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Relevant multimedia question answering

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Relevant multimedia question answering

  1. 1. 1 RELEVANT MULTIMEDIA QUESTION ANSWERING A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by PRASANTH.G - 100105901019 SURYA.B - 100105901034 VEMBARASU.L - 100105901039 in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING IN COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING DR.NALLINI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECNOLOGY DHARAPURAM-638 673 ANNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY::CHENNAI-600 025 APRIL 2014
  2. 2. 2 ANNA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY:CHENNAI-600 025 BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report “RELEVANT MULTIMEDIA QUESTION ANSWER” is the bonafide work of “PRASANTH.G, SURYA.B, VEMBARASU.L” Who carried out the project work under my supervision. SIGNATURE SIGNATURE Mr.P.MANIVANNAN M.TECH., Mr.S.ANANDHASARAVANAN ME., HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT SUPERVISOR Department Of Computer Science Department Of Computer Science Engineering Engineering Dr.Nallini Institute Of Engineering Dr.Nallini Institute Of Engineering and Tecnology and Tecnology Dharapuram – 638 673 Dharapuram – 638 673 Submitted To University Viva Examination Held On…………………………… INTERNAL EXAMINER EXTERNAL EXAMINER
  3. 3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all i thank god almighty for all his blessings our heartfelt thankfulness goes to our honorable chairman Dr.S.APPUSWAMY, M.S.,PH.D.,F.I.C.M.,M.R.S.H.(LOND) for having provided us with the entire necessary infra structure and other facilities for his extensive support to successfully carry out this project. I extend our gratitude to Dr.E.RAMASAMY, M.TECH.,Ph.D, principal, Dr.Nallini institute of engineering &technolongy,Dharapuram, for his high degree of encouragement and moral support during the course of this project. I extremely happy for expressing our heartfelt gratitude to Mr.P.MANIVANNAN M.TECH.,head of the department ,department of computer science engineering, Dr.Nallini institute of engineering&technology,Dharapuram, for extending all possible works and also his valuable guidance in making this project a grand success. I extent our honest gratitude to Mr.S.ANANDHASARAVANAN M.E.,department of computer science engineering ,Dr.Nallini institute of engineering & technology, Dharapuram. I thank all teaching & non teaching staffs of computer science engineering department who have helped us during the course of our project. I am also express gratitude towards our parents and friends for their valuable help.
  4. 4. 4 ABSTRACT In general, while searching in search engine one would search for an exact answer for his query. In the existing QA forums, it usually provide only textual answers which are not informative enough for real queries. In this paper, we propose the scheme that is able to enrich the textual answers with appropriate media data. By processing a large set of question answer, this approach can enable a multimedia question answering(MMQA). MMQA research offers that attempt to directly answer questions with image and video data. In my approach, we propose to contribute textual answers and able to deal with more complex queries.To enhance the above said process, propose a scheme named “WSMA” to enrich text answers with image & video and able to take relevance and diversity into account by exploring the content retreival.
