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Candassu

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Candassu

  1. 1. úÁÏžÁ¬ÁÅð¨ÁÅ©Áô: ˆÁ ¥Á ÂœÂë Â¨Ï¨Í „úÁÖ§ÃÏúÁ £™ÊžÃ ¨ÁÅ©Áô. žÄþà ÁŧÁÅà "I".³ÂŸÂ§Á›ÏÂ ÿÁë³Âí¨Å ¨ÁÅ©Áô¨©ÁôœÂ¦. I I I I„žÂ: œÁ, þÁ, žÃí, ÁìÁŧÁÅ©Áô: žÃí ¥Á ÂœÂë Â¨Ï¨Í „úÁÖ§ÃÏúÁ £™ÊžÃ ÁŧÁÅ©Áô. žÄþà ÁŧÁÅà"U".³ÂŸÂ§Á›ÏÂ žÄ§ÂԨŠÁŧÁÅ©Áô¨©ÁôœÂ¦. U U U U U„žÂ: Í, ¬ÁÏ, Ë, ¨Â, ¦É¨÷ÁŧÁÅ, ¨ÁÅ þçÁߦÁÏ úʬÊý¡Áôå™ÁÅ ³ÂŸÂ§Á›ÏÂ ¡Ë „žÂÿÁ§Á›¨¨ÍúÁÆ¡ÃþÁýÅÛ €¯Á§Â¨ ¡ËþÁ ©Âýà ÁŧÁÅà¨ÅÏúÁŜ§ÁÅ.¬Á¥ÁÅêÂà¯Á§Â¨Å („žÂ: œÁë, ÁÅì ©ÁÏýéÃ), žÃíœÂí¨Å („žÂ: œÁà, ¡Áôå©ÁÏýéÃ) ¥ÁÅÏžÁÅ ©ÁôþÁä €¯Á§ÂþÃä ÁŧÁÅ©ÁôþÁÅ úʳÂà¦.„žÂ:"¥ÃœÁë" €þÊ ¡ÁžÁÏ¨Í ©Ã™ÃÂ úÁƬÊà "¥Ã" þà ¨ÁÅ©ÁôÂ ÁŧÃàÏúÃþÂ"œÁë" €þÊ ¬ÁÏ ¦ÁōÂà¯Á§ÁÏ ¥ÁÅÏžÁÅ „Ï™ÁýÏ ©Á¨þÁ €žÃ ÁŧÁÅ©Á©ÁôœÁÅÏžÃ.€¨ÂÊ "œÁ¡Áôå" €þÊ ¡ÁžÁÏ¨Í "¡Áôå" €þÊ žÃíœÂí¯Á§ÁÏ ¥ÁÅÏžÁÅ „Ï™ÁýÏ©Á¨þÁ "œÁ" ÁŧÁÅ©Áô €©ÁôœÁÅÏžÃ.
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  3. 3. €ÏœÁê ¨ÁÅ©Áô œÁ Á›Ï : U U I€¨ÂÊžÃ ÁŧÁÅ©Áô ¤Á Á›Ï : U I I¥ÁŸÁê ÁŧÁÅ©Áô ü Á›Ï : I U I€ÏœÁê ÁŧÁÅ©Áô ¬Á Á›Ï : I I U2. ‚ύ̍Á ¡ÁžÁãœÃ ˆ¥ÃýÏýÊ"¦Á ¥Á  œÂ §Â ü ¤Â þÁ ¬Á ¨ ÁÏ"€þÊ phrase þà ÁϘÁ¬ÁáÏ úɦÁêýÏ.‚ÏžÁÅ¨Í ‚¡Áôå™ÁÅ ˆ Á›Ï Â©Â¨ÏýÊ  €¯Á§ÁÏ žÁÁÓ§Á ¥ÉÅžÁ¨Å ¡ÉýÃÛ¥ÁÆ™ÁÅ €¯Á§Â¨þÁÅ œÄ¬ÁōÌþà ¨ÁÅ©Áô ÁŧÁÅ©Áô¨Å ÁŧÃàÏú¨Ã.„žÂ: ¦Á Á›Ï : "¦Á ¥Á  œÂ" €ÏýÊ I U U€¨ÂÊ ¬Á Á›Ï : "¬Á ¨ ÁÏ" €ÏýÊ I I U¥ÄÁÅ ˆ ¡ÁžÁãœÃ œÊ¨ÃÁÂ €þáìÊà  ¡ÁžÁãœÃþà €þÁŬÁ§ÃÏúÁ ©ÁúÁÅÖ.¦ÁœÃ - ±Âë¬Á:œÉ¨ÅÁÅ Â©Âê¨¨Í „¡Á¦ÉÃÏúÊ ¡ÁžÁê §ÄœÁŨÍì ú¨ ©Á§ÁÁŬÁϬÁÑÇœÁÏ þÁÅÏúà žÃÁÅ¥ÁœÃ úʬÁōÌþÁä ©ÁÇœÁà §ÄœÁŨÊ. "„œÁ娥Á ¨","úÁÏ¡ÁÁ¥Á ¨", "¥ÁœÊà¤ÁÏ", "ªÂ§ÁÆâ¨Ï" ©ÄýÃ¨Í ¡Áë¥ÁÅŽ¥ËþÁ©Ã. €¦œÊœÉ¨ÅÁōÁÅ ¡ÁëœÊêÁ¥ËþÁ ¡ÁžÁê §ÄœÁŨŠ¨ÊÁ ±Í¨ÊžÁÅ. €úÁÖϏœɨŏÁōÁÅ úÉÏžÃþÁ©Ã "ÁÏžÁÏ", "¬Ä¬ÁÏ", "ÄœÁ ¡ÁžÂê¨Å : œÊýÄœÃ -ý©É¨žÃ". €¦œÊ ‚¨Â ¬ÁϬÁÑÇœÁÏ þÁÅϙà ÁëÿÃÏúÃþÁ ©ÁÇœÂà¨þÁōÁÆ™Â, œÉ¨ÅÁÅ œÁþÁ ¡ÁëœÊêÁœÁ¨þÁÅ ±ÂžÃÏúÊ ¬ÄíÁ§ÃÏúÃÏžÃ.¬ÁϬÁÑÇœÁ ©ÁÇœÂ਍ÁÅ œÉ¨ÅÁÅ úʧÃÖþÁ ©ÃªÊ´Â¨Å "¦ÁœÃ", "±Âë¬Á"þæÁ¥Á ¨Å.
