Foundations Of Leadership Pcm


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Foundations Of Leadership Pcm

  1. 1. Foundations of Leadership
  2. 2. Definition s : <ul><li>process used by an individual to influence group members toward the accomplishment of group goals in which the group members view the influence as legitimate ( Howell & Costly ) </li></ul><ul><li>process of influencing others to understand and agree about what needs to be done and how to do it, </li></ul><ul><li>and the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts to accomplish shared objectives ( Yukl ) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Transformational Leadership “ A leader is a dealer in hope” Napoleon
  4. 4. Transactional and Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Contingent Reward </li></ul><ul><li>Appealing to self-interest and exchanging benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Looking for mistakes and enforcing the rules to avoid mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Idealized Influence </li></ul><ul><li>Inspirational Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Consideration </li></ul>Transactional Leaders Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. Transformational Leaders Leaders who provide the four “I’s”
  5. 5. <ul><li>Idealized Influence: provides vision and sense of mission, instills pride </li></ul><ul><li>Inspirational Motivation: communicates high expectations, uses symbols to express purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual Stimulation: promotes intelligence and careful problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Consideration: gives personal attention </li></ul>
  6. 6. Transformational leadership <ul><li>capacity to change teams or companies </li></ul><ul><li>means: creating and communicating a general vision and inspiring the commitment towards the vision </li></ul><ul><li>infusing the entire group (company) with a collective sense of mission </li></ul>
  7. 7. Transformational = charismatic? Charismatic? <ul><li>Charisma: “ divine gift of grace ” </li></ul><ul><li>1/ Determination to challenge status quo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulating dissatisfaction with the present state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Where are we actually going?” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Can we do this in a different way?” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Charismatic? <ul><li>2/ Presentation of viable alternatives: a hope for new beginning that speeks to the collective imagination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A vision, which is very different from the status quo, but within the latitude of acceptance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3/ Acting unconventionnally and taking personal risks </li></ul><ul><li>4/ Confidence </li></ul>
  9. 9. C harismatic? <ul><li>5/ Mastering timing (contingencies) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launching a campaign against the tax on salt </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. C harismatic? <ul><li>6/ Dramatizing the risk. Understand the symbolic power of the David-Goliath game </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S. Jobs and Microsoft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Branson against … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>” small man who has taken on the giant forces of evil ” ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7/ Building alliances; making people feel comfortable; listening </li></ul>
  11. 11. Charismatic? <ul><li>8/ Internalization : followers adopt the leader’s ideals and goals – it is the leader’s goals that inspire followers, not the leader as an individual. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means: describing tasks as meaningful, noble, ethically correct and heroic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral quality to the goals </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Charismatic? <ul><li>9/ Creating social identification : defining followers in terms of membership (focus is a group rather than the leader’s goals) </li></ul><ul><li>All people want to belong , a good leader provides a inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  13. 13. Charismatic? <ul><ul><li>France has lost the battle, but she hasn't lost the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastering rituals and ceremonies </li></ul></ul>10/ Symbol manipulation, “management of meaning”
  14. 14. Charismatic? Leaders use framing (selectively including or excluding facts) to influence how others see and interpret reality Framing: Using Words to Shape (Manage) Meaning and Inspire Others Freud: leaders’ words “must paint in the most forcible colors, he must exaggerate, an he must repeat the same thing again and again”
  15. 15. Key skills for charismatic persons  Dynamic, forceful, verbally and non-verbally expressive (enjoy interacting with press )  High need for power (legitimacy) <ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul> Communication and rhetorical skills
  16. 16. Conditions facilitating charismatic leadership <ul><li>1/ Surfacing during crises : viewed as savior who fulfill unmet needs </li></ul><ul><li>2/ Followers’ anxiety, isolation or distress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charismatic CEO generate high performance only when environment is highly uncertain ! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3/ Groups working on new concepts and ideas (R&D) <= desribing the mission in terms of changing status quo </li></ul><ul><li>4/ Groups & organizations with a history of charismatic leadership (AA) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conditions facilitating charismatic leadership <ul><li>5 / Rapid change </li></ul><ul><li>6 / In some regions : expert power; high ranks and extensive plans (goals, procedures) </li></ul><ul><li>7 / Being physically distant from followers in everyday life (regardless of their perception) </li></ul><ul><li>8 / Some cultural differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers’ n. of years of schooling (Korea, Mexico) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Followers’ high rank (Taiwan, Mexico) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Weakness of Charismatic Leadership <ul><li>Study of 29 companies going from good to great: absence of charismatic leaders </li></ul><ul><li>More concerned by their own image than by supportiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(supportive military officers create more trust, motivation and willingness to sacrifice for the group than charismatic officers) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem once the crisis is over </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overwhelming self-confidence </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Transformational vs. Charismatic Distinct but overlapping processes (vision, mission reflecting follower’s general moral) <ul><li>TL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inspiring followers’ commitment to shared objectives developping collective efficacy and followers’ skills => followers become less dependent on the leader (delegation) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More concerned with followers’ welfaire and more supportive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be found in all organizations at all levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>more fostering an image of extraordinary competence for the leader (impression management, information restriction, unconventional behavior) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omnisent saviours who are bigger than life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More rare, more dependant on favorable conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More affective reaction </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Transformational leadership: vision <ul><li>Survey of 1500 senior leaders (870 CEOs, 20 different countries) : </li></ul><ul><li>What are the key traits or talents desirable for a CEO? </li></ul><ul><li>98% : “strong sense of vision” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Vision: Substance of Transformational Leadership <ul><li>4 main features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating Strategic Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicating the Vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing the vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Commitment </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Strategic Visions <ul><li>Strategic perspective of a realistic and attractive future that bonds employees together </li></ul><ul><li>Providing a sense of direction: superordinate organizational goal </li></ul><ul><li>May be formulated in extremely simple terms; then abstract ideas become clear through discussions and implementation </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>&quot; Your vision shouldn’t be complicated, it should be simple and it should be repeated untill you want to gag on it, over and over again &quot; </li></ul><ul><li>J. Welch </li></ul>