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Jonathan swift


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Jonathan swift

  1. 1. Jonathan Swift Gulliver's Travels • • "Gulliver's Travels" - satirical fiction book by Jonathan Swift, which clearly and wittily ridiculed human and social vices. The full title of the book, "Travels in several remote nations of the world in four parts: an essay Lemuel Gulliver, first a surgeon, and then the captain of several ships" (English Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts. By Lemuel Gulliver, First a Surgeon, and then a Captain of several Ships). The first edition was published in the years 1726-1727 in London. The book became a classic moralpolitical satire, but especially the widespread popularity of its use reduced rework (and screening) for children.
  2. 2. • "Gulliver's Travels" - a software manifest Swift satirist. In the first part of the book the reader laugh at the ridiculous self-important Lilliputians. In the second, the giants in the country, changing the point of view, and it turns out that our civilization deserves the same kind of ridicule. The third is ridiculed, from different sides of the human ego pride. Finally, the fourth appear vile Jehu as a concentrate of original human nature, not refined spirituality. Swift, as usual, does not resort to moralistic teachings, giving the reader draw their own conclusions - to choose between Jehu and moral antithesis, bizarrely arrayed in the shape of a horse. Ship's surgeon Lemuel Gulliver in Lilliput falls in which they live are small, twelve times fewer people, fellows. (In the original, Liliput - Lilliput - is the name of the country itself, and its inhabitants are called "liliputiytsy» - Lilliputians). They capture Gulliver prisoner, after the local king receives homage from him with a promise of obedience and releases.
  3. 3. • • In this part of the tetralogy Swift sarcastically describes an inordinate self-esteem and the Lilliputians and their costumes, mimicking human caricature. Many of the episodes here, as in other parts of the book, a satirical hint at the modern Swift events. There is, for example, a specific satire on King George I (editor deleted in the first edition) and the prime minister Walpole, and removed the political parties and the Tories the Whigs ("vysokokabluchniki" and "nizkokabluchniki"). Religious differences between Catholics and Protestants depicted the famous allegory of a senseless war "ostrokonechniki" and "tupokonechnikov" dispute, which end should break boiled eggs. At the end of Part I of Gulliver engaged in a war between Lilliput and Blefuscu neighboring state, the same human race (commentators believe that we have in mind in France, although there is conjecture that Swift meant Ireland). Gulliver captures the entire fleet of the enemy, and decides in favor of the war on Lilliput. However, because of court intrigues Gulliver sentenced to blindness, and he is forced to flee from Lilliput. Sometimes they see here an allusion to the biography of the statesman and philosopher, Viscount Bolingbroke, a close friend of Swift, George I accused of treason and fled to France. Because of this (most popular) part of the tetralogy in the current language the word "Gulliver" is often used as a synonym for the giant, in fact Gulliver - an ordinary man of normal height, which only goes to the country of dwarfs. In the next book, Gulliver finds himself in a country of giants, and there already is a dwarf himself.