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  5. 5. ¡ÁžÁê ±ÂžÁϨÍþà §ÉÏ™Í €¯Á§ÂþÃä ±Âë³Â¯Á§ÁÏ €Ïý§ÁÅ. œÉ¨ÅÁŨͩÁÇœÂਨÍ, ÁÏžÁ ¡ÁžÁêÏ¨Í €þÃä ±ÂžÂ¨¨Í ±Âë³Â¯Á§ÁÏ ŠÁÑýʄϙ¨þʞà þæÁ¥ÁÏ. ±Âë³Â¯Á§ÁÏ €þÃä ±ÂžÂ¨¨ÍþÁÆ ŠÊ ÁÅ›ÃÏœÁϨ̈́ϙÁþÁÁѧÁ¨ÊžÁÅ.¥ÁÅÏžÁÅ ¥ÁÅÏžÁÅ ©Ã©Á§ÃÏúÁ£Í¦Ê ¡ÁžÁê§ÄœÁŨ „žÂÿÁ§Á›¨¨Í ƒþæÁ¥Á ¨þÁÅ Á¥ÁþÃÏúÁ ©ÁúÁÅÖ.©ÁÇœÂà¨Å„œÁ娥Á ¨ƒ ©ÁÇœÁàÏ þÁ™ÁÁ ‚¨Â „ÏýÅÏžÃ:"œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ œÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ œÂ"|____ ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë ____| 10 ©Á €¯Á§ÁÏ œÍžÄþÃþà ¥ÁÆ™ÁÅ ¥ÁÆ™ÁÅ €¯Á§Â¨ÅÂ ©Ã¤ÁüÃÏúà Á›Â¨Å ÁŧÃà¬Êà¤Á §Á þÁ ¤Á ¤Á §Á ©ÁUII UIU III UII UII UIU IU€ÏýÊ „œÁ娥Á ¨ ©ÁÇœÁàÏ¨Í "¤Á §Á þÁ ¤Á ¤Á §Á ©Á" Á›Â¨Å ©Á³Âঠ10©Á €¯Á§ÁÏ œÍ ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë €þà úÉ¡Áå©ÁúÁÅÖ.„žÂ: (žÄþÃþà - ¥ÄÁÅ œÉ¨Ã¬ÃþÁ ‚œÁ§Á „œÁ娥Á ¨ ¡ÁžÂê¨þÁÅ - ¡ËþÁúÉ¡ÃåþÁ þÁ™ÁÁ œÄ§ÁÅ¨Í úÁžÁ©ÁýÏ €¨©ÂýÅ úʬÁōÌÏýÊ ¡ÁžÂê¨Å ˆ©ÁÇœÂàþÍà úÉÏžÃþÁ©Í ÁŧÃàÏúÁýÏ, ¡ÁžÁêÏ ÁϘÁ¬ÁáÏ úʦÁýÏ, §Â¦ÁýϬÁŨũÁ©ÁôœÁÅÏžÃ)œÌÏ™Á¥ÁÅ þʍÁ žÁÏœÁ¥ÁÅþÁÅ œÍ§Á¡Áô £ÌüئÁÅ ©Â¥Á ÿÁ¬Áà¥ÁÅþ÷¥ÉÏ™ÁŏÁ ¥Íë¦ÁÅ ÁüÉبÅþÁÅ ¥É¨ìþà úÁÆ¡Áô¨Å ¥ÁÏžÁöÁ¬Á¥ÁÅþ÷
  6. 6. Ìϙ̍Á ÁÅüÅØ §ÁÆ¡Á¥ÁÅþÁ Í§ÃþÁ ©ÃžÁꨍɨì þÌüة˦ÁÅϙəà ±Â§ÁíœÄ œÁþÁ¦Á ¦É¦ Á›ÂŸÃ¡Á þčÁÅ ¥ÌëÉÑžÁþ÷¡Ë ¡ÁžÁêÏ¨Í ¥ÉÅžÁýà ±ÂžÂþÃä „œÁ娥Á ¨Ã ¬ÁÆúÃÏúÃþÁ þÁ™ÁÁ¡ÁëÂ§ÁÏ ÌÏúÉÏ ©Ã™Á žÄ¬Ã §Â¬Êà:œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ þÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ þÂœÌÏ™Á¥ÁÅ þʍÁ žÁÏœÁ ¥ÁÅþÁÅ œÍ§Á¡Áô £ÌüئÁÅ ©Â¥Á ÿÁ¬Áà ¥ÁÅþ÷úÁƪ§ ƒ ¡ÁžÁêÏ¨Í ¡ÁžÂ¨ €¨ÃìÁ ¥ÁþÁÏ §Â¬ÁōÁÅþÁä þÁ™ÁÁÃ ‡ÏœÁžÁÁÓ§ÁÂ „ÏžÍ?!