  5. 5. 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER NO TITLE PAGE NO ABSTRACT I LIST OF TABLES Iv LIST OF FIGURES V LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS Vi 1 INTRODUCTION 01 2 LITERATURE SURVEYS 04 2.1Multimedia Answering: Enriching Text QA with Media Information 04 2.2Knowledge Sharing and Yahoo Answers: Everyone Knows Something 04 2.3Automatic Set Expansion for List Question Answering 05 2.4Semi-supervised kernel density estimation for video annotation 05 2.5Photo-based Question Answering 06 3 SYSTEM ANALYSIS 07 3.1 Existing System 07 3.2 Proposed System 08
  6. 6. 6 4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION 12 5 SYSTEM DESIGN 35 5.1 Architectural Diagram 35 5.2 Algorithm 37 6 MODULE SPECIFICATION 38 6.1 Modules 38 6.2 Module Description 38 7 CONCLUSION 40 APPENDICES-1 41 APPENDICES-2 53 REFERENCES 63
  7. 7. 7 LIST OF TABLES TABLE NO TITLE PAGE NO 3.1 Sample questions answerable by template-based QA layer 09 3.2 Illustration of QA Event Elements 10
  8. 8. 8 LIST OF FIGURES TABLE NO TITLE PAGE NO 3.1 Images In Our Pilot Dataset 09 3.2 Illustration of QA Event Elements 10 4.1 Stateless XML Web services model 15 4.2 .net Architecture 16 4.3 Inside The Common Language Runtime 19 4.4 Visual Basic compiler options dialog 20 4.5 The JIT process and verification 21 4.6 The .NET Framework class library. 22 5.1 Architectural Diagram 35
  9. 9. 9 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS MLMIL Multilabel Multi-Instance Learning HCRFs Hidden Conditional Random Fields SSKDE Semisupervised Kernel Density Estimation KDE Kernel Density Estimation SSAKDE Semi-Supervised Adaptive Kernel Density Estimation MMQA Multimedia Question Answering SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol CIL Common Intermediate Language GUI Graphical User Interface ECMA European Computer Manufacturers Association
  10. 10. 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Question-answering (qa) is a technique for automatically answering a question posed in natural language compared to keyword-based search systems, it greatly facilitates the communication between humans and computers by naturally stating users’ intention in plain sentences. It also avoids the painstaking browsing of a vast quantity of information contents returned by search engines for the correct answers. However, fully automated QA still faces challenges that are not easy to tackle, such as the deep understanding of complex questions and the sophisticated syntactic, semantic and contextual processing to generate answers. It is found that, in most cases, automated approach cannot obtain results that are as good as those generated by human intelligence. Along with the proliferation and improvement of underlying communication technologies, community QA (cQA) has emerged as an extremely popular alternative to acquire information online, owning to the following facts. First, information seekers are able to post their specific questions on any topic and obtain answers provided by other participants. By leveraging community efforts, they are able to get better answers than simply using search engines. Second, in comparison with automated QA systems, cQA usually receives answers with better quality as they are generated based on human intelligence. Third, over times, a tremendous number of QA pairs have been accumulated in their repositories, and it facilitates the preservation and search of answered questions.
  11. 11. 11 For example, Wiki Answer, one of the most well-known cQA systems, hosts more than 13 million answered questions distributed in 7,000 categories. Despite their great success, existing cQA forums mostly support only textual answers. Unfortunately, textual answers may not provide sufficient natural and easy-to grasp information. For the questions “What are the steps to make a weather vane” and “What does $1 Trillion Look Like”, the answers are described by long sentences. Clearly, it will be much better if there are some accompanying videos and images that visually demonstrate the process or the object. Therefore, the textual answers in cQA can be significantly enhanced by adding multimedia contents, and it will provide answer seekers more comprehensive information and better experience. In fact, users usually post URLs that link to supplementary images or videos in their textual answers. For example, for the questions , the best answers on Y!A both contain video URLs. It further confirms that multimedia contents are useful in answering several questions. But existing cQA forums do not provide adequate support in using media information. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme which can enrich community-contributed textual answers in cQA with appropriate media data. It contains three main components: (1) Answer medium selection. Given a QA pair, it predicts whether the textual answer should be enriched with media information, and which kind of media data should be added. Specifically, we will categorize it into one of the four classes. It means that the scheme will automatically collect images, videos, or the combination of images and videos to enrich the original textual answers.
  12. 12. 12 (2) Query generation for multimedia search. In order to collect multimedia data, we need to generate informative queries. Given a QA pair, this component extracts three queries from the question, the answer, and the QA pair, respectively. The most informative query will be selected by a three-class classification model. (3) Multimedia data selection and presentation. Based on the generated queries, we vertically collect image and video data with multimedia search engines. We then perform reranking and duplicate removal to obtain a set of accurate and representative images or videos to enrich the textual answers.