  4. 4. Part 2. Journey to Brobdingneg (Land of Giants) • Exploring a new country, Gulliver left his companions and found a giant, a farmer, growing 22 meters (in Lilliput all the dimensions 12 times smaller than ours, in Brobdingnege - 12 times more). Farmer refers to it as a gimmick and shows it for the money. After a series of unpleasant and humiliating adventure Gulliver buys Queen Brobdingnega and leaves the court as a fun sound toys. • In the small but life-threatening adventures - such as fighting giant wasps, jumping on the roof at the hands of a monkey, etc. - he discusses European policy with the king, who ironically comments on his stories. Here, as in Part I, satirically criticized by human and social mores, but not allegorically (in the guise of Lilliput), and directly through the mouth of the king of the giants
  5. 5. • • My brief history of our country over the last century cast the king in astonishment. He declared that in his opinion, this story is nothing but a heap of conspiracies, revolts, assassinations, massacres, revolutions, and expulsions, which are the worst result of greed, partisanship, hypocrisy, treachery, cruelty, rage, madness, hatred, envy , lust, anger and ambition ... Then he took me in his arms and gently caressed, approached me with the following words, which I will never forget, never forget how to pitch and how they were told: "My little friend Grildrig, you pronounced the eulogy of astonishing your fatherland, you clearly proved that ignorance, idleness and vice are often the only qualities inherent to the legislator: that laws are best explained, interpreted and applied in practice by those who are most interested in and capable of to distort, confuse and avoid them ... From what you have said is not clear that you have to occupy high positions required the possession of what some merit, is even less clear for people to complain ranks high on the basis of their virtues, that the clergy received raising for his piety and scholarship and military - for his courage and noble conduct, judges - for their integrity, senators - for love of country and government advisers - for their wisdom. As you yourself (continued the King), who spent most of his life in traveling, I think is that until now you have managed to avoid many vices of your country. But the facts noted by me in your story, as well as the answers that I worked so hard to squeeze out of you, and can not but lead me to conclude that the majority of your countrymen is disgusting breed of small reptiles, the most pernicious of all, what if -or crawling on the earth's surface. « King of the Giants - one of the few noble characters in the book of Swift. He is kind, insightful, skillfully and fairly control of their country. Gulliver's proposal to use the powder for wars of conquest, he indignantly refused, and forbade under pain of death, any mention of this diabolical invention. In Chapter VII of the King says the famous phrase: "Anyone who has ears instead of one, or a stalk of grass will be able to grow on the same field twice, and the will to mankind a great service to his country than all the politicians put together."
  6. 6. • The country has some of the features of the giants of utopia. • Knowledge of these people are very scarce, they are limited to morality, history, poetry and mathematics, but in these areas need to be fair, they have achieved great perfection. With regard to mathematics, it has a purely applied character and aims to improve agriculture and different branches of engineering, so we have it would have received a low rating ... This country is not allowed to formulate any law with the number of words in excess of the number of letters of the alphabet, and in it they account for only twenty-two, but very few reach even the laws of this length. All of them are expressed in the most clear and simple terms, and these people do not differ a cunning mind to open several meanings in the law, to write a comment on any law is considered a great crime. • • The last paragraph brings to mind discussed for nearly a century earlier "National Agreement", the political project of the English Revolution, the Levellers, which stated that: [1] • The number of laws must be reduced to fit all the laws in a single volume. Laws must be presented in English, that every Englishman could understand them. • During a trip to the coast of a box, made especially for his stay on the road, captured by a giant eagle, who would later drop it into the sea, where Gulliver picked sailors and returned to England
  7. 7. • Judging from the correspondence of Swift, in his book idea took shape around 1720. [2] Beginning work on the tetralogy refers to 1721 and in January 1723 Swift wrote: "I left the Land of Horses and remain volatile on the island ... two of my last trip will end soon "[3]. • Work on the book continued until 1725. In 1726 the first two volumes of "Gulliver's Travels" (without specifying the name of this author) are published and the remaining two were published in the next year. The book is somewhat ruffled by the censors, enjoyed unprecedented success, and the authorship of it is no secret. For several months, "Gulliver's Travels" reprinted three times, soon appeared translations into German, Dutch, Italian and other languages, as well ​ as extensive comments from the transcript Swift's allusions and allegories.
  8. 8. • Voltaire, who was then exiled in London, gave a rave review about the book and sent a few copies in France. [4] The first translation into French, for many years to become a classic, performed in 1727 the famous writer, the Abbe Pierre Defonten. Subsequent translations into other European languages for a long time (almost half a ​ century) are not on the original English and the French version. In a letter to Swift Defonten apologized for the fact that many people (almost half of the text), he rewrote the book to match the tastes of the French. In his reply Swift awkwardly aloof from authorship, gave an assessment of his creation: [5] • Supporters of Gulliver, which we are legion, claim that his book will live as long as our language, because its value is independent of the transient habits of thought and speech, and consists in a series of observations on the eternal imperfection, folly and vices of the human race . • The first French edition of "Gulliver" broke up last month, shortly followed by reissues, all defontenovskaya version was published more than 200 times. The non-degraded French translation, with superb illustrations by Grandville, appeared only in 1838. • The popularity of Swift hero brought to life the numerous imitations, fake sequels, and even staging an operetta [6] based on "Gulliver's Travels." At the beginning of the XIX century in different countries appear much shorter children's retellings of "Gulliver."