Stages of the change processStage 1. Unfreezing: Creating the motivation to change• Disconfirmation• Creation of survival anxiety or guilt• Creation of psychological safety to overcome learning anxietyStage 2. Changing: Learning new concepts, new meanings, and new standards• Imitation of and identification with role models• Scanning for solutions and trial-and-error learningStage 3. Refreezing: Internalizing new concepts, meanings, and standards• Incorporating into self-concept and identity• Incorporating into ongoing relationships and groups
Unfreezing - The most difficult and important stage(1) the present state is somehow disconfirmed;(2) some anxiety or guilt is aroused because some goals will not be met or standards or ideals will not be maintained;(3) enough ‘‘psychological safety’’ is provided to make it unnecessary for the target individuals or groups to psychologically defend themselves because the disconfirming information is too threatening or the anxiety or guilt is too high.Cognitive Redefinition - By what means does a motivated learner learn something new when we are dealing with thought processes, feelings, values, and attitudes? It occurs by taking in new information that has one or more of the following impacts: 1) semantic redefintion--we learn that words can mean something different from what we had assumed; 2) cognitive broadening--we learn that a given concept can be much more broadly interpreted than what we had assumed 3) new standards of iudgment or evaluation--we learn that the anchors we used for judgment and comparison are not absolute, and if we use a different anchor our scale of judgment shifts.Imitation and Positive or Defensive Identification with a Role ModelCognitive re-definition occurs when the learner has become unfrozen,i.e. motivated to change, and has, therefore opened him or herself up to new information.The next question to address, then, is how the new information comes to the learner. The most basic mechanism of acquiring new information that leads to cognitive restructuring is to discover in a conversational process that the interpretation that someone else puts on a concept is different from ones own. If one is motivated to change, i.e. if the factors described above have been operating, one may be able to "hear" or "see" something from a new perspective. The best examples come from what has colloquially been labeled brainwashing.Scanning: Insight or Trial and Error LearningA learner or change target can be highly motivated to learn something,yet have no role models nor initial feeling for where the answer or solution might lie. The learner then searches or scans by reading, traveling, talking to people, hiring consultants, entering therapy, going back to school, etc. to expose him or herself to a variety of new information that might reveal a solution to the problem.Personal and Relational Refreezing The main point about refreezing is that new behavior must be to some degree congruent with the rest of the behavior and personality of the learner or it will simply set off new rounds of disconfirmation that often lead to unlearning the very thing one has learned.
Bullock and Batten’s Integrative Model for Planned ChangeAnalyzed over 30 models of change management and arrived at theirown 4-phase modelThe model progresses as follows:Exploration phase - The organization has to make decision on theneed for change:· Explore and decide on the need for change· Identify what changes are required· Identify resources required
Planning phase - Understanding the problem:• Diagnosis of the problem• Clarify goals and objectives• Identify specific activities required to undertake change• Agree changes with stakeholders• Identify supports required to enable change to occurAction phase-Changes identified,agreed& implemented:• Support for change is explicit• Changes are monitored and evaluated• Results are communicated and acted upon• Adjustments and refinements are made where necessary
Integration phase - Stabilising and embedding change:• Changes supported and reinforced• Results and outcomes from change communicated throughout the organization• Continuous development of employees through training, education• Ongoing monitoring and evaluation
Action Research ModelAssuming that planned change is a cyclical process,this modelproposes that organizations,in order to change,need to undertakeresearch initially so as to have adequate information that may guidetheir future action.The results of the action are then assessed toprovide information to guide further action and this cycle is repeatedas an ongoing process.The eight steps elaborated by Cummings andHuse(1989) under this model are:Problem Identification:At this stage,a key executive senses the existence of problems thatcan be alleviated with the help of an organization development(OD)Practitioner.Consultant with An Expert:Once the problem(s) has been sensed,it is understood that there is asolution to such problem(s),the help of an OD expert is sought.
Data Gathering and Preliminary Diagnosis:Using various tools such as interviews,questionnaires,organizational performance analysis,data is gathered by the OD consultant.The consultant works in collaboration with organizational members.Feedback:The gathered data is passed on to the key client /group to determine the strengths and weaknesses of the area under study,with the consultant providing the client all relevant and useful data.Joint Diagnosis of the problem:After discussing the feedback,the group focuses on additional relevant research that might be required.The results of this additional research are then summarized and submitted to the group again so that they are validated for further diagnoses and identification of problem(s).
Joint Action Planning:The consultant and the management team jointly agree on problem- solving methods.Depending upon the cultural,technological and work environment,specific courses of action are taken in order to solve the problem(s).At this stage,the time and cost of the intervention is also taken into consideration.Action:This is the stage at which the actual change from its present state to its desired state takes place and may involve installation of new methos and procedures,reorganizing structures and work designs,or reinforcing new behavior.Data Gathering After Action:New data is gathered again so as to determine the amount of change that has taken place vis-à-vis the effects of the action.This affirms the cyclical nature of the process.Further feedback is sought and based onthis;situations are re-diagnosed and new action taken.
The Burke-Litwin Model of Organizational Change First order change (Transactional change)Warner Burke Change Second order change (Transformational change) OD interventions directed towards structure, management practices, and systems (policies & procedures) result in first order change. OD interventions directed towards mission and strategy, leadership, and organization culture result in second order change.
Diagnosis – The Six-Box Model Purposes Marvin WeisbordWeisbord identifies six Relationships Structurecritical areas wherethings must go right if Leadershiporganisation is to besuccessful. Accordingto him, the consultant Helpfulmust attend to both Rewards Mechanismsformal and informalaspects of each box.This model is still widelyused by OD practitioners