  13. 13. 13 CHAPTER 2 LITERARURE SURVEY 2.1 Multimedia Answering: Enriching Text QA with Media Information: In this paper, we introduce a scheme that is able to enrich text answers with image and video information. Our scheme investigates a rich set of techniques including question/answer classification, query generation, image and video search reranking, etc. Given a question and the community-contributed answer, our approach is able to determine which type of media information should be added, and then automatically collects data from Internet to enrich the textual answer. Different from some efforts that attempt to directly answer questions with image and video data, our approach is built based on the community-contributed textual answers and thus it is more feasible and able to deal with more complex questions. We have conducted empirical study on more than 3,000 QA pairs and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. 2.2 Knowledge Sharing and Yahoo Answers: Everyone Knows Something In this paper, we seek to understand YA’s knowledge sharing activity. We analyze the forum categories and cluster them according to content characteristics and patterns of interaction among the users. While interactions in some categories resemble expertise sharing forums, others incorporate discussion, everyday advice, and support. With such a diversity of categories in which one can participate, we find that some users focus narrowly on specific topics, while others participate across categories. This not only allows us to map related categories, but to characterize the entropy of the users’ interests. We find that lower entropy correlates with receiving higher answer ratings, but only for categories where
  14. 14. 14 factual expertise is primarily sought after. We combine both user attributes and answer characteristics to predict, within a given category, whether a particular answer will be chosen as the best answer by the asker. 2.3 Automatic Set Expansion for List Question Answering This paper explores the use of set expansion (SE) to improve question answering (QA) when the expected answer is a list of entities belonging to a certain class. Given a small set of seeds, SE algorithms mine textual resources to produce an extended list including additional members of the class represented by the seeds. We explore the hypothesis that a noise-resistant SE algorithm can be used to extend candidate answers produced by a QA system and generate a new list of answers that is better than the original list produced by the QA system. We further introduce a hybrid approach which combines the original answers from the QA system with the output from the SE algorithm. Experimental results for severalstate-of-the-art QA systems show that the hybrid system performs better than the QA systems alone when tested on list question data from past TREC evaluations. 2.4 Semi-supervised kernel density estimation for video annotation In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised learning algorithm named semisupervised kernel density estimation (SSKDE) which is developed based on kernel density estimation (KDE) approach. While only labeled data are utilized in classical KDE, in SSKDE both labeled and unlabeled data are leveraged to estimate class conditional probability densities based on an extended form of KDE. It is a non-parametric method, and it thus naturally avoids the model assumption problem that exists in many parametric semi-supervised methods. Meanwhile, it can be implemented with an efficient iterative solution process. So, this method is
  15. 15. 15 appropriate for video annotation. Furthermore, motivated by existing adaptive KDE approach, we propose an improved algorithm named semi-supervised adaptive kernel density estimation (SSAKDE). It employs local adaptive kernels rather than a fixed kernel, such that broader kernels can be applied in the regions with low density. In this way, more accurate density estimates can be obtained. Extensive experiments have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed methods. 2.5 Photo-based Question Answering A photo-based QA system allows direct use of a photo to refer to the object. We develop a three-layer system architecture for photo-based QA that brings together recent technical achievements in question answering and image matching. The first, template-based QA layer matches a query photo to online images and extracts structured data from multimedia databases to answer questions about the photo. To simplify image matching, it exploits the question text to filter images based on categories and keywords. The second, information retrieval QA layer searches an internal repository of resolved photo-based questions to retrieve relevant answers. The third, human-computation QA layer leverages community experts to handle the most difficult cases. A series of experiments performed on a pilot dataset of 30,000 images of books, movie DVD covers, grocery items, and landmarks demonstrate the technical feasibility of this architecture. We present three prototypes to show how photo-based QA can be built into an online album, a text-based QA, and a mobile application.