(ƒ ¡ÁžÁêÏ „žÂÿÁ§Á›Â œÄ¬ÁōͩÁ™ÂþÍà ‚žÌÁÂ§Á›Ï!) €þÃä ¡ÁžÂê¨Íì ‚ÏœÁ žÁÁÓ§Á Á¨¦Á „Ï™ÁÁ±Í©ÁúÁÅÖ. ƒ¡ÁžÁêϨÍþÊ þÂ¨ÅÍ ±ÂžÁÏ úÁÆ™ÁÏ™Ã:œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ þÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ þ¦ÁÅϙəà ±Â§Áí œÄœÁ þÁ¦Á ¦É¦Á ›ÂŸÃ¡Á þčÁÅ ¥ÌëÉÑ žÁþ÷¡ÁžÂ¨ ©Ã§ÁÅ¡Áô ÌÏúÉÏ €¬ÁÿÁüϏ „ÏýÅÏžÃ. €¦þ ¡ÁžÂê¨ þÁ™ÁÁ¡ÁýÅÛ£™Â¨ÏýÊ ÌÏœÁ Â¨Ï ¡ÁžÂê¨þà ‚¨Â úÁžÁ©ÁÁ œÁ¡ÁåžÁÅ. þÁ™ÁÁÌÏœÁ ¡ÁýÅÛ úÍÂэÁ ‚¨Â ©Ã§Á©ÁÁÅÏ™ÂþÊ ¡ÁžÂêþÃä úÁžÁ©ÁúÁÅÖ.‚ÏÍ Á¥ÁþÃÏúÁ žÁÁÓ ©ÃªÊ«ÁÏ ˆ¥ÃýÏýÊ, ¥ÁþÁÏ §Â¬ÁōÌþÁä þÁ™ÁÁ¨Í,§ÉÏ™Í ³Â§Ã "œÂþÁþÁ" ©ÁúÊÖ ¥ÁÅÏžÁÅ ÌÏúÉÏ pause ©ÁúÃÖ "œÂþÁþÁ"œÂ®ÁÏ¨Í žÉ£ç ¨ÂÂ ¥ÁÏúà …¡ÁôœÍ ©Á¬ÁÅàÏžÃ. ƒ œÂþÁþÁ ¨Í "œÂ" ¦ÁœÃ³ÂáþÁÏ Â©ÁýÏ ¦Á žÁÇúÃ׍ÁÏ ÂžÁÅ. úɱÌåúÊ֞ʥÃýÏýÊ ¡ÁžÂêþÃä ¥ÁþÁϧ¬ÁōÁÅþÁä þÁ™ÁÁ¨Í úÁžÃ©ÃœÊ ¦ÁœÃ ³ÂáþÁÏ žÂþÁÏœÁýžÊ œÉ¨Å¬ÁÅàϞà -€¯Á§Â¨Å ¨ÉÊѬÁōͩÁ¨¬ÃþÁ ¡Áþà ¨ÊžÁÅ.‚¡Áôå™ÁÅ formal Â Á›©Ã¤ÁüþÁ úʬà úÁÆžÂâÏ:¤Á §Á þÁ ¤Á ¤Á §Á ©Á
  7. 7. UII| U I U| I I I| U I I| U I I| U I U| I UÌϙ̍Á ÁÅüÅØ §ÁÆ ¡Á¥ÁÅþÁ Í§ÃþÁ ©ÃžÁê¨ É¨ì þÌ üØ©Ë"žÃíœÁíÏ / ¬ÁÏ ¦ÁōÁàÏ ¥ÁÅÏžÁ§Á €¯Á§Â¨þÁÅ ÁŧÁÅ©Áô úʳÂà¦" €þʬÁÆœÁëÏ ©Á¨ì "ÁÅüÅØ", "©ÃžÁê", "É¨ì", "þÌüØ" ¨þÁÅ "… ƒ" Â ÁŧÁÅà¡ÉýÂÛ¥ÁÅ.±Âë¬Á €þÃä ±ÂžÂ¨¨ÍþÁÆ £ÃÏžÁÅ ¡Áõ§ÁíÁ "™Á" ¬Á§Ã±Í¦ÏžÃ.¦ÁœÃ : 1©Á €¯Á§ÁÏ "ÌÏ" - "Í" 10©Á €¯Á§ÁÏ ¬Á§Ã±Í¦ÏžÃ.úÁžÁÅ©Á§ÁŨŠ€þÃä ±ÂžÂ¨þÁÆ ‚¨ÂÊ ©Ã¤ÁüÃÏúà ¬Á§Ã úÁƬÁōͩÁúÁÅÖ.þÁ™ÁÁ ¡ÁëÂ§ÁÏ úÁžÁÅ©ÁôœÁÆ ¦ÁœÃ ³ÂáþÂþÃä ÁŧÃàÏúÁ™ÁÏ, ¡ÁžÁêÏ¨Í €þÃäÁ›Â¨Æ ¬Á§ÃÂ ÁŞçÃÏžÄ ¨ÊþÃžÄ ÁþáÉýÛýÏ ³ÂŸÁþÁ úʦÁ ¨Ã.¡ÁžÁêÏ¨Í €ÁÑ™ÁÁљ €¯Á§Â¨þà ©ÁžÃ¨Ã ‡ÁÑ™Á ¡ÁžÁêÏ þÁ™ÁÁœÁ¡ÃåÏžÄ ÁŧÃàÏúÁ™ÁÏ ¡ÁžÁê þÁ™ÁÁ €¨©Á™ÁýÏ¨Í ¥ÁÏúà ³ÂŸÁþÁþìÁÅàÏžÃ.úÁÏ¡ÁÁ¥Á ¨‚žÃ „œÁ娥Á ¨Ã ¬ÁÿÁ-©ÁÇœÁàÏ €þà úÉ¡Áå©ÁúÁÅÖ. žÄþÃÄ „œÁ娥Á ¨Ä„þÁä ŠÁÑýÊ œÊ™Â ˆ¥ÃýÏýÊ „œÁ娥Á ¨¨Íþà ¥ÉÅžÁýà ÁŧÁÅ©Áô,úÁÏ¡ÁÁ¥Á ¨¨Í §ÉÏ™ÁÅ ¨ÁÅ©Áô¨©ÁôœÁÅÏžÃ.€ÏýÊ „œÁ娥Á ¨ þÁ™ÁÁ"œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ œÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ œÂ" €¦œÊ |____ ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë ____| 10 ©Á €¯Á§ÁÏ œÍúÁÏ¡ÁÁ¥Á ¨ þÁ™ÁÁ"œÁþÁ þÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ œÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ œÂ"
