Perception processes Part 1
<ul><li>Perception: cognitive process of interpreting one’s environment </li></ul>
Hofstede’s experiences:  What do you see?
Hofstede’s experiences
Implications for perception <ul><li>Perception is  selective  (filtering) </li></ul><ul><li>Our  past experience  conditio...
Suppression of ambiguity <ul><li>We try to  suppress ambiguity and uncertainty  in our intuitive judgment and conscious pe...
Other Perceptual Biases <ul><li>Suppression of ambiguity   </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast errors </li></ul><ul><li>=>objects a...
Insentivity to Sample Size <ul><li>Most people choose C </li></ul><ul><li>Simple statistics : it is much more likely to ob...
What do you think about this? <ul><li>Advertizing strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>“   Four out of five dentists surveyed recom...
Other Perceptual Biases (cont) <ul><li>Hindsight biais  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- People tend to surestimate what they reall...
Why job applicants are not hired (survey of 153 US HRmanagers) <ul><li>1. Poor personal appearance </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ov...
Which option would you choose? <ul><li>Situation 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1/ Take 100 euros with certainty </li></ul><ul><li>or...
Which option would you choose? <ul><li>Situation 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1/ Lose 100 euros with certainty </li></ul><ul><li>or...
Perception bias <ul><li>Dominant preferences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation 1: 100 euros, not to gamble </li></ul></ul><...
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Perception Pcm P1

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Perception Pcm P1

  1. 1. Perception processes Part 1
  2. 2. <ul><li>Perception: cognitive process of interpreting one’s environment </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hofstede’s experiences: What do you see?
  4. 4. Hofstede’s experiences
  5. 5. Implications for perception <ul><li>Perception is selective (filtering) </li></ul><ul><li>Our past experience conditions our way of understanding the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Recency : We tend to remember recent information </li></ul><ul><li>Perception is culturally determined </li></ul>
  6. 6. Suppression of ambiguity <ul><li>We try to suppress ambiguity and uncertainty in our intuitive judgment and conscious perception </li></ul>
  7. 7. Other Perceptual Biases <ul><li>Suppression of ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast errors </li></ul><ul><li>=>objects and people are perceived in a certain context </li></ul><ul><li>Halo effect : one trait forms a general impression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ attractiveness” increases the likehood of the poor CV being asked for the interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vs Horn effect : giving someone a poor appraisal on one quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First impression error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I knew as soon as she walked through the door her face would fit the job” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Insentivity to Sample Size <ul><li>Most people choose C </li></ul><ul><li>Simple statistics : it is much more likely to observe 60% of male babies in a smaller sample than in a larger sample – a large sample is less likely deviated from the mean </li></ul>
  9. 9. What do you think about this? <ul><li>Advertizing strategy: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Four out of five dentists surveyed recommended sugarless gum for their patients who chewed gum! “ </li></ul>
  10. 10. Other Perceptual Biases (cont) <ul><li>Hindsight biais </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- People tend to surestimate what they really knew about the result – when the result is later learned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Similarity (“ same as me” or “different from me” ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- being positively predisposed toward people who seem similar to you and negatively against people who are unlike you (=> “procterization”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latest behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- basing an appraisal on the person’s recent behavior, rather than on how the person behaved through the appraisal period </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Status effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>giving those in a higher level positions consistently better appraisal, rather than on person’s characteristics </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Why job applicants are not hired (survey of 153 US HRmanagers) <ul><li>1. Poor personal appearance </li></ul><ul><li>2. Overaggressiveness </li></ul><ul><li>3. Inability to express information clearly </li></ul><ul><li>4. Lack of interest and enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>5. Lack of career planning; no purpose </li></ul><ul><li>6. Nervous; lack of confidence </li></ul><ul><li>7. Overemphasis on money </li></ul><ul><li>8. Makes excuses </li></ul><ul><li>10. Lack of tact and courtesy </li></ul><ul><li>11. Immaturity </li></ul><ul><li>12. Condemns past employers </li></ul><ul><li>13. No genuine interest in company or job </li></ul><ul><li>14. Fails to look interviewer in the eye </li></ul><ul><li>15. Sloppy application form </li></ul><ul><li>16. Little sense of humour </li></ul><ul><li>17. Arrives late at the interview </li></ul><ul><li>18. Fails to express appreciation for interviewer’s time </li></ul><ul><li>19. Fails to ask questions about the company and job </li></ul>
  12. 12. Which option would you choose? <ul><li>Situation 1 </li></ul><ul><li>1/ Take 100 euros with certainty </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>2/ The gamble: </li></ul><ul><li>50% chance to win 200 euros </li></ul><ul><li>50% chance to lose 250 euros </li></ul>
  13. 13. Which option would you choose? <ul><li>Situation 2 </li></ul><ul><li>1/ Lose 100 euros with certainty </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>2/ The gamble: </li></ul><ul><li>50% chance to win 200 euros </li></ul><ul><li>50% chance to lose 250 euros </li></ul>
  14. 14. Perception bias <ul><li>Dominant preferences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation 1: 100 euros, not to gamble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Situation 2: gamble, take a risk, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… While the objectives probabilities of gains and losses are indetical </li></ul><ul><li>People are risk-seeking in a situation in which they focus on loss </li></ul><ul><li>People are risk-averse in a situation in which they focus on the gain in the stable situation (”bird in hand”) </li></ul><ul><li>=> Our rationality is bounded ! </li></ul>

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