Democracy and Social
   Movements


           Prof. Lourdes Veneracion-Rallonza, PhD
           Department of Political S...
Context
• Domination fosters
  resistance (Marx,
  Foucault)
• Assumption of consent
  also presupposes
  withdrawal of su...
Mobilizing Social Movements
• Response to societal stresses, injustices, and
  conflicts (e.g. economic transformation,
  ...
Social Movements
• Collective action (from mass behavior to political
  process and resource mobilization)
• Way by which ...
Narrative of Paradigms: Theories of
         ‘Collective Action’ (Edelman)
•   Mass/collective behavior
•   Resource mobil...
Mass/Collective Behavior Theories
• Functional
   - Collectives as symptoms of social disequilibria and new patterns
   of...
Resource Mobilization Theories
• Organizational
 - omnipresent discontent
 - ‘strategic-oriented’ (Cohen 1985)
 - resoluti...
Political Process Theories
• Organizational and Process-flow
 - jumped off from RM’s failure to explain spontaneous
 mobil...
New Social Movements Theories
• Identity-Oriented
 - ‘central conflict’ in society, e.g. labor vs. capital according to
 M...
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Democracy And Social Movements

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Understanding basic theories on social movements

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Democracy And Social Movements

  1. 1. Democracy and Social Movements Prof. Lourdes Veneracion-Rallonza, PhD Department of Political Science Ateneo de Manila University
  2. 2. Context • Domination fosters resistance (Marx, Foucault) • Assumption of consent also presupposes withdrawal of such thus transforming the polity • Critique Alternative Social Imaginary
  3. 3. Mobilizing Social Movements • Response to societal stresses, injustices, and conflicts (e.g. economic transformation, population shift, social disruption) (Taylor 2000) • Combination of processes (e.g. urbanization and social interaction; social classes; universities and mass education; ‘freedom’ spaces)
  4. 4. Social Movements • Collective action (from mass behavior to political process and resource mobilization) • Way by which ordinary people participate in public politics (Tilly 2004) • Collective challenge by people with common purpose (Tarrow 1994) - campaigns - modes of political action (e.g. awareness raising, demonstrations, rallies, public meetings) • Agents for change
  5. 5. Narrative of Paradigms: Theories of ‘Collective Action’ (Edelman) • Mass/collective behavior • Resource mobilization • Political process • New social movements
  6. 6. Mass/Collective Behavior Theories • Functional - Collectives as symptoms of social disequilibria and new patterns of social behavior (e.g. Park 1967) - Incapacity of social system to manage tensions; fostering of solidarity (Smelser 1962) • Psychological - mass response to totalitarianism through ‘mob mentality’ (Arendt 1962) • Economic - strategic decision of rational individuals (Olsen 1965) - class (Marxist) analysis (Thompson 1971)
  7. 7. Resource Mobilization Theories • Organizational - omnipresent discontent - ‘strategic-oriented’ (Cohen 1985) - resolution of ‘free-rider’ puzzle through analysis of available resources (McCarthy and Zald 1977) - interest group politics deployed by socially-linked groups - identification of preference structures
  8. 8. Political Process Theories • Organizational and Process-flow - jumped off from RM’s failure to explain spontaneous mobilizations and scarce-resourced movements - ‘political opportunity structures’ or strategic analysis of threats vis a vis opportunities (Tarrow 1998) - diachronic approach or analysis of the frequency of contentious events over long periods of time (Tilly 1986) - synchronic approach or examination of conflicts occurring at the same time in relation to space (Shorter and Tilly 1977)
  9. 9. New Social Movements Theories • Identity-Oriented - ‘central conflict’ in society, e.g. labor vs. capital according to Marx - ‘actor’ and ‘social action’ dynamics according to Weber - Structural preconditions of collective action in post-industrial societies that studies contention as focused on ‘way of life’ - actors have the capacity to act and struggle for historicity (Tourraine 1988) - components: (1) recognition of commonalities and shared identities and interests; (2) adversarial relations with opposing side; (3) actions beyond the capacity of social system (Melucci 1989)

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