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  10. 10. ýƍďÂ: ªÂ§ÁÆâ¨Ï ¡ÁžÁêÏ 4 ±ÂžÂ¨¨Í"¥Á ¬Á ü ¬Á œÁ œÁ Á" €þÊ Á›Â¨Å ©Á³Âà¦. 13©Á €¯Á§ÁÏœÍ ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë.„žÂ:üÏ™Â¡Ë Á¡Ã §ÂüÅ ¥ÁÅÏžÁÅ ¬ÃœÁ ©ÂüêÊë›ÃþÃþ÷ ÁƧÃÖ þÊžÁÏ™ÁÏ£Åþ÷ Ìþà žÍ¨Å ¬ÁêÏžÁþÁ¥ÁÅ ¥ÄžÁþ÷ þ§à ³Â§ÃÏúÁÅúÁÅþ÷ÂϙĩÁ¥ÁÅé ŸÁ§ÃÏúà ¢Á¨ÅӛřÁÅ ¥ÁƍÁÏ üÉÏ™ÁÅ úÁÅþÁä¡Áôå ™ÌÁÑÏ™ÁÅþÄä ¥ÉŧÁ þ¨ÃÏ¡Á™ÁÅ ÁŧÁůÂé þÁ ¬ÁÏŸÃÏ¡ÁÂþ÷(ƒ ¡ÁžÁêÏ Áƙ "±ÂÏ™Á©ÍžÍêÁ ©Ãü¦Á ¨Å" ¨Í §Â¦Á£Â§Á ÁýÛϨÍþÞÊ)žÄþÃþà þÁ™ÁÁ þÁþÁŬÁ§ÃÏúà úÁžÁ©ÁýÏ, Á› ©Ã¤ÁüþÁ, ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃëÁŧÃàÏúÁýÏ úÁžÁÅ©Á§ÁŨÁÅ €¤Âê¬ÁÏ ÃÏžÁ ©ÁžÃ¨Ã ¡É™ÁÅœÁÅþÂäþÁÅ!±Âë¬Á ©Ã«Á¦ÁÏ¨Í ¥Á ÂœÁëÏ §ÉÏ™ÁÅ úÃþÁä ©Ã«Á¦Á ¨Š¬ÁÆúóÂàþÁÅ.1. ±ÂžÁÏ¨Í ¥ÉÅžÁýà €¯Á§ÁÏ¨Í ÁþÁÁ ¬ÁÅþÂä ©Á¬Êà, žÂþÍà Áƙ ±Âë¬ÁþæÁ¥ÁÏ ©Á§Ãà¬ÁÅàÏžÃ. €ÏýÊ ¥ÉÅžÁýà ±ÂžÁÏ¨Í ¥ÉÅžÁýà €¯Á§ÁÏ ÁþÁōÁ£ÃÏžÁÅ ¡Áõ§ÁíÁ¥ËþÁžËœÊ ¥ÃÁœÂ ¥ÁÆ™ÁÅ ±ÂžÂ¨¨Íþà ¥ÉÅžÁýà €¯Á§Â¨ÅÁƙ £ÃÏžÁÅ ¦ÁōÁà¥ËþÁ©Ê €¦ „ϙ¨Ã. (ƒ ¬ÁÆœÁëÏ „œÁ娥Á ¨Ã‚úÃÖþÁ „žÂÿÁ§Á›¨Í úÁÆ™Á ©ÁúÁÅÖ.)2. ¥ÉÅžÁýà ±ÂžÁÏ¨Í ±Âë³Â¯Á§ÁÏ ÁþÁōÁ ¬ÁÏ ¦ÁōÁàÏ, žÃíœÁíÏ, ¨ÊÁ ±Ì™Ã€¯Á§Á¥ËœÊ €þÃä ±ÂžÂ¨¨ÍþÁÆ €¨ÂÊ ¬ÁÏ ¦ÁōÁàÏ , žÃíœÁíÏ, ±Ì™Ã€¯Á§ÁÏ ÂþÊ „ϙ¨Ã.¥ÁœÊà¤ÁÏ
  11. 11. ‚žÃ ªÂ§ÁÆâ¨ÂþÍà "¬ÁÿÁ-©ÁÇœÁàÏ". þÃüÂþÍà ú¨ ©ÁÇœÂà¨Å ‚¨Â üÏýÂ„Ïý¦. ŠÁ žÂþà ¥ÉÅžÁýà ÁŧÁÅ©Áô §ÉÏ™Í žÂþÃ¨Í §ÉÏ™ÁŨÁÅ©Áô¨©ÁôœÁÅÏžÃ.