  16. 16. 16 CHAPTER 3 SYSTEM ANALYSIS 3.1 EXISTING SYSTEM: • In existing, we propose a scheme that is able to enrich textual answers in cQA with appropriate media data. • Increasing exposure by the use of web harvesting is essential for a business wishing to expand online. • It then automatically collects data from the web to enrich the answer. • By processing a large set of QA pairs and adding them to a pool, our approach can enable a novel multimedia question answering (MMQA) approach as users can find multimedia answers by matching their questions with those in the pool. • No content retreival. . ISSUES IN EXISTING SYSTEM: • The system may fail to generate reasonable multimedia answers if the generated queries are verbose and complex. • Relevant and irrelevant datas will generate • Non automated maintenance
  17. 17. 17 3.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM: • We proposes a relevance reranking scheme which is able to simultaneously take relevance data and diversity into account. • It takes advantage of both the content of images and their associated multimedia contents. • It estimates the relevance scores of images with respect to the query term based on both the visual information, images and the semantic information of associated multimedia datas. • Here, we propose “WSMA” to enrich text answers with image & video and able to take relevance and diversity into account by exploring the content of images. It investigates a rich set of techniques : 1) Question/Answer classification. 2) Query generation. 3) image and video search re-ranking.
  18. 18. 18 FOR EXAMPLES: TABLE 3.1 Sample questions answerable by the template-based QA layer. Fig 3.1 Images in our pilot dataset. CATEGORY SAMPLE QUESTIONS ALL What is it? PRODUCT Is it in stock? How much is this on Amazon? Where can I buy it? ENTERTAINMENT What is its rating? What is its review? Is there a sequel? MOVIE Is there a blue-ray edition? What is its boxoffice? Who is the director? BOOK Is it a fiction? Is there a paperback edition? Who is the author? LANDMARK Where is it? Who is the architect? When was it built?
  19. 19. 19 WH-Question QA Event Elements Who/Whose/Whom Subject, Object Where Location When Time What Subject, Object, Description, Action Which Subject, Object How Quantity, Description Table 3.2 Correspondence of WH-Questions & Event Elements Figure 3.2 Illustration of QA Event Elements
  20. 20. 20 ADVANTAGES: The benefits from solving the above challenge would be enormous. Potential applications include 1) a formalized machine-readable encyclopedia that can be queried with high precision like a semantic database; 2) a key asset for disambiguating entities by supporting fast and accurate mappings of textual phrases onto named entities in the knowledge base; 3) an enabler for entity- relation- ship-oriented semantic search on the Web, for detecting entities and relations in Web pages and reasoning about them in expressive (probabilistic) logics; 4) a backbone for natural-language question answering that would aid in dealing with entities and their relationships in answering who/where/when/ etc. questions; 5) a catalyst for acquisition of further knowledge and largely automated maintenance and growth of the knowledge base
  21. 21. 21 CHAPTER 4 SOFTWARE DESCRIPTION SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: Operating system : Windows XP Professional Environment : Visual Studio .NET 2008 .Net framework : Version 3.5 Language : C#.NET Web technology : ASP.NET Backend : SQL SERVER 2005 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS PROCESSOR : PENTIUM III 866 MHz RAM : 128 MD SD RAM MONITOR : 15” COLOR HARD DISK : 20 GB FLOPPY DRIVE : 1.44 MB CD DRIVE : LG 52X KEYBOARD : STANDARD 102 KEYS MOUSE : 3 BUTTONS
  22. 22. 22 SOFTWARE SPECIFICATION • Microsoft C#. Net used as front end tool. The reason for selecting C# dot Net as front end tool as follows: • C#. Net has flexibility , allowing one or more language to interoperate to provide the solution. This Cross Language Compatibility allows to do project at faster rate. • C#. Net has Common Language Runtime , that allows all the component to converge into one intermediate format and then can interact. • C#. Net has provide excellent security when your application is executed in the system • C#.Net has flexibility, allowing us to configure the working environment to best suit our individual style. We can choose between a single and multiple document interfaces, and we can adjust the size and positioning of the various IDE elements. • C#. Net has Intelligence feature that make the coding easy and also Dynamic help provides very less coding time. • The working environment in C#.Net is often referred to as Integrated Development Environment because it integrates many different functions such as design, editing, compiling and debugging within a common environment. In most traditional development tools, each of separate program, each with its own interface. • The C#.Net language is quite powerful – if we can imagine a programming task and accomplished using C#.Net.
