partners have participated in the collection of data in five sites • Networking protocol already tested in five sites • Training Manual on Plant Collection drafted • Instructional Video on proper plant collection being completed • Restoration Research Group of DLSU graduate and undergraduate students formed; presented papers on metallophyte research
  51. 51. PROJECT STUDY SITES INSTITUTIONAL PARTNERS ENGAGED Kalinga (Luzon) Kalinga State University LGUs (Pasil, Balbalan) NCIP Marinduque (Luzon) Marinduque State College LGU (3 Barangays) Rapu-rapu (Luzon) Local church PO (SISK) Divine World College Cebu (Visayas) De La Salle Andres Soriano Memorial College, Carmen Copper Corporation (CCC) Environmental Unit Negros (Visayas) University of St. La Salle, Bacolod City, NGOs (2) Compostela Valley (Mindanao) Maragusan LGU municipal official, LS (Bislig)
  52. 52. STUDY SITE 1: Kalinga (LUZON) INSTITUTIONAL PARTNER: Kalinga State University “Rice fields in Tabuk turned hard and white from the Balatoc mining activities in Pasil and the wastes draining into the Chico River” - Dr. Eduardo Bagtang, KSU President “The people killed the manager of Balatoc to stop the mining ” - Mailani Bilabo, AO NCIP Kalinga Provincial Office Visit to KSU
  53. 53. INSTITUTIONAL PARTNER: Marinduque State College STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON) Training Kit / Plant Collections Starter Kit provided to MSC
  54. 54. Networking included consultation with the Barangay Captains of Capayang, Pili, and Bocboc, in Marinduque Island STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON)
  55. 55. Herman Ombao, faculty member of MSC came to DLSU, Manila to receive hands-on training on Plant Collections Management Cross visitation and training opportunities provided to MSC faculty STUDY SITE 2: Marinduque Island (LUZON)
  56. 56. “Are you pro mining or anti mining?’ - Nora Onate, Mayor of Rapu-Rapu “tinatanong kami ng mga tao kung taga mina daw kayo at baka raw nabayaran na kami” - Lucas Balbin, Field Guide and SISK Officer STUDY SITE 3: Rapu-Rapu Island, Albay (LUZON) INSTITUTIONAL PARTNER: Sagip Isla, Sagip Kapwa (SISK), a Church-Based People’s Organization
  57. 57. INSTITUTIONAL PARTNER: University of Saint La Salle, Bacolod (USLS) STUDY SITE 5: Negros (VISAYAS)
  58. 58. Training was provided USLS volunteer researchers STUDY SITE 5: Negros (VISAYAS)
  59. 59. USLS students, faculty and staff joined data collection STUDY SITE 5: Negros (VISAYAS)
  60. 60. INSTITUTIONAL PARTNERS: De La Salle-Andres Soriano Memorial College (DASMC) and Carmen Copper Corporation (CCC) STUDY SITE 4: Cebu (VISAYAS)
  61. 61. Training provided to participating DASMC teachers and the Environmental Unit of CCC STUDY SITE 4: Cebu (VISAYAS)
  62. 62. Networking included consultation with DENR Cebu (part of the National Clonal Forestation Project) in Balamban and with Cammita Inc. an NGO STUDY SITE 4: Cebu (VISAYAS)
  63. 63. INSTITUTIONAL PARTNERS: Maragusan Local government Agencies - Municipal Environment Office (MENRO) and the Municipal Tourism Office STUDY SITE 6: Compostela Valley (MINDANAO) “Ah dahil may mga halamang tumutubo (sa discharge pond) ibig sabihin safe din sa tao” - Foreman, Gold Processing Facility
  64. 64. De La Salle - St John Bosco College, Bislig La Salle Academy, Illigan PARTNERS IN NORTHERN MINDANAO La Salle University, Ozamis STUDY SITE 6: Compostela Valley (MINDANAO
  65. 65. GOALS FOR TRAINING PARTNERS The goal is to: help build the partner institution’s capacity to establish its own research (and teaching) collection (herbarium and living) of local plants in the area. Going beyond the project time horizon, these institutions become the “go to” authority on the plants within their biogeographic or geopolitical areas. Any future questions on the identity of plants (non-ornamental or non-food plant, especially metallophytes) can then be resolved in consultation with experts from national or international plant collection centers (like the Philippine National Museum). and to: help institutions develop their own herbarium, or at the very least, learn to collect and preserve plants in a manner that renders the specimens “identifiable” or in a way that plant taxonomists at the Philippine National Museum or the DLSU System can identify
  66. 66. LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE FIELD • requests for plant to be identified are done by sending photographs or sending plants improperly collected (missing important parts) or those not properly dried/preserved (thus may be decomposing or crumbling in plastic bags when received) • unless hands-on training and actual field collections are conducted, little of the information on proper plant collection and identification is retained • details of simple techniques/procedures on scientific plant collection and vegetation analysis can be taught more effectively through experiential learning
  67. 67. LESSONS LEARNED, continued • questions on where to buy supplies used in collecting, drying and preserving plant specimen (herbarium specimen preparation) always arise • feedback from trainees reveals that on their own, procedures and details of procedures for collecting plants can easily slip their minds without any guidebook or, even more useful, a reference video (like a how-to cooking video for scientific plant collection)
  68. 68. Training / Teaching Video Production on Plant Collection Techniques was initiated Update: * Professional Videographer / Director contracted * Production, and script completed * Graphic and animation approaches / styles designed * Outdoor and indoor shooting conducted * Rough cut reviewed * editing and post-production continues * professional audio dubbing to be scheduled
  69. 69. Ecological Restoration Research Group formed and monthly colloquia held to engage student to conduct research on bio-indicator plant species, metallophytes and phytotechnologies
  70. 70. “Metal Bio-indicator Plant Species of the Philippines” A PCIEERD-DOST PROJECT YEAR 2 OBJECTIVES 2013-2014
  72. 72. PROJECT OBJECTIVE 3: Determine the plasticity in the morphological and physiological responses and adaptations (or tolerance) of selected facultative species exposed to varying concentrations of heavy metals through a pot experiment. More specifically to: 3.1 Monitor selected facultative species to determine reproductive phenology in order to collect seeds or cuttings to propagate them. 3.2 Expose test plants to varying levels of metals to determine tolerance (germination, survival and growth) to increasing concentrations of heavy metals. FOR YEAR 2 (2013-14) OF PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
  73. 73. THANK YOU