Quiz # 2 1. Complete the table: (10 points) 2. Name the associated M.O. with the following conditions: gastric ulcer, diab...
HISTORICAL OVERVIEW  OF  MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY
fossils of m.o. found in Australia date back to 3.5 BILLION years ago, whereas  H. sapiens  only appeared very recently
Infectious Diseases <ul><li>studies of mummies and fossils:  </li></ul><ul><li>syphilis, TB, schistosomiasis, tapeworm  in...
records of epidemics <ul><li>Egypt, 3100 BC, pestilence </li></ul><ul><li>Thebes, Egypt, 1500 BC, epidemic fevers </li></u...
significant events  in the science of MCB in the science of MCB <ul><li>development of microscope </li></ul><ul><li>use of...
<ul><li>diseases were cloaked in mystery  </li></ul><ul><li>and regarded with superstition  </li></ul>
1. development of microscope <ul><li>Robert Hooke:  </li></ul><ul><li>studied great diversity of materials from plants  </...
microscopes <ul><li>Anton Van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><li>no formal training in science </li></ul><ul><li>first person t...
examined scrapings from teeth, pond water, blood, sperm, diarrheal stool
<ul><li>sent letters to Royal Society of London </li></ul><ul><li>did not share his method for grinding or examining </li>...
<ul><li>modern day microscopes:  </li></ul><ul><li>1000x magnification </li></ul><ul><li>but basic structure and function ...
2. use of scientific method <ul><li>development of experimental system answered questions objectively (vs. superstition) <...
fall of superstition/  rise of MCB rise of MCB <ul><li>Theory of Spontaneous Generation/ Abiogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>liv...
“animacules” <ul><li>considered to be early stages in development of more complex organisms </li></ul>
experiment by  Francesco Redi
experiment by  Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur <ul><li>French chemist </li></ul><ul><li>contributions are foundations of MCB and cornerstone of modern medi...
significant events  in the science of MCB in the science of MCB <ul><li>development of microscope </li></ul><ul><li>use of...
contributions <ul><li>disproved the spontaneous generation </li></ul><ul><li>discovered what occurs during alcoholic ferme...
contributions <ul><ul><li>3. discovered the infectious agent that causes silkworm diseases and how to prevent such disease...
<ul><li>Dr. OLIVER HOLMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observe less infection in mothers giving birth in homes than in hospitals ...
<ul><li>JOSEPH LISTER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introduced aseptic technique for medical settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROBER...
Koch’s Postulates   <ul><li>a series of proofs that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>verify the germ theory of diseases </li></ul></...
<ul><li>1.  a particular M.O. must be present in all cases of the disease, and not present in healthy animals </li></ul><u...
KOCH’S Postulate  <ul><li>stressed use of lab culture and identification of microorganisms </li></ul>
<ul><li>R. Koch: invented inoculation, isolation, media, maintenance of pure cultures, and preparation of specimen </li></...
exceptions to Koch’s   Postulates certain pathogens do not grow on artificial medium,ex: MO for syphilis, leprosy --obliga...
 
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Mcb lecture 3

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MCB lecture 3 topics: milestones on the history of MCB as a science, people significant in the development of MCB as a science, Koch's principles and exceptions

