What is and why do westudy it? by Venjie Oclaret
Answer the questions1. What is literature?2. Why do people read literature?3. Why is it necessary for you to study literature?
1. What is literature?1) The definition of 14th century: It means polite learning through reading. A man of literature or a man of letters = a man of wide reading, “literacy”2) The definition of 18th century: practice and profession of writing3) The definition of 19th century: the high skills of writing in the special context of high imagination
4) Robert Frost’s definition: performance in words5) Modern definition: We can define literature as language artistically used to achieve identifiable literary qualities and to convey meaningful messages. Literature is characterized by beauty of expression and form and by universality intellectual and emotional appeal.
• Literature is– Composition that tells a story, dramatizes asituation, expresses emotions, analyzes andadvocates ideas– Helps us grow personally and intellectually– Provides an objective base for knowledgeand understanding– Shapes our goals and values by clarifyingour own identities, both positively andnegatively– Literature makes us human
2. Why is it necessary for you to study literature?1) It improves your language proficiency.2) It enriches your knowledge about a culture.3) It helps you explore the nature of human beings. It gives you spiritual and psychological relief.
3. Why do people read literature?1) Reading for Pleasure Howells think that “the study of literature should begin and end in pleasure”. Apart from its role of protest, education, cognition and aesthetic appreciation, literature primarily gives pleasure.2) Reading for Relaxation Get readers away to an imaginary world, thus forget their problems and obligations of everyday life.3) Reading to Acquire Knowledge It gives readers an insight into the tradition , custom, belief, attitudes, folklore, values of the age in which it is written.
4) Reading to Confront Experience Literature is appealing mainly because of its relationship to human experience. It sheds light on the complexity and ambiguity of human experiences and thus broadens readers’ awareness of the possibilities of the experience.5) Reading for Artistic Appreciation Good craftsmanship and the beauty of expression and form; It can be analyzed according to literary theories and criteria; literary criticism, to clarify, explain and evaluate literature from an aesthetic point of view.
Buzz Groups• On a 1/8 sheet of paper, write your name and the title of a piece of literature that has captured you somehow in any way. Your piece of literature could be a novel, short story, poem, drama, teleserye, film, or even a song (considered a poem).
Literary GenresFour genres of 3. Dramaliterature: • Made up of dialogue1. Prose fiction and set direction• Myths, parables, • Designed to beromances, novels, short performedstories 4. Nonfiction prose2. Poetry • News reports, feature• Open form and closed articles, essays,form editorials, textbooks,• Relies on imagery, historical andfigurative language, biographical workssound
PROSEProse is the ordinary form of written language.It imitates the spoken language.
Prose FICTION NON-FICTIONShort Stories Personal NarrativeFairy Tales Letters Folk Tales Memoirs Novels Short Stories Poems Reports
PoetryPoetry is language written withrhythm, figurative language, imagery,sound devices and emotionallycharged language. Major Types of Poetry Lyric Poetry Narrative Poetry Concrete Poetry
Lyric PoemLyric poem is a highly musical verse that expresses the observation and feelings of a single speaker.
Narrative PoemNarrative Poem is a story told in verse. Narrative poems often have all the elements of short stories, including characters, conflict, and plot.
Concrete PoemConcrete Poem is one with a shape that suggests its subject. The poet arranges the letters, punctuation, and lines to create an image or picture, on the page.
Drama is a story written to beperformed by actors. Although a drama is meant to be performed, one can also read the script, or written version, and imagine the action.
Review1. What is Literature?2. What does genre mean?3. What are the three main genre’s of literature? How are they defined?
LiteraryElements What parts make up a story? PART I by Venjie Oclaret
Setting Time and place where the action occursDetails that describe: Furniture Scenery Customs Transportation Clothing Dialects Weather Time of day Time of year
The Functions of a Setting To create a mood or We left the home place behind, mile atmosphere by slow mile, heading for the mountains, across the plain where the wind blew To show a reader a forever. different way of life At first there were four of us with one horse wagon and its skimpy load. Pa To make action and I walked, because I was a big boy of seem more real eleven. My two little sisters romped and trotted until they got tired and had to be To be the source of boosted up to the wagon bed. conflict or struggle That was no covered Conestoga, like Pa’s folks came West in, but just an old To symbolize an farm wagon, drawn by one weary horse, idea creaking and rumbling westward to the mountains, toward the little woods town where Pa thought he had an old uncle who owned a little two-bit sawmill. Taken from “The Day the Sun Came Out” by D. Johnson
Characters• Character = representation of a human being– Rounded = lifelike, full, dynamic, reader can predictfuture behavior because of an understanding of thepersonality– Protagonist = the hero or heroine, main person inthe story, person on the quest, etc.– Antagonist = the person causing the conflict, inopposition to the protagonist, the obstacle, etc.– Flat = no growth, static– Stock = representative of a group or class(stereotypical)
5 Ways of Revealing Characters1. Actions2. How the characters are described3. What the characters say and think4. What other characters say about them5. Statements by the author speaking as storyteller, or observer
CharacterizationA writer reveals what a character is like and how the character changes throughout the story.Two primary methods of characterization: Direct- writer tells what the character is like Indirect- writer shows what a character is like by describing what the character looks like, by telling what the character says and does, and by what other characters say about and do in response to the character.