€ÏžÁÅ ©Á¨ì žÄþà þÁ™ÁÁ:"œÁþÁþ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ œÁþÁþ œÂþÂþÁ œÂþÂþÁ þÂ"|________ ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë _________| 14 ©Á €¯Á§ÁÏ‚ÏÍ §ÁÁϏ §Â¬Êà:"œÁÁ ŸÃœÍàÏ œÁÁ œÍÏ þÁ œÍÏ þÁ ŸÃ§Áþ œÁžÃãÁÅÑ œÁžÃãÁÅÑ œÂ"|______________ ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë _________________| 14 ©Á€¯Á§ÁϏÁ› ©Ã¤ÁüþÁ úʬÊà¬Á ¤Á §Á þÁ ¥Á ¦Á ©ÁIUU UII UIU III UUU IUU IUœÁþÁþ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂ þÁ œÁþÁ þ œÂþ þÁ œÂþ þÁ þÂýƍďÂ: ¥ÁœÊà¤ÁÏ ¡ÁžÁêÏ 4 ±ÂžÂ¨¨Í"¬Á ¤Á §Á þÁ ¥Á ¦Á ©Á" €þÊ Á›Â¨Å ©Á³Âà¦. 14©Á €¯Á§ÁÏœÍ ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë.„žÂ:€¨ ©ËÁÅϘÁ ¡Áô§ÁÏ£Å¨Í þÁÁ§Ã¨Í þ ¥Áƨ ³ÎŸÁϣŠžÂ¡Á¨ ¥ÁϞ§Á ©ÁþÂœÁ§Â¥ÁÇœÁ ¬Á§ÁÐ ±ÂëÏœÊÏžÁÅ ÂϜ͡Á¨ÍœÁå¨ ¡Á§ÁêύÁ §Á¥Á  ©Ãþ͞à ¦ÁÁÅ þ¡ÁþÁä Ð ¡Áë¬ÁþÁÅäÏ™ÁÅ ©ÃÿÁí¨ þÊÏžÁë¥ÁÅ ±Âÿà ±Âÿà ¦ÁþÁ ÁŦÁ Âê¨ÃÏúà ¬Á¥ÁëϤæË
  12. 12. (ƒ ¡ÁžÁêÏ ±ÍœÁþÁ ©Ã§ÁúÃœÁ "ªÄë¥ÁžÂÏŸÁë ¥ÁöÁ¤ÂÁ©ÁœÁÏ" ¨Íþà ÁüÊÏžÁë¥É¯ÁÏ ÁýÛϨÍþÞÃ)žÄþÃþà þÁ™ÁÁ þÁþÁŬÁ§ÃÏúà úÁžÁ©ÁýÏ, Á› ©Ã¤ÁüþÁ, ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃëÁŧÃàÏúÁýÏ úÁžÁÅ©Á§ÁŨÁÅ €¤Âê¬ÁÏ ÃÏžÁ ©ÁžÃ¨Ã ¡É™ÁÅœÁÅþÂäþÁÅ!‚ύ ú¨ §ÁÂ¨ ©ÁÇœÂà¨ÅþÂä¦. ÂþÄ ‚ÏÍ §ÉÏ™ÁÅ ¥Á ÂœÁëÏ ÌÏœÁ¡Áë¥ÁŎϏ ©Â™Á £™Âݦ.‚©Ã "¥ÁœÁàÍÃ¨" , "œÁ§Á¨¥ÁÅ" €þÊ üÏý ©ÁÇœÂà¨Å.¥ÁœÁàÍÃ¨ þÁ™ÁÁ ú¨ ¬ÁŨ¤ÁϏ ©ÁôÏýÅÏžÃ:"¥ÁœÁà ÍÃ¨ ¥ÁœÁà ÍÃ¨ ¥ÁœÁà ÍÃ¨ ÍÃ¨Â""œÂþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂ"|_____ ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë _____| 11 ©Á €¯Á§ÁÏžÄþÃ¨Í Á›Â¨Å : "§Á ¬Á ü ü ¤Á §Á"úÁžÁÅ©Á§ÁŨŠ…ÿÃÏúÃþÁýÊÛ "œÁ§Á¨¥ÁÅ" þÁ™ÁÁ"œÁþÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂ"|_____ ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë _______| 12 ©Á €¯Á§ÁÏžÄþÃ¨Í Á›Â¨Å : "þÁ ¤Á §Á ¬Á ü ü Á"¥ÁœÁà ÍÃ¨ Á›Â¨Å §Â¬Ã úÁƬÊà €žÃ ¦ÉÏœÁ "symmetric" Â „Ϟ̀§Áá¥Á©ÁôœÁÅÏžÃ. ÌÏúÉÏ þʧÁÅåÂ §Â¬Êà ƒ ©ÁÇœÁàÏ¨Í "palindromes"§Â¦Á ©ÁúÁÅÖ!
