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Prepared by: Monica San Juan
• Begin in the 19th century as a pragmatic view of
history that offered the working classes of society
an opportunity to c...
• Root of Marxist literary
theory
• Born in Tier, Germany in
1818
• His writings became the
basis of Marxism
Approach.
• D...
Marxism
Our place in the
society determine
our consciousness
study the
relationship between
a text and the
society that re...
Works
of
Marx
German
Ideology
Das Capital
The
Communist
Manifesto
• Marx declares that “consciousness does not
determine life: life determines consciousness.”
• Humans define themselves.
•...
• Core belief of Marxism
• Marx believed that society had progressed from one
economic system to another
• As society prog...
1. Base
Engenders and controls all human institutions and
ideologies
2. Superstructure
All social and legal institutions...
Feudalism
(Social System)
Capitalism
(Production for profit)
Socialism
(Social Ownership)
Communism
(Society’s ultimate go...
Proletariat
• class of society which
does not have ownership
of the means of
production.
Bourgeoisie
• wealthy class that ...
• States that the history of all existing societies is
the history of class struggle
• They declare that the capitalists, ...
• History became the basis for 20th century
Marxism, socialism, and communism
• History, an understanding of people and th...
• The ideology of a society such as the
beliefs, values and culture is determined
by the upper class.
• The rich become ri...
Proponents and their contributions
• G. K. Plehanov – Translated “The Communist
Manifesto”
• Russia – first country to promote Marxist
principles
• Leon Trot...
• Believed that a detailed analysis of symbols, images and
other literary devices (formalism) would expose class
conflict ...
• Neo-Marxist group devoted to developing western
Marxist principles
• A text reveals a culture’s fragmentation and not it...
• He said that there is a complex relationship
between the base and the superstructure
• The bourgeoisie establish and mai...
• Production Theory
The superstructure can and does influence the base
• Althusser believes that the prevailing ideology
...
• Fredric Jameson believes that the function of
literary analysis is to uncover the political
unconscious present in a tex...
• Terry Eagleton
Believes that literature is neither a product of pure
inspiration nor the product of the author's feelin...
• Marxism is not primarily a literary theory that can
be used to interpret a text.
• It is a set of social, economic, and ...
• Marxism is material, not spiritual.
• All of our actions and responses to such
activities are related in some way to our...
• The structure of our society is built on a series of
ongoing conflicts between social classes.
• Capitalists control the...
Marxism
Class
Struggle
Ideology
expressed
by author
Bourgeoisie
vs.
Proletariat
• Concerns for the working classes and the
individual
• Recognizing the interrelatedness of all human
activities
• Deals w...
1. Author’s life
2. Time/period in which the text was written
3. Cultural milieu
4. Ideology expressed by the author
• Expressed by the author, as evidenced through
his or her fictional world, and how this ideology
interacts with the reade...
• The task of the critic is to uncover the ideology
and show how such a destructive ideology
entraps the working classes a...
1. Is there an outright rejection of socialism in the
work?
2. Does the text raise fundamental criticism about
the emptine...
5. At what points are actions or solutions to
problems forced or unreal?
6. Are characters from all social levels equally ...
9. How clearly do narratives of disillusionment and
defeat indicate that bourgeoisie values
(competition, acquisitiveness,...
Marxism presentation
Marxism presentation
Marxism presentation
Marxism presentation
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Marxism presentation

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Marxism Theory by Karl Max, et al
An approach to literary criticism

