Perception Pcm P2


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Perception Pcm P2

  1. 1. Stereotypes <ul><li>In an ideal word: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the policeman would be English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the car mechanics would be German </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the cooks would be French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the innkeepers would be Swiss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the lovers would be Italian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In a living hell: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the policeman would be German </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the car mechanics would be French </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the cooks would be English </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the innkeepers would be Italian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the lovers would be Swiss </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. How we judge CVs <ul><li>Typical competency statements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I have excellent customer service skills” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I have a highly organized and systematic approaches to work” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conventional statements are pure self-evaluations, but they have a considerable impact on assessors </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stereotypes: Information and jugement E.g.: social situation – height <ul><li>1. ”M. Jones, a student from Cambridge” </li></ul><ul><li>2. “M. Jones, demonstrator in psychology from Cambridge” </li></ul><ul><li>3. ”M. Jones, lecturer in psychology from Cambridge” </li></ul><ul><li>4. “M. Jones, senior lecturer from Cambridge” </li></ul><ul><li>5. ”Professor Jones from Cambridge” </li></ul><ul><li>1,76 m </li></ul><ul><li>1,78 m </li></ul><ul><li>1,80 m </li></ul><ul><li>1,82 m </li></ul><ul><li>1,84 m </li></ul>
  4. 4. Stereotypes A stereotype is an individual’s set of beliefs about the characteristics of a group of people . 6-4
  5. 5. Stereotypes and Physical Attractiveness <ul><li>“ what-is-beautiful-is-good” </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance - performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ more attractive man = higher in ability ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ less attractive woman = higher in ability ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Attribution Process: answering the question WHY? <ul><li>” Joe drinks too much because he has no willpower, but I need a couple of drinks after work because I am under the pressure” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Behavior can be attributed either to: <ul><li>Internal factors (personal characteristics) </li></ul><ul><li>High/low ability </li></ul><ul><li>High/low effort </li></ul><ul><li>High/low intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>External factors (environment or situation) </li></ul><ul><li>Easy/difficult task </li></ul><ul><li>Good/bad luck </li></ul><ul><li>Help from co-workers </li></ul><ul><li>Good/bad manager </li></ul>
  8. 8. Attributions of success and failure <ul><ul><li>If I got 20/20: because I work hard, I am smart, I have necessary skills … ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If I got 4/20: because the course is extremely hard, the textbook is boring and bad, the teacher is a jerk…. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Attribution errors <ul><ul><li>If my outcome is good (CEO), I am responsible for it ( my hard work and my brilliant mind) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If my outcome is bad (I am homeless, junky), it is society’s fault , I am only a victim </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Attributions of success and failure <ul><li>People tend to explain their own success by their own personal abilities and their failure by the external factors </li></ul><ul><li>People tend to explain other’s failure by other’s personal abilities and their success by external factors </li></ul>
  11. 11. Implications <ul><li>Managers tend to disproportionaly attribute behaviour to internal causes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innacurate evaluations, inappropriate promotions and layoffs => decreasing motivation and performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People are demotivated, when they attribute failure to the lack of ability </li></ul><ul><li>Attributional training sessions </li></ul>
  12. 12. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
  13. 13. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy <ul><li>The tendency for someone's expectations about another individual to cause that individual to behave in a manner consistent with these expectations </li></ul><ul><li>“ What we believe&quot; becomes our reality </li></ul><ul><li>( Thank you, Rosenthal – and your rats!) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy <ul><li>Forming expectations is natural and unavoidable! </li></ul><ul><li>Pygmalion effect : someone’s high expectations for another individual result in high performance for that individual </li></ul><ul><li>Galatea effect : an individual's high self-expectations for him- or herself lead to high performance </li></ul><ul><li>Golem effect : low expectations for another individual result in low performance for that individual </li></ul>
  15. 15. Implications for managers <ul><li>Once formed expectations about ourselves tend to be self-sustaining </li></ul><ul><li>Good managers produce employees who perform well and feel good about themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Bad managers produce employees who perform poorly and feel badly about themselves. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Keep in mind that self-fulfilling prophecy exists <ul><li>Identify the expectations that can potentially harm the project and continually guard against communicating them to others. E.g.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analysis is a waste of time. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If no one says anything, we all agree. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No cares what I think. I’ll just keep quiet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem? It’s not a problem for us. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The tool was meant to do this. It cannot do that so just forget about it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We don’t need to be creative. We just need to get it done. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have never done it before. It’s not going to work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ X”? No one has an interest in “x”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We should only do what we are explicitly told to do”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why am I here? I have nothing of value to bring to this group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s obvious that everyone agrees that “x” is true </li></ul></ul>