  13. 13. ©ÁÇœÂਠþÁ™ÁÁ, Á›Â¨Å, ¦ÁœÃ ³ÂáþÁÏ„œÁ娥Á ¨ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ œÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ œÂ ¤Á §Á þÁ ¤Á ¤Á §Á ©Á 10úÁÏ¡ÁÁ¥Á ¨ œÁþÁ þÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ œÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ œÂ þÁ ü ¤Á ü ü ü §Á 11ªÂ§ÁÆâ¨Ï œÂþ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ œÁþÁþ œÂþÂþÁ œÂþÂþÁ þ ¥Á ¬Á ü ¬Á œÁ œÁ Á 13¥ÁœÊà¤ÁÏ œÁþÁþ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁ œÁþÁþ œÂþÂþÁ œÂþÂþÁ þ ¬Á ¤Á §Á þÁ ¥Á ¦Á ©Á 14¥ÁœÁàÍÃ¨ œÂþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂ §Á ¬Á ü ü ¤Á §Á 11œÁ§Á¨¥ÁÅ œÁþÁþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂþÁþÁ œÂþÁ œÂ þÁ ¤Á §Á ¬Á ü ü Á 12 œÉ¨ÅÁÅ ¡ÁžÂê¨Å‚Á €úÁÖ œÉ¨ÅÁÅ ¡ÁžÁê §ÄœÁŨÁÅ ©Á¬Êà ¥ÁÅÏžÁŏ ÌþÃä ÌœÁà Á›Â¨ÅþʧÁÅ֍ͩÁ¨¬Ã „ÏýÅÏžÃ. ¤Á¦Á¡Á™ÁÁÏ™Ã, ‚©Ã ¥ÁþÁÁÅ ¡Á§ÃúÁ¦Á¥ËþÁ ±ÂœÁÁ›Â¨ þÁÅÏúÊ ˆ§Áå™Âݦ.‚ÏžÁë Á›Â¨Å: þÁ¨, þÁÁ, ¬Á¨, ¤Á, §Á, œÁþÁ¨ : I I I IþÁÁ : I I I U¬Á¨ : I I U I¤Á : U I I§Á : U I UœÁ : U U I¬ÁƧÁê Á›Â¨Å: Á¨, þÁÁ¨ : U IþÁ : I I I¬Ä¬Á ¡ÁžÁêϬĬÁ ¡ÁžÂêþÃä ŠÊ ¨ÂÂ „Ï™Ê þ¨ŏÁÅ ¡ÉžÁ⠱ž¨ŏ ÂþÄ (1, 1, 1,1), ƒ ŠÍÑ ¡ÉžÁ⠱žÂþÃä §ÉÏ™ÁÅ úÃþÁä ±ÂžÂ¨ÅÂ (1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2,
  14. 14. 1, 2) ¥ÉÅœÁàÏ ‡þåÞà ±ÂžÂ¨ÅÂ ÂþÄ ©Ã©Á§ÃÏúÁ©ÁúÁÅÖ. ¬Ä¬Á ¡ÁžÁêϨͤÁÏ ÂÁ ±Í¦þ ³ÂŸÂ§Á›ÏÂ ¬Ä¬Á ¡ÁžÁêÏ œÁ§ÁÅ©ÂœÁ ŠÁ ÄœÁ¡ÁžÁêÏ ("ý©É¨žÃ" ¨ÊžÂ "œÊýÄœÃ") ©Á¬ÁÅàÏžÃ.1. ŠÁ ¡ÉžÁ⠱žÁÏ¨Í ©Á§ÁŬÁÂ 6 ‚ÏžÁë Á›Â¨Å, 2 ¬ÁƧÁê Á›Â¨Æ©Á³Âà¦.2. ±Âë¬Á þæÁ¥ÁÏ ¨ÊžÁÅ.3. ¦ÁœÃ 1©Á Á›Ï¨Í ¥ÉÅžÁýà €¯Á§ÂþÍà 3©Á Á›Ï¨Í ¥ÉÅžÁýÀ¯Á§ÁÏœÍþÁÆ, 5©Á Á›Ï¨Í ¥ÉÅžÁýà €¯Á§ÂþÍà 7©Á Á›Ï¨Í¥ÉÅžÁýà €¯Á§ÁÏœÍþÁÆ ¥ËœÃë ÁÅžÁ§Â¨Ã.4. ±Âë¬Á¦ÁœÃ „Ï™Á ©ÁúÁÅÖ. €ÏýÊ ¡Ë ¬ÁÆœÁëÏ¨Í úÉ¡ÃåþÁ Á›Â¨¨Í¥ÉÅžÁýà €¯Á§Â¨ÁÅ ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë £žÁŨŠ§ÉÏ™Í €¯Á§Â¨Å ±Âë¬ÁþæÁ¥ÁÏ ±ÂýìÊà ú¨Š- €ÏýÊ ŠÊ €¯Á§ÁÏ €¦ „ϙ¨à (ˆÁÅ›ÃÏœÁ¥Ëþ ¬Á§Ê).