Direct Characterization …And I don’t play the dozens orbelieve in standing around withsomebody in my face doing a lot oftalking. I much rather just knock youdown and take my chances even if I’m alittle girl with skinny arms and a squeakyvoice, which is how I got the nameSqueaky. From “Raymond’s Run” by T. Bambara
Indirect Characterization The old man bowed to all of us inthe room. Then he removed his hatand gloves, slowly and carefully.Chaplin once did that in a picture, in abank--he was the janitor. From “Gentleman of Rio en Medio” by J. Sedillo
Elements of Character Fully Relativ es Friends Developed Main Minor Not FullyProtagonist Character Developed Flat Co-Main Antagonist Enemy
Factors in Analyzing CharactersPhysical appearance of characterPersonalityBackground/personal historyMotivationRelationshipsConflictDoes character change?
PlotPlot is the way actions arearranged in the story. It is whathappens and how it happens ina narrative. A narrative is anywork that tells a story.
Parts of a Plot1. Exposition – the start of the story, the situation before the action starts2. Inciting incident – event that gives rise to conflict3. Development- events that occur as result of central conflict (rising action)4. Climax- highest point of interest or suspense of story5. Falling Action - the events occurring from the time of the climax to the end of the story6. Denouement- the tying up of loose ends and all of the threads in the story
Diagram of Plot ClimaxExposition Denouement Inciting incident
Special Techniques of Plot• Suspense- excitement or tension• Foreshadowing- hint or clue about what will happen in story• Flashback- interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the past• Surprise Ending- conclusion that reader does not expect
ConflictConflict is a struggle between opposing forcesEvery plot must contain some kind of conflictStories can have more than one conflictConflicts can be external or internal External conflict- outside force may be person, group, animal, nature, or a nonhuman obstacle Internal conflict- takes place in a character’s mind
Plot: ConflictConflict is the dramatic strugglebetween two forces in a story.Without conflict, there is no plot.
Plot: Types of Conflict Character vs Character Character vs Nature Character vs Society Character vs Self
Plot: Character vs. Character ConflictThis type of conflict finds the main characterin conflict with another character, human or not human.“The new one is the most beautiful of all; he is so youngand pretty.” And the old swans bowed their heads beforehim.Then he felt quite ashamed, and hid his head under hiswing; for he did not know what to do, he was so happy,and yet not at all proud. He had been persecuted anddespised for his ugliness, and now he heard them say hewas the most beautiful of all the birds. The Ugly Duckling by Hans Christian Anderson
Plot: Character vs. Nature ConflictThis type of conflict finds the main character in conflictwith the forces of nature, which serve as the antagonist. It´s a Truffula Seed. It´s the last one of all! You´re in charge of the last of the Truffula Seeds. And Truffula Trees are what everyone needs. Plant a new Truffula. Treat it with care. Give it clean water. And feed it fresh air. Grow a forest. Protect it from axes that hack. Then the Lorax and all of his friends may come back. The Lorax by Dr. Seuss
Plot: Character vs. Society ConflictThis type of conflict has the main character in conflict with a larger group: a community, society, culture, etc.“I’m tired of living in a hole,” said Jenny.“Let’s fight for freedom!” cried Bouncer. “We’ll besoldiers! Rough-riding Rowdies! I’ll be thegeneral and commander-in-chief!” The Island of the Skog by Steven Kellogg
Plot: Character vs. Self Conflict In this type of conflict, the main character experiences some kind of inner conflict.Finally, Sam’s father said, “Go to bed now. Butbefore you go to sleep, Sam, tell yourself thedifference between REAL and MOONSHINE.” Sam, Bangs & Moonshine by Evaline Ness
Buzz GroupsSKIT. Perform a dramatic scenethat exemplifies the four types ofconflict. Every member of the groupshould have a part or role in theperformance. Each group will berated according to four criteria: (1)script; (2) overall acting; (3) theconflict manifested; (4) costumeand props.
LiteraryElements What parts make up a story? PART II by Venjie Oclaret
Point of View• Refers to speaker, narrator, persona or voicecreated by the author to tell the story• Point of view depends on two factors:– Physical situation of the narrator as an observer– Speaker’s intellectual and emotional position• First person = I, we• Second person = You (uncommon)• Third person = He, she, they (most common)• Point of view may be:– Dramatic/objective = strictly reporting– Omniscient = all-knowing– Limited omniscient = some insight
ThemeA central message, concern, or insight into life expressed through a literary workCan be expressed by one or two sentence statement about human beings or about lifeMay be stated directly or impliedInterpretation uncovers the theme
Example of Theme“Every man needs to feelallegiance to his native country,whether he always appreciatesthat country or not.” From “A Man Without a Country” by Edward Hale pg. 185 in Prentice Hall Literature book
What Is Theme?What makes a story linger in our hearts andminds long after we’ve read it? Often it is the ideaon which the story is built—its theme.
