These elements relate to the position that an individual occupies in asocial group that constitutes the structure.Position - refers to the status of each member, a definition which is at times difficult to comprehend.Action - which is used here as synonymous to role because it refers to the behavior of the members, provides dynamism to a social organization. ** social structure became an element of social organization. * The result of the action performed by an individual in a given position is referred to as function.
There are some social scientists, on the other hand, who view marriagenot as an institution but as a relationship." To consider it as an "institution"is, in effect, to imply that appropriate marital roles and statuses come fromthe outside and from "above." but to call it a relationship connotes thatstatuses and roles come from within, "from the practices themselves“.Some people view marriage as a way of life, something that is more than a sexual relationship. couples who have decided to enter into such a relationship are bound to live together, in principle, for the rest of their lives. They share things together and in fact develop values that more or less reflect each other's personality.
As stated earlier, marriage is no guaranteethat couples will live together until death separates them. When in thecourse of the marriage one of the spouses does not derive any personalgrowth from the relationship, they may separate and eventually file fordivorce. In cases like this, the heaviest burden is not on the couple but on the children.
choosing.. – can be endogamy (spouse from the same community) or exogamy (spouse outside the community) - capture marriage “pikot” in the PhilippinesMeeting the terms – the bridegroom is expected to perform the bride service. The bride service could take theform of chopping firewood, carrying water from the well to the batalanplowing the fields, or other personal services. This is done to test thesincerity of the bridegroom and the seriousness of his intention to marry the woman.* Securing … - Marriage is secured through the payment of bridewealth. It meansthe transfer of land, livestock (usually a carabao), jewelry as well as an agreed-upon amount of money to the bride's parents. Bridewealth is perceived to be payment for the fertility of the woman.** In a rural community in Laguna instead of the bridewealth, theypractscebigay-kaya (roughly rranslared as rhe giving of the gifts) duringwhich the kinsmen of the bride andbridegroomoutdo each otherin givinggifts. The idea is to determine which family has more status and prestige.The gifts are given directly to the newly wed couple.Dowry – is a marital exchange in which the wife’s group provides substantial gifts to the husbands family.
Neolocalresidence means that the couple live or reside in a place far from the residence of the bride's and the bridegroom's parents.patrilocal or virilocalresidence, where a man brings his wife to his parents' house.matrilocal or uxorilocalresidence, where a wife brings her husband to her parents' house.Bilocal residence after marriage refers to a shift in residence by the couple from matrilocal to patrilocal, or vice versa.
Monogamy - One form is the serial marriage, where anindividual,male or female, has a number of spouses, but he or she is married tothemconsecutively- one after the other.
Adoptive – In Japan, since one's surname is patronymic, that is, it is fansferred fromfather to son, many wealthy families u'ould want to preserve theirsurnames by preferring sons over daughters
Sororate - This is so-called because a man remarries his deceased wife's sister. - also known as “inheritance”Sired -
Nuclear -one important characteristic of the nuclear family is the provision of a common residence by the father. In the Philippines, it is the responsibility of the father to provide a home for his family, thus making residence after marriage patrilocal in nature.family of orientation – family in which one is born and grows upfamily of procreation – formed when one marries and have childrenExtended – 3 generations
Joint – 2 generations only, the father & sonHousehold – includes all people living in one residence
Lec 10 marriage (1)
SOCIAL ORGANIZATION Sociology with Anthropology First Semester13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 1
Elements of Social Organization • Action • Structure • Function13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 2
MARRIAGE• A socially sanctioned sexual and economic union between men and women (Howard and Hattis, I992).13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 3
Reasons Why People Marry • it becomes the most common means of ensuring that both women and children are supported. • to overcome the threat of sexual competition. • they benefit from each others labor • this is one way of gaining dominance over women • considers marriage as an important social relationship13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 4
The Marriage Process…by Howard and Hattis• Choosing a spouse (endogamy/exogamy)• Meeting the terms (bride service)• Securing the marriage (bridewealth/dowry)13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 5