ƒ €úÁÖ œÉþÁŏÁÅ ¡ÁžÁê §ÄœÁŨ¨Í ŽúÃÖœÁ¥ËþÁ Á›Â¨Å úÉ¡ÁåÁ ±Í©ÁýÏ©Á¨ì €þÃä ¡ÁžÂê¨Å (€ÏœÉÏžÁōÁÅ ŠÁ ¡ÁžÁêϨÍþà €þÃä ±ÂžÂ¨Æ) ŠÊ¨¦Á¨Í „Ï™ÁþÁ©Á¬Á§ÁÏ ¨ÊžÁÅ. ÂþÄ ©Äýà ¨¦ÁþÁÅ ÁŧÃàÏúÁ™ÁÏ €ÏœÁÁ«ÁÛÏ ÂžÁÅ. ¡ÁžÂê¨Å ¡ËÃ úÁžÁÅ©ÁôœÁÆ „ÏýÊ ¨¦Á žÂþÁÏœÁý €žÊ€©ÁÁœÁÏ €©ÁôœÁÅÏžÃ.„žÂ:¬Ä. ¨ÍÂ¨ účÁýÅì ±ÍÂ§Áå §Á©ÃúÁÏžÁë žÄ±Â¨Å ÁÁþÂþÁ œÃë¡Áå¨ÊÁ üÁœÃ¡Ë £™Á©ÁúÁÅÖ ü¨§ÂªÃ É§Áý¨Š¥Á Â¥ÁƨŠ¥Ê§ÁÁÅ ¥Á™Á©Á¨ÊÁ ¡Áþà ¥Á ¨à ¡ÁëœÃ§ÍüÅ ±Âë›ÃÍýŨ ÁÅÏ™É
  15. 15. Á™Ã¦Á §Á¥ÁŨ Ä¨Å ÁžÁ¡Á¨ÊÁ€ÏžÂ¨Å úÃÏžÁ þĨªÁ ©ÊžÃ¡Ë úÁōÁѨ ¥ÁÅëÁÅӨŠúɍÁѨʍÁœÊ.Ä ‡ÏœÁ ªÁë¥Á þÌÏžÁÅúÁÅÏýÃ©Í ¦Ê¥ÉÅ ³Âí¥Ã! €™ÁŏÙÜà ©ÉýÌì þÊ™ÁÅ ¥Á  Á™Á¡Á¨ÍþÁ; ÁÅ쪃 ÁŞèÃÏúà þÄ ¥ÁÅÏžÁÅ ÁÅ¡Áå©ÍœÁÅ €ÏžÁōͩÁ¦Áê ÿÁÇžÁ¦Á ¡Áô´ÂåÏü¨Å¨þÁÅ(€¤ÃþÁ©Á ±ÍœÁþÁ - Á§ÁÅ›ªÄë - üÏŸÂê¨ ±Â¡Á¦Áê ªÂ¬Ãàë Â§ÁÅ ¥ÁŸÁŧÁ¥ÁŸÁŧÁϏ ¤ÁÁ©ÁÏœÁÅþà Á§ÃåÏúÃþÁ ÿÁÇžÁ¦Á ¡Áô´ÂåÏü¨Ã ‚žÃ!)1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8œÁ œÁ œÁ ¬Á¨ œÁ ¬Á¨ Á¨ Á¨U U I U U I U U I I I UI U U I I I U I UI UI¨ÍÂ¨ účÁýÅì ±ÍÂ§Áå §Á©ÃúÁÏžÁë žÄ±Â¨Å ÁÁþÂþÁ œÃë¡Áå¨ÊÁ |___±Âë¬Á¦ÁœÃ_| |______ ¦ÁœÃ__|¡Ë „žÂÿÁ§Á›¨Í ±Âë¬Á ¦ÁœÃ „þÁä €¯Á§Â¨ÁÅ ±Âë¬ÁœÍ £ÂýÅ ¦ÁœÃ ÁƙÁŞçÃÏžÃ. ±Âë¬Á ¦ÁœÃ €¯Á§Â¨Ã ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë €©Á¬Á§ÁÏ ¨ÊžÁÅ. ‚ύ̍Á„žÂÿÁ§Á› úÁÆ™ÁÏ™Ã.þÁÁ ¬Á¨ þÁÁ §Á þÁ¨ œÁ þÁ þÁI II U IIUI IIIU UIU IIII UUI III IIIÁ¨ÃÃ ©ÉþÉ䨨ƧÁÅ úÁ¨Å©Á žÍ¬Ã®ÁòœÍ ¨œÁ¨ÁÅ ¥Á §ÁÅ ¨œÃÃ ¦ÁœÃÃ |____±Âë¬Á ¦ÁœÃ____| |__¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë__ |‚ÁÑ™Á ±Âë¬Á ¦ÁœÃ „þÁäžÃ ÂþÄ "¨Ã" Ã "¨Å" Ã ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë ¨ÊžÁÅ.
  16. 16. œÊýÄœÃ - ý©É¨žÃ ƒ §ÉÏ™ÁÅ ¡ÁžÂê¨ Á›Â¨þÁÅ ŠÁ ý©É¨žÃ¡ÁžÁêÏ¨Í úɱÂà§ÁÅ:¬ÁƧÁÅê™ÌÁѧÁÅÏ™ÁÅ ¬ÁŧÁ§ÂüŨÞÁâ§ÁÅžÃþÁÁ§Á žÁí¦ÁϣŠœÊýÄœÃ‚þÁ Á› œÁë¦ÁϣŠ‚ÏžÁë žÁí¦ÁÏ£ÅÿÁϬÁ ¡ÁÏúÁÁϣŠý©É¨žÃœÊýÄœÃ:€þÃä ±ÂžÂ¨¨ÍþÁÆ 1 ¬ÁƧÁê Á›Ï, 2 ‚ÏžÁë Á›Â¨Å, 2 ¬ÁƧÁê Á›Â¨Å©Á³Âà¦.ý©É¨žÃ:1,3 ±ÂžÂ¨¨Í : 3 ¬ÁƧÁê Á›Â¨Å, 2 ‚ÏžÁë Á›Â¨Å2,4 ±ÂžÂ¨¨Í : 5 ¬ÁƧÁê Á›Â¨ÅÄœÁ ¡ÁžÂê¨Å §ÉÏ™ÃýÃÄ common ¬ÁÆœÂë¨Å1. ±Âë¬Á þæÁ¥ÁÏ ¨ÊžÁÅ2. ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë ¥ÉÅžÁýà Á›Ï¨Í ¥ÉÅžÁýà €¯Á§ÂþÍÃ, 4©Á Á›Ï¨Í ¥ÉÅžÁýÀ¯Á§ÂþÍà „ϙ¨Ã.3. ±Âë¬Á ¦ÁœÃ „Ï™Á©ÁúÁÅÖ.©Ê¥ÁþÁ ¡ÁžÂê¨Å €þÄä ý ©É¨žÃ ¡ÁžÂê¨Å.¡ËþÁ „žÁÿÁ§ÃÏúÃþÁ ¬Ä¬Á ¡ÁžÁêÏ úéÁ§Á „þÁäžÃ ŠÁ œÊýÄœÃ ¡ÁžÁêÏ.œÊýÄœÃ - ‚ύ̍Á „žÂÿÁ§Á›:œÃ©Ã§Ã ‚¬ÁÅ¥ÁÅþÁ œË¨Ï£Å œÄ¦Á ©ÁúÁÅÖ,žÁ©Ã¨Ã ¥ÁǏÁœÁÇ«Áß¨Í þħÁÅ œÂëÁ ©ÁúÁÅÖ,