What Is Theme?Theme—the central idea, or insight, about life or humanbehavior that a story revealsLiving a simple life leads togreater personal freedom.The deepest loneliness issometimes felt when we areamong friends.
What Is Theme?In most stories, the theme is not stateddirectly. Instead, it is revealed to us throughthe characters’ experiences.
Universal ThemesDifferent writers from different cultures oftenexpress similar themes. • A theme is a generalization about life or human nature.• Certain types of experiences are common to all people everywhere.
Universal ThemesUniversal themes• come up again and again in literature• deal with basic human concerns—good and evil, life and death, love and loss• shine a light on our common experiences• can help guide us through our lives
Universal ThemesQuick CheckStories Match these familiar stories to the appropriate universalThe Little Red Hen theme.Beauty and the BeastThe Three Little Pigs A It pays to work hard and plan ahead.The Ugly DucklingThe Frog Prince B Appearances can be deceiving.
Finding the ThemeKeep the following guidelines in mind when youwant to find and state the theme of a work.The theme is not the same thing as thesubject.• The subject is simply the topic. It can be stated in a single word, such as loyalty.• The theme makes some revelation about the subject and should be expressed in a sentence: “Loyalty to a leader is not always noble.”
Finding the ThemeWriters often express theme throughwhat their characters learn. • Does the main character change? • Does a character realize something he or she did not know before?
Finding the ThemeConflict helps reveal theme. • What is the conflict, or struggle between opposing forces, that the main character faces? • How is the conflict resolved?Conflict Resolution ThemeTwo friends find a They return the People are oftenwallet. One friend wallet and share a rewarded forwants to return it to small reward. making the rightthe owner; the other moral decision.wants to keep it.
Finding the ThemeSometimes the title gives clues.• Does the title have a special meaning?• Does it point to the theme?The theme applies to the entire work.• Test your statement of the theme. Does it apply to the whole work, not just to parts of it?
Finding the ThemeThere is no single way to state thetheme.• People may express the same theme in different words.• There may be different opinions about what the main theme is.• The most meaningful literary works often have more than one theme.
Finding the ThemeQuick Check Because of a feud over a piece of land, What is the conflictUlrich and Georg are bitter enemies. One night and how is itthey encounter each other on the disputed land. resolved?Each thinks of killing the other. Suddenly a hugetree falls and pins them both under its weight. At first the men threaten each other. After a What do thewhile, however, they notice each other’s characters learn?suffering, make a pact of friendship, and lookforward to being rescued and living in peace.Then they are attacked by wolves. synopsis of “The Interlopers” by Saki
Finding the ThemeQuick Check Because of a feud over a piece of land, What is the theme?Ulrich and Georg are bitter enemies. One night (State it in athey encounter each other on the disputed land. sentence.)Each thinks of killing the other. Suddenly a hugetree falls and pins them both under its weight. At first the men threaten each other. After awhile, however, they notice each other’ssuffering, make a pact of friendship, and lookforward to being rescued and living in peace.Then they are attacked by wolves. synopsis of “The Interlopers” by Saki
Making a JudgmentDon’t accept a story’s theme as valid justbecause the story is in print. Instead, askyourself: • Is this story’s view of life too simplistic? Too idealistic? Too cynical? • Is the writer trying to push an idea that does not reflect real life?
Making a JudgmentQuick CheckTrue love solves all of life’s problems. Classify each theme as either valid or not valid. Explain your choices.People who have a lot of money orpower are sometimes greedy for more.People who do good deeds will behappy and will not suffer.
GETThink of a story you’ve read Title:that had an impact on you. Topic:Then, use a map like the onehere to help you figure out the • How the main characterstory’s theme. Compare your changes:map with the ones your • How the conflict isclassmates made. Did you resolved:and any of your classmates • What the title suggests:map stories with similarthemes? Theme:
AssignmentView the film / read the novel Title:The Voyage of the DawnTreader by C.S. Lewis or Topic:Bridge to Terabithia by • How the mainKatherine Paterson. Then, use character/s change/s:a map like the one here to help • How the conflict isyou figure out the story’s theme. resolved:Deadline of submission is on • What the title suggests:November 21, Monday, onlyuntil 3PM. Theme:
ImagesAre usually characterized by concrete qualities rather than abstract meanings. These appeal to the sense of taste, smell, feel, sound or sight
SymbolsStand for something other than themselves. They bring to mind not their own concrete qualities, but the idea or abstraction that is associated with them.
Symbols may be:– Cultural (universal) =known by most literate people(e.g., white dove, color black)– Contextual (authorial) =private, created by the author
• Allegory is a symbol complete and self-sufficientnarrative (e.g., “Young Goodman Brown”)• Fable = stories about animals that possess humantraits (e.g., Aesop’s Fables)• Parable = allegory with moral or religious bent(e.g., Biblical stories)• Myth = story that embodies and codifies religious,philosophical and cultural values of the civilization inwhich it is composed• Allusion = the use of other culturally well-knownworks from the Bible, Greek and Roman mythology,famous art, etc.