Functional Resistance: Dysfunctional Resistance:• critically assess whether • avoiding dealing with urgent and change will lead to pressing issues improvements • declining to work on what really• exploring the personal needs to be done. consequences of change. • blaming and criticising without• feelings of regret, anxiety or proposing alternatives fear to a previous history of • sabotaging change non-disclosure and poor • non-collaboration with others. working relations.
Signs of Resistance: ActiveBeing critical Intimidating orFinding fault threateningRidiculing ManipulatingAppealing to fear Distorting factsUsing facts Blocking selectively UnderminingBlaming or Starting rumours accusing ArguingSabotaging
Signs of Resistance: Passive Agreeing verbally but not following through (“malicious compliance”) Failing to implement change Procrastinating or dragging one’s feet Feigning ignorance Withholding information, suggestions, help, or support Standing by and allowing change to fail
• Ignorance: a failure to understand the situation or the problem• Mistrust: motives for change are considered suspicious• Disbelief: a feeling that the way forward will not work• “Power-Cut”: a fear that sources of influence and control will be eroded.• Loss: change has unacceptable personal costs• Inadequacy: the benefits from the change are not seen as sufficient• Anxiety: fear of being unable to cope with the new situation.• Comparison: the way forward is disliked because an alternative is preferred• Demolition: change threatens the destruction of existing social networks.
Resistance to ChangeForms of Resistance to Change Overt and immediate • Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions Implicit and deferred • Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism
Overcoming Resistance to Change• Tactics for dealing with resistance to change:• Education and communication• Participation• Facilitation and support• Negotiation• Manipulation and cooptation• Selecting people who accept change• Coercion
Managing Resistance• A “Situational” Approach: – this proposes six methods for managing resistance that should be chosen based on contextual factors. Method Context Education & Communication resistance is due to lack of information Participation & Involvement Resistance is a reaction to a sense of exclusion from the process Facilitation & Support Resistance is due to anxiety and uncertainty Negotiation & Agreement Resistors in a strong position to undermine the change process Manipulation & Cooperation Other methods are too time consuming or resource demanding Explicit & Implicit Coercion Change recipients have little capacity to resist; survival of the org. is at risk without the change
Images of Managing ChangeImages Perspective on Resistance to ChangeDirector Resistance signifies that not everyone is on board with the change program. Managerial skills can be acquired to overcome this.Navigator Resistance is expected and represents different interests within the organization. It should be overcome but this is not always possible.Caretaker Resistance is short-lived and change will occur regardless of attempts to stop it.Coach Resistance is to be expected and managers need to show others that the resistance does not promote effective teamwork.Interpreter Resistance occurs when the change is not interpreted well or understood. The manager’s role is to clarify the meaning of change.Nurturer Resistance is irrelevant to whether the change will occur. Resistance is a matter of guesswork by the resistor. 6-13