  17. 17. œÃ§ÃÃ ÁÅÏžÊýà Ì¥ÁÅé ³ÂŸÃÏúÁ ©ÁúÁÅÖúʧà ¥ÁƧÁÅÒþà ¥ÁþÁ¬ÁÅ §ÁÏüÃÏ¡Á §ÂžÁÅ(‚žÃ ¡Ë™Ã±Âýà "ˆþÁŏÁÅ" ¨¯Áé› Á©Ã œÉþÏÃÏúÃþÁ ¤Á§ÁàÇÿÁ§Ã¬ÁŤ«Ü¨ ¨ÍþÞÃ)ÁÏžÁ ¡ÁžÁêύÁÏžÁ ¡ÁžÁêÏ €ÏžÁÏ ‚Ϝ €ÏœÂ ÂžÁÅ. €œÃ ¬ÁÅÏžÁ§Á¥ËþÁ ¡ÁžÁê§ÄœÁŨ¨Í ÁÏžÁÏ ŠÁýÃ. 1. ÁÏžÁ ¡ÁžÁêÏ¨Í "ÁÁ"(U U), "¤Á" (U I I), "ü" (I U I), "¬Á"(I I U), "þÁ¨" (I I I I) €þÊ Á›Â¨Å ©Á³Âà¦. Á¥ÁþìÊà €þÄä 4 ¥Á ÂœÁë¨Å Á¨ Á›¨Ê! 2. ÁÏžÁÏ¨Í 1,3 ±ÂžÂ¨¨Í 3 Á›Â¨Å, 2,4 ±ÂžÂ¨¨Í 5 Á›Â¨Æ ©ÁôÏý¦. 3. £Ê¬Ã (€ÏýÊ odd number) Á›Ï "ü" Á›Ï Â§ÂžÁÅ. €ÏýÊ 1,3 ±ÂžÂ¨¨Í 1,3 Á›Â¨Å, 2,4 ±ÂžÂ¨¨Í 2,4 Á›Â¨Å "ü" Á›Ï ÂÁÆ™ÁžÁÅ. 4. 2,4 ±ÂžÂ¨ €ÏœÁÏ¨Í "ÁŧÁÅ©Áô" „ϙ¨Ã. €ÏýÊ ƒ ±ÂžÂ¨¨Í 5©Á Á›Ï "ÁÁ" ¨ÊžÂ "¬Á" €¦ „ϙ¨Ã. 5. ±Âë¬Á þæÁ¥ÁÏ ±ÂýÃÏú¨Ã. ±Âë¬Á¦ÁœÃ ¡ÁþÍà §ÂžÁÅ. 6. ¦ÁœÃ ¥ËœÃë 2,4 ±ÂžÂ¨¨Í ¥ÉÅžÁýà €¯Á§ÂþÍÄ, þÂ¨ÅÍ Á›Ï ¥ÉÅžÁýà €¯Á§ÁÏœÍ ÁÅžÁ§Â¨Ã.
  18. 18. 7. €þÃä ±ÂžÂ¨¨Í ¥ÉÅžÁýà €¯Á§Â¨Å €þÄä ÿÁë³Âí¨Å ÂþÃ, €þÄäžÄ§ÂԨŠÂþÄ €¦ „ϙ¨Ã.8. 2,4 ±ÂžÂ¨¨Í 3©Á Á›Ï "ü" ÂþÄ "þÁ¨" ÂþÄ €¦ „ϙ¨Ã.úÁÆ™ÁýÂþÍà ú¨ strict Â €þáÃÏúÃþÂ, ÁÏžÁϨÍþà Á›Â¨þÄäþ¨ŏÁÅ ¥Á ÂœÁë¨ Á›Â¨Å Â©ÁýÏ ©Á¨þÁ ¡ÁžÁêÏ ¨¦Á ¡ÁýÅۍͩÁýÏú¨ œÊ¨ÃÁ. ŠÁ ³Â§Ã ÁÏžÁ ¡ÁžÁêÏ ¨¦Á €¨©Á™ÃœÊ ¡ÁžÂê¨Å©ÂýÏœÁý €©Ê ƒ ¬ÁÆœÂ먍ÁÅ €þÁŏÁśϏÂþÊ ©Á³Âà¦. ¬ÁÅ¥ÁœÄªÁœÁÁ ¡ÁžÂê¨Å €þÄä ÁÏžÁ ¡ÁžÂê¨Ê. ¥ÄÁÅ ©ÁúÃÖþÁ ¡ÁžÂê¨þÁÅþÉ¥Á§ÁÅ ©Ê¬ÁÆà ¨¦Á £žÁãϏ úÁžÁ©ÁýÂþÍà ¡ËÃ úÁžÁÅ©ÁôœÁÆ ³ÂŸÁþÁúʬÊà ¡ÁžÂê¨Å úÁžÁ©ÁýÏ, §Â¦ÁýÏ, ÁŧÁÅàÏúÁōͩÁýÏ œÊ¨ÃÁ€©ÁôœÂ¦!„žÂ:£¨©ÁÏœÁÅ™Á þʥÁþáÁ¨Å©Áô§ÁœÍ þÏÁëÿÃÏúà ¡Á¨ÅÁÅý ¥Ê¨Â ?!£¨©ÁÏœÁ¥ËþÁ ¬Á§Áå¥ÁÅúÁ¨Ã úÄ¥Á¨ úÊœÁ úÍÃÑ ú©ÁžÉ ¬ÁÅ¥ÁœÄ ?!¬Á ¬Á ¤ÁI I U| I I U| UII£¨©ÁÏ œÁÅ™Á þ Ê¥ÁþÃþÁ¨ ÁÁ ü þÁ¨ ÁÁI I I I| U U| I U I| I I I I| U U¡Á¨Å©Áô§Á œÍ þà ÁëÿÃÏúà ¡Á¨ÅÁÅý ¥Ê¨Â¥ÃÃ¨ÃþÁ §ÉÏ™ÁÅ ±ÂžÂ¨ Á›©Ã¤ÁüþÁ úʦÁ™ÁÏ, €þÃä ¬ÁÆœÂë¨Æ ¬Á§ÃúÁƬÁōͩÁ™ÁÏ úÁžÁÅ©Á§ÁŨÁÅ €¤Âê¬ÁÏ!

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