  23. 23. 23 • After creating a C#. Net application, if we want to distribute it to others we can freely distribute any application to anyone who uses Microsoft windows. We can distribute our applications on disk, on CDs, across networks, or over an intranet or the internet. • Toolbars provide quick access to commonly used commands in the programming environment. We click a button on the toolbar once to carry out the action represented by that button. By default, the standard toolbar is displayed when we start Visual Basic. Additional toolbars for editing, form design, and debugging can be toggled on or off from the toolbars command on the view menu. • Many parts of C# are context sensitive. Context sensitive means we can get help on these parts directly without having to go through the help menu. For example, to get help on any keyword in the C#language, place the insertion point on that keyword in the code window and press F1. • C# interprets our code as we enter it, catching and highlighting most syntax or spelling errors on the fly. It’s almost like having an expert watching over our shoulder as we enter our code. FEATURES OF DOTNET When .NET was announced in late 1999, Microsoft positioned the technology as a platform for building and consuming Extensible Markup Language (XML) Web services. XML Web services allow any type of application, be it a Windows- or browser-based application running on any type of computer system, to consume data from any type of server over the Internet. The reason this idea is so great is the way in which the XML messages are transferred: over established
  24. 24. 24 standard protocols that exist today. Using protocols such as SOAP, HTTP, and SMTP, XML Web services make it possible to expose data over the wire with little or no modifications to your existing code. Figure 4.1 presents a high-level overview of the .NET Framework and how XML Web services are positioned. Fig 4.1 Stateless XML Web services model. Since the initial announcement of the .NET Framework, it's taken on many new and different meanings to different people. To a developer, .NET means a great environment for creating robust distributed applications. To an IT manager, .NET means simpler deployment of applications to end users, tighter security, and simpler management. To a CTO or CIO, .NET means happier developers using state-of-the-art development technologies and a smaller bottom line. To understand why all these statements are true, you need to get a grip on what the .NET Framework consists of, and how it's truly a revolutionary step forward for application architecture, development, and deployment.
  25. 25. 25 .NET FRAMEWORK Now that you are familiar with the major goals of the .NET Framework, let's briefly examine its architecture. As you can see in Figure 3-2, the .NET Framework sits on top of the operating system, which can be a few different flavors of Windows and consists of a number of components .NET is essentially a system application that runs on Windows. Conceptually, the CLR and the JVM are similar in that they are both runtime infrastructures that abstract the underlying platform differences. However, while the JVM officially supports only the Java language, the CLR supports any language that can be represented in its Common Intermediate Language (CIL). Fig 4.2 .net Architecture The JVM executes byte code, so it can, in principle, support many languages, too. Unlike Java's byte code, though, CIL is never interpreted. Another conceptual difference between the two infrastructures is that Java code runs on any platform with a JVM, whereas .NET code runs only on platforms that support the CLR. In April, 2003, the International Organization for Standardization and the International Electro technical Committee (ISO/IEC) recognized a functional
  26. 26. 26 subset of the CLR, known as the Common Language Interface (CLI), as an international standard. This development, initiated by Microsoft and developed by ECMA International, a European standards organization, opens the way for third parties to implement their own versions of the CLR on other platforms, such as Linux or Mac OS X. For information on third-party and open source projects working to implement the ISO/IEC CLI and C# specifications. The layer on top of the CLR is a set of framework base classes. This set of classes is similar to the set of classes found in STL, MFC, ATL, or Java. These classes support rudimentary input and output functionality, string manipulation, security management, network communications, thread management, text management, reflection functionality, collections functionality, as well as other functions. On top of the framework base classes is a set of classes that extend the base classes to support data management and XML manipulation. These classes, called ADO.NET, support persistent data management—data that is stored on backend databases. Alongside the data classes, the .NET Framework supports a number of classes to let you manipulate XML data and perform XML searching and XML translations .Classes in three different technologies (including web services, Web Forms, and Windows Forms) extend the framework base classes and the data and XML classes. Web services include a number of classes that support the development of lightweight distributed components, which work even in the face of firewalls and NAT software. These components support plug-and-play across the Internet, because web services employ standard HTTP and SOAP. Web Forms,
