The ‘Essence’ Of Democracy

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Introducing the concept of \'democracy\'

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The ‘Essence’ Of Democracy

  1. 1. The „Essence‟ of Democracy Prof. Lourdes Veneracion-Rallonza, PhD Department of Political Science Ateneo de Manila University
  2. 2. Political Systems based on the ‘number’ of people ruling (Aristotle)
  3. 3. “Democracy bestows an aura of legitimacy on modern political life: laws, rules policies appear justified when they are „democratic‟.” (David Held)
  4. 4. What is ‘Democracy’?  popular power: a form of politics in which citizens are engaged in self-government and self- regulation Or  aid to decision-making: a means of conferring authority on those periodically voted into office
  5. 5. Three Variant Models  Direct/participatory democracy  Liberal/representative democracy  One-party democracy
  6. 6. Direct/Participatory Democracy  „Original' type of democracy found in ancient Athens (i.e. Athenian city-states ruled by citizen-governors)  System of decision-making about public affairs in which citizens are directly involved  Citizens both subjects of political authority and creators of public rules  People or „demos‟ engage in legislative and judicial functions (i.e. active citizenship)  Citizenship as commitment to civic virtue or subordination of private life to public affairs and the common good.
  7. 7. Liberal/Representative Democracy  Justifies extent and limit of sovereign power of the state (i.e. balancing „might and right‟, „power and law‟, „duties and rights‟)  Draws from two views of liberalism - market view - ethical view  „representative government‟ (Madison) - regular elections - competence of elected few to discern true interests
  8. 8. One-Party Democracy  'commune structure': the smallest communities, which were to administer their own affairs, would elect delegate to larger administrative units  these in turn would elect candidates to still larger areas of administration: „pyramid structure of delegative democracy‟
  9. 9. Conflicting Views of Democratic Purposes (Shapiro)  Aggregative vs. deliberative conceptions of the „common good‟ - preferences aggregated or transformed? - discover interests or manufacture them? - management of power relations
  10. 10. „Essence‟ of Democracy (Abueva)  Democracy in its optimal, substantive meaning: - people‟s will is being effected in the processes of governance - declared constitutional and legal purposes and policies are being achieved through the functioning of governmental and political institutions, in connection with democratic norms - Democracy is put to the test of policy performance - -- the capacity of its institutions and leaders to deliver what is promised and expected.
  11. 11. „Essence‟ of Democracy (Abueva)  Democracy in its minimal, procedural meaning: - most powerful decision-makers (i.e. presidents or PMs and legislature) are “selected through fair, honest, and periodic elections in which candidates freely compete for votes in which virtually all adult population is eligible to vote” (Huntington, 1991) - basic procedural criteria are: (1) competitive elections; (2) broad or nearly universal citizenship and suffrage; and (3) respect for basic liberties and minority rights.
  12. 12. Democratization  the struggle for and the establishment of a democratic state;  the struggle against an authoritarian regime, ending in its transformation or overthrow and replacement by a democratic regime, and the consolidation of democracy  Consolidation of Democracy refers to the culmination of democratization as a process of democratic institution building
  13. 13. Variables that affect democracy (Kohli)  Socio-economic - social classes: workers as vanguards of democracy (Collier 1999; Rueschmeyer, Stephens and Stephens 1992) - economic development promotes democracy (Lipset 1990); survival of democracy dependent on both economic development and leadership choices (Przeworski and Limongi 1997) - associational life that promotes civic consciousness, citizenship, and democratic efficacy (Putnam 1993)
  14. 14. Variables that affect democracy (Kohli)  Political - „democracy from above‟: leaders/elite focused; driven by economic conditions; quality of governance - impact of a country‟s „authoritarian past‟ - stabilizing a new democracy: presidential or parliamentary systems? - project of democratic consolidation - „democracy from below‟
  15. 15. Democracy: The Philippine Experience ......VENE'S VIDEOSPOLITICS AND GOVERNANCEHANDOG NG PILIPINO SA MUNDO.MP4

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