The Marriage Ceremony • “Pamanhikan” - asking the hand of the bride from her kinsmen. - Interrogating the bridegroom by the bride’s kinsmen “ilan na bang bahay at hagdanan ang iyong dinaanan?” - Preparing foods together with the utensils by the bridegroom’s13/12/2012 kinsmen. social organization/marriage/erikchoi 6
The Marriage Ceremony- Choosing of the wedding date & place- Choosing of sponsors (principal & secondary)- Choosing of a color motif- On the wedding day…** bride proceeds to the church from her parents’ house** bride is expected to come late to lend some “drama” to the occasion13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 7
The Marriage Ceremony ** the bridegroom with his best man stay & wait at the foot of the altar ** bridal entourage march down the aisle ** march of the bride escorted by the father ** the ceremony itself by the priest13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 8
Residence after Marriage• either… –Matrilocal –Patrilocal –Neolocal –Bilocal13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 9
Forms of Marriage • Monogamy - union of the a man and a woman. - universal form • Polygamy - plural union in which an individual is married to several individuals at the same time. ** Polyandry - form of plural union which involves a woman and several men.13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 10
Forms of Marriage• Adoptive Marriage - adoption of the prospective son-in-law before the wedding takes place. - found in Japan• Fictive Marriage - a union between two women, an older and a younger one. - relationship is established for companionship only. - practiced by Nuer tribe in Africa13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 11
Forms of Marriage • Sister Exchange - union of a bridegroom and a bride only with the consent & agreement that the bridegroom’s sister will marry the bride’s brother. • Bride Capture - capturing of the a bride by the bridegroom13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 12
Forms of Marriage• Sororate Marriage - referred to as sister-in-law marriage.• Levirate Marriage - known as the brother-in-law marriage.• Ghost Marriage - This is similar to the levirate marriage. The difference lies in the fact that children by the second marriage are considered to be "sired" by the dead husband. The deceased husbands brother, who is the second husband, acts as a surrogate."13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 13
FAMILY • A group of people who are related to one another by bonds of blood, marriage or adoption and who live together, form an economic unit, and bear and raise children. (Benokaritis, 2001 & Kendall, 1999) • A relationships in which people live together with commitment from an economic unit and care for any young, and consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group. (Kendall, 2001)13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 14
Forms of Family• Nuclear Family - consist of the father, the mother, and their natural-born children.• Extended Family - consists of two nuclear families: the family of orientation and the family of procreation. - vertical extension13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 15
Extended Family• family of orientation - one is born and grows up• family of procreation – one marries and have children13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 16
Forms of Family • Joint Family - This family structure is so-called because the married siblings, together with their spouses and children reside in one house. - horizontal extension • Household - refers to the members of the13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 17 family in general.
Forms of Family• Truncated Family - lays stress on the grandparents and children relationship.13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 18
Changes in the FamilyCauses: – Peer group – Mass media – TechnologyEffects: • “Cool off” • Legal Separation • Divorce • Annulment13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 19
KINSHIP • refers to a system of relationships as well as rights and responsibilities of relatives. • Is a relationship between any entities that share a genealogical origin, through either biological, cultural, or historical descent13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 20
Kinship TerminologiesClassification:• Vocative - are forms of addressing a relation. e.g.: Kuya - for an older brother ate - for an older sister impo - for grandparents ima - for mothers amang - for father.13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 21
Kinship Terminologies• Referential – refers to the exact relationship to an individual. e.g.: father, mother, sister, brother, cousin, grandparents• Classificatory - are those which lump together a number of relations under one single term. e.g.: brother – may refer to an older or younger sibling cousin – may refer to the children of your mother’ siblings or father’s siblings13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 22
Kinship Terminologies• Descriptive - shows the specific and exact relation of the individual to one another. e.g.: mother’s elder sister mother’s sister’s son13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 23
13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 24
• Tabulate the forms of family and write the advantages & disadvantages of such.13/12/2012 social organization/marriage/erikchoi 25