  27. 27. 27 the key technology behind ASP.NET, include a number of classes that allow you to rapidly develop web Graphical User Interface (GUI) applications. If you're currently developing web applications with Visual Interdev, you can think of Web Forms as a facility that allows you to develop web GUIs using the same drag-and-drop approach as if you were developing the GUIs in Visual Basic. Simply drag-and-drop controls onto your Web Form, double-click on a control, and write the code to respond to the associated event. Forms support a set of classes that allow you to develop native Windows GUI applications. You can think of these classes collectively as a much better version of the MFC in C++ because they support easier and more powerful GUI development and provide a common, consistent interface that can be used in all languages. THE COMMON LANGUAGE RUNTIME: At the heart of the .NET Framework is the common language runtime. The common language runtime is responsible for providing the execution environment that code written in a .NET language runs under. The common language runtime can be compared to the Visual Basic 6 runtime, except that the common language runtime is designed to handle all .NET languages, not just one, as the Visual Basic 6 runtime did for Visual Basic 6. The following list describes some of the benefits the common language runtime gives you • Automatic memory management • Cross-language debugging • Cross-language exception handling • Full support for component versioning • Access to legacy COM components
  28. 28. 28 • XCOPY deployments • Robust security model You might expect all those features, but this has never been possible using Microsoft development tools. Figure 10.3 shows where the common language runtime fits into the .NET Framework. The common language runtime and the .NET Framework. Fig 4.3 INSIDE THE COMMON LANGUAGE RUNTIME The common language runtime enables code running in its execution environment to have features such as security, versioning, memory management and exception handling because of the way .NET code actually executes. When you compiled Visual Basic 6 forms applications, you had the ability to compile down to native node or p-code. Figure 3.4 should refresh your memory of what the Visual Basic 6 options dialog looked like.
  29. 29. 29 Fig 4.4 Visual Basic compiler options dialog. When you compile in .NET, you're converting your code—no matter what .NET language you're using—into an assembly made up of an intermediate language called Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL or just IL, for short). The IL contains all the information about your application, including methods, properties, events, types, exceptions, security objects, and so on, and it also includes metadata about what types in your code can or cannot be exposed to other applications. This was called a type library in Visual Basic 6 or an IDL (interface definition language) file in C++. In .NET, it's simply the metadata that the IL contains about your assembly.
  30. 30. 30 Fig 4.5 The JIT process and verification. When code is JIT compiled, the common language runtime checks to make sure that the IL is correct. The rules that the common language runtime uses for verification are set forth in the Common Language Specification (CLS) and the Common Type System (CTS). THE .NET FRAMEWORK CLASS LIBRARY The second most important piece of the .NET Framework is the .NET Framework class library (FCL). As you've seen, the common language runtime handles the dirty work of actually running the code you write. But to write the code, you need a foundation of available classes to access the resources of the operating system, database server, or file server. The FCL is made up of a hierarchy of namespaces that expose classes, structures, interfaces, enumerations, and delegates that give you access to these resources. The namespaces are logically defined by functionality. For example, the System. Data namespace contains all the functionality available to accessing databases.
  31. 31. 31 This namespace is further broken down into System.Data.SqlClient, which exposes functionality specific to SQL Server, and System.Data.OleDb, which exposes specific functionality for accessing OLEDB data sources. The bounds of a namespace aren't necessarily defined by specific assemblies within the FCL; rather, they're focused on functionality and logical grouping. In total, there are more than 20,000 classes in the FCL, all logically grouped in a hierarchical manner. Figure 1.8 shows where the FCL fits into the .NET Framework and the logical grouping of namespaces. Fig 4.6 the .NET Framework class library. To use an FCL class in your application, you use the Imports statement in Visual Basic .NET or the using statement in C#. When you reference a namespace in Visual Basic .NET or C#, you also get the convenience of auto- complete and auto-list members when you access the objects' types using Visual Studio .NET. This makes it very easy to determine what types are available for each class in the namespace you're using. As you'll see over the next several weeks, it's very easy to start coding in Visual Studio .NET.