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Mcb lecture 3

  1. 1. Quiz # 2 1. Complete the table: (10 points) 2. Name the associated M.O. with the following conditions: gastric ulcer, diabetes, female infertility (3 points) 3. Differentiate between 1st Golden Age of MCB and 2nd Golden Age of MCB (2 points) group of M.O. uni/multicellular prokaryotic/ eukaryotic specific name of study (bonus, 0.20 points each)
  2. 2. HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY
  3. 3. fossils of m.o. found in Australia date back to 3.5 BILLION years ago, whereas H. sapiens only appeared very recently
  4. 4. Infectious Diseases <ul><li>studies of mummies and fossils: </li></ul><ul><li>syphilis, TB, schistosomiasis, tapeworm infection existed for as long as humans and animals existed </li></ul>
  5. 5. records of epidemics <ul><li>Egypt, 3100 BC, pestilence </li></ul><ul><li>Thebes, Egypt, 1500 BC, epidemic fevers </li></ul><ul><li>China, 1122, small pox </li></ul>
  6. 6. significant events in the science of MCB in the science of MCB <ul><li>development of microscope </li></ul><ul><li>use of scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>development of medical microbiology including the germ theory </li></ul><ul><li>development of modern microbiological techniques </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>diseases were cloaked in mystery </li></ul><ul><li>and regarded with superstition </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1. development of microscope <ul><li>Robert Hooke: </li></ul><ul><li>studied great diversity of materials from plants </li></ul><ul><li>first described the cellular structures of tree barks </li></ul><ul><li>drew sketches and described “little structures” that seemed to be alive </li></ul>
  9. 9. microscopes <ul><li>Anton Van Leeuwenhoek </li></ul><ul><li>no formal training in science </li></ul><ul><li>first person to see bacteria and protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>“Father of MCB/ bacteriology/protozoology </li></ul><ul><li>hobbyist, made more than 500 microscopes with up to 300x mag </li></ul>permitted the awareness of widespread distribution of MO
  10. 10. examined scrapings from teeth, pond water, blood, sperm, diarrheal stool
  11. 11. <ul><li>sent letters to Royal Society of London </li></ul><ul><li>did not share his method for grinding or examining </li></ul><ul><li>“ My method for seeing the very smallest animacules I do not impart to others; now how to see very many animacules at one time. This I keep to myself alone .” </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>modern day microscopes: </li></ul><ul><li>1000x magnification </li></ul><ul><li>but basic structure and function are not greatly different </li></ul>
  13. 13. 2. use of scientific method <ul><li>development of experimental system answered questions objectively (vs. superstition) </li></ul>
  14. 14. fall of superstition/ rise of MCB rise of MCB <ul><li>Theory of Spontaneous Generation/ Abiogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>living things arise from non- living things </li></ul><ul><li>reinforced by observations of maggots coming out of meat, mushrooms growing on woods </li></ul><ul><li>debated for 200 years </li></ul>
  15. 15. “animacules” <ul><li>considered to be early stages in development of more complex organisms </li></ul>
  16. 16. experiment by Francesco Redi
  17. 17. experiment by Louis Pasteur Louis Pasteur
  18. 18. Louis Pasteur <ul><li>French chemist </li></ul><ul><li>contributions are foundations of MCB and cornerstone of modern medicine </li></ul>
  19. 19. significant events in the science of MCB in the science of MCB <ul><li>development of microscope </li></ul><ul><li>use of scientific method </li></ul><ul><li>development of medical microbiology including the germ theory </li></ul><ul><li>development of modern microbiological techniques </li></ul>
  20. 20. contributions <ul><li>disproved the spontaneous generation </li></ul><ul><li>discovered what occurs during alcoholic fermentation, and that different MO produce different products </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>yeast: ethyl alcohol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>acetobacter: acetic acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>developed pasteurization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>55 degrees centigrade for several minutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>present times: 63- 65 for 30 minutes or 73- 75 for 15 seconds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. contributions <ul><ul><li>3. discovered the infectious agent that causes silkworm diseases and how to prevent such diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. championed changes in hospital practices (along with Joseph Lister) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. contributed to the germ theory of diseases, which states that specific MO cause specific diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex: B. anthracis : anthrax </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Dr. OLIVER HOLMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observe less infection in mothers giving birth in homes than in hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dr. IGNAZ SEMMELWEIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observed more infection in women examined immediately after doctors come out of autopsy rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>linked MO to diseases </li></ul></ul>3. development of medical microbiology including the germ theory
  23. 23. <ul><li>JOSEPH LISTER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>introduced aseptic technique for medical settings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ROBERT KOCH </li></ul><ul><ul><li>formulated the KOCH’S POSTULATES </li></ul></ul>3. development of medical microbiology including the germ theory
  24. 24. Koch’s Postulates <ul><li>a series of proofs that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>verify the germ theory of diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish whether an organism was pathogenic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>establish the disease an organism causes </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>1. a particular M.O. must be present in all cases of the disease, and not present in healthy animals </li></ul><ul><li>2. M.O. must be isolated and grown pure </li></ul><ul><li>3. and 4. same disease must be produced when a healthy animal is inoculated with culture </li></ul><ul><li>5. same M.O. must be recovered from experimentally infected animal </li></ul>
  26. 26. KOCH’S Postulate <ul><li>stressed use of lab culture and identification of microorganisms </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>R. Koch: invented inoculation, isolation, media, maintenance of pure cultures, and preparation of specimen </li></ul><ul><li>Colleagues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R. J. Petri: invented flat glass disk in which to culture bacteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frau Hess (wife of colleague): suggested use of agar (polysaccharide from seaweed) </li></ul></ul>4. development of modern microbiological techniques
  28. 28. exceptions to Koch’s Postulates certain pathogens do not grow on artificial medium,ex: MO for syphilis, leprosy --obligate intracellular pathogens require living host cells, therefore propagate M. leprae in armadillos, Treponema pallidum for syphilis in testes of rabbits many pathogens are species-specific some diseases are synergistic infections, caused by 2 or more M.O.. ex: acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and bacterial vaginosis some pathogens become altered when grown in vitro, i.e. less or non-pathogenic some diseases are not caused by MO

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