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Marxism presentation

  1. 1. Prepared by: Monica San Juan
  2. 2. • Begin in the 19th century as a pragmatic view of history that offered the working classes of society an opportunity to change their world • It offered humanity a social, political, economic, and cultural understanding of the nature of reality, society and the individual.
  3. 3. • Root of Marxist literary theory • Born in Tier, Germany in 1818 • His writings became the basis of Marxism Approach. • Died on 14 March 1883
  4. 4. Marxism Our place in the society determine our consciousness study the relationship between a text and the society that reads it. focuses on class relations and societal conflict People’s experiences are responsible for shaping and developing an individual personal’s consciousness
  5. 5. Works of Marx German Ideology Das Capital The Communist Manifesto
  6. 6. • Marx declares that “consciousness does not determine life: life determines consciousness.” • Humans define themselves. • He said that our ideas and concepts about ourselves fashioned in everyday discourse in the language of real life.
  7. 7. • Core belief of Marxism • Marx believed that society had progressed from one economic system to another • As society progresses from a feudal system to a more market-based economy, the actual process from producing, distributing, and consuming goods becomes more complex • People’s functions within the economic system become differentiated.
  8. 8. 1. Base Engenders and controls all human institutions and ideologies 2. Superstructure All social and legal institutions, political and educational systems, religions, and art
  9. 9. Feudalism (Social System) Capitalism (Production for profit) Socialism (Social Ownership) Communism (Society’s ultimate goal “the worker’s paradise”)
  10. 10. Proletariat • class of society which does not have ownership of the means of production. Bourgeoisie • wealthy class that rules society.
  11. 11. • States that the history of all existing societies is the history of class struggle • They declare that the capitalists, or the bourgeoisie, had successfully enslaved the working class, or the proletariat through economic policies and production of goods.
  12. 12. • History became the basis for 20th century Marxism, socialism, and communism • History, an understanding of people and their actions and beliefs is determined by economic conditions. • Marx maintains that an intricate web of social relationships emerges when any group of people engage in the production of goods.
  13. 13. • The ideology of a society such as the beliefs, values and culture is determined by the upper class. • The rich become richer, while the poor become poorer
  14. 14. Proponents and their contributions
  15. 15. • G. K. Plehanov – Translated “The Communist Manifesto” • Russia – first country to promote Marxist principles • Leon Trotsky – became the founding father of Marxist literary criticism as he authored Literature and Revolution (1925)
  16. 16. • Believed that a detailed analysis of symbols, images and other literary devices (formalism) would expose class conflict and expose the relationship between the superstructure and the base • Reflectionism Approach to literary analysis declaring that texts directly reflect a society's consciousness Emphasizing negative effects of capitalism such as alienation
  17. 17. • Neo-Marxist group devoted to developing western Marxist principles • A text reveals a culture’s fragmentation and not its wholeness
  18. 18. • He said that there is a complex relationship between the base and the superstructure • The bourgeoisie establish and maintain what he calls hegemony • As sustainers of the economic base, the dominant class thus enjoys the prestige of the masses and controls the ideology that shapes individual consciousness • Literature actually concerns itself with the bourgeoisie
  19. 19. • Production Theory The superstructure can and does influence the base • Althusser believes that the prevailing ideology forms the attitudes of people in society through a process he calls interpellation or “hailing the subject.” • The people’s worldview is thus craftily shaped by a complex network of messages sent to them through the elements contained in the superstructure, including the arts.
  20. 20. • Fredric Jameson believes that the function of literary analysis is to uncover the political unconscious present in a text. He said that all critics must be aware of their own ideology when analyzing a text and must therefore possess dialectical self-awareness.
  21. 21. • Terry Eagleton Believes that literature is neither a product of pure inspiration nor the product of the author's feelings. Literature is a product of an ideology. This ideology is a result of the social interactions that occur between people in definite times and locations. The critic’s task is to reconstruct an author’s ideology.
  22. 22. • Marxism is not primarily a literary theory that can be used to interpret a text. • It is a set of social, economic, and political ideas that its followers believe will enable them to interpret and more importantly, change the world.
  23. 23. • Marxism is material, not spiritual. • All of our actions and responses to such activities are related in some way to our culture. • In order to understand ourselves and our world, we must first acknowledge the interrelatedness of all our actions within the society. • It is our cultural and our social circumstances that determine who we are.
  24. 24. • The structure of our society is built on a series of ongoing conflicts between social classes. • Capitalists control the society’s ideology or social consciousness (hegemony) • The focus of literature is the relationship of a society’s superstructure to other elements and to the base. • Marxism addresses the cry of working class
  25. 25. Marxism Class Struggle Ideology expressed by author Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat
  26. 26. • Concerns for the working classes and the individual • Recognizing the interrelatedness of all human activities • Deals with more than the conventional literary themes, matters of style, plot, characterization and the usual emphasis on figures of speech and other literary devices
  27. 27. 1. Author’s life 2. Time/period in which the text was written 3. Cultural milieu 4. Ideology expressed by the author
  28. 28. • Expressed by the author, as evidenced through his or her fictional world, and how this ideology interacts with the reader’s personal ideology. • Expose class conflict with the dominant class and its ideology being imposed
  29. 29. • The task of the critic is to uncover the ideology and show how such a destructive ideology entraps the working classes and oppresses them in every area of their lives. • A critic may begin by showing how an author’s text reflects his or her ideology through an examination of the fictional world’s characters. Setting, society, or any other aspect of the text. • It could also be by examining the history and the culture of the times reflected in the text
  30. 30. 1. Is there an outright rejection of socialism in the work? 2. Does the text raise fundamental criticism about the emptiness of life in bourgeois society? 3. In portraying society, what approximation of totality does the author achieve? What is emphasized? What is ignored? 4. How well is the fate of the individual linked organically to the nature of societal forces? What are the work’s conflicting forces?
  31. 31. 5. At what points are actions or solutions to problems forced or unreal? 6. Are characters from all social levels equally well sketched? 7. What are the values of each class in the work? 8. What is valued most? Sacrifice? Assent? Resistance?
  32. 32. 9. How clearly do narratives of disillusionment and defeat indicate that bourgeoisie values (competition, acquisitiveness, chauvism) are incompatible with human happiness? 10.Does the protagonist defend or defect from the dominant values of society? Are those values in ascendancy or decay?

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