  32. 32. 32 THE STRUCTURE OF A .NET APPLICATION To understand how the common language runtime manages code execution, you must examine the structure of a .NET application. The primary unit of a .NET application is the assembly. An assembly is a self-describing collection of code, resources, and metadata. The assembly manifest contains information about what is contained within the assembly. The assembly manifest provides: • Identity information, such as the assembly’s name and version number • A list of all types exposed by the assembly • A list of other assemblies required by the assembly • A list of code access security instructions, including permissions required by the assembly and permissions to be denied the assembly Each assembly has one and only one assembly manifest, and it contains all the description information for the assembly. However, the assembly manifest can be contained in its own file or within one of the assembly’s modules. An assembly contains one or more modules. A module contains the code that makes up your application or library, and it contains metadata that describes that code. When you compile a project into an assembly, your code is converted from high-level code to IL. Because all managed code is first converted to IL code, applications written in different languages can easily interact. For example, one developer might write an application in Visual C# that accesses a DLL in Visual Basic .NET. Both resources will be converted to IL modules before being executed, thus avoiding any language-incompatibility issues. Each module also contains a number of types.
  33. 33. 33 Types are templates that describe a set of data encapsulation and functionality. There are two kinds of types: reference types (classes) and value types (structures). These types are discussed in greater detail in Lesson 2 of this chapter. Each type is described to the common language runtime in the assembly manifest. A type can contain fields, properties, and methods, each of which should be related to a common functionality. For example, you might have a class that represents a bank account. It contains fields, properties, and methods related to the functions needed to implement a bank account. A field represents storage of a particular type of data. One field might store the name of an account holder, for example. Properties are similar to fields, but properties usually provide some kind of validation when data is set or retrieved. You might have a property that represents an account balance. When an attempt is made to change the value, the property can check to see if the attempted change is greater than a predetermined limit. If the value is greater than the limit, the property does not allow the change. Methods represent behavior, such as actions taken on data stored within the class or changes to the user interface. Continuing with the bank account example, you might have a Transfer method that transfers a balance from a checking account to a savings account, or an Alert method that warns users when their balances fall below a predetermined level. INTRODUCTION TO OBJECT-ORIENTED PROGRAMMING Programming in the .NET Framework environment is done with objects. Objects are programmatic constructs that represent packages of related data and functionality. Objects are self-contained and expose specific functionality to the
  34. 34. 34 rest of the application environment without detailing the inner workings of the object itself. Objects are created from a template called a class. The .NET base class library provides a set of classes from which you can create objects in your applications. You also can use the Microsoft Visual Studio programming environment to create your own classes. This lesson introduces you to the concepts associated with object-oriented programming. OVERVIEW OF ADO.NET Most applications require some kind of data access. Desktop applications need to integrate with central databases, Extensible Markup Language (XML) data stores, or local desktop databases. ADO.NET data-access technology allows simple, powerful data access while maximizing system resource usage. Different applications have different requirements for data access. Whether your application simply displays the contents of a table, or processes and updates data to a central SQL server, ADO.NET provides the tools to implement data access easily and efficiently. DISCONNECTED DATABASE ACCESS Previous data-access technologies provided continuously connected data access by default. In such a model, an application creates a connection to a database and keeps the connection open for the life of the application, or at least for the amount of time that data is required. However, as applications become more complex and databases serve more and more clients, connected data access is impractical for a variety of reasons, including the following:
  35. 35. 35 • Open database connections are expensive in terms of system resources. The more open connections there are, the less efficient system performance becomes. • Applications with connected data access are difficult to scale. An application that can comfortably maintain connections with two clients might do poorly with 10 and be completely unusable with 100. • Open database connections can quickly consume all available database licenses, which can be a significant expense. In order to work within a limited set of client licenses, connections must be reused whenever possible. ADO.NET addresses these issues by implementing a disconnected data access model by default. In this model, data connections are established and left open only long enough to perform the requisite action. For example, if an application requests data from a database, the connection opens just long enough to load the data into the application, and then it closes. Likewise, if a database is updated, the connection opens to execute the UPDATE command, and then closes again. By keeping connections open only for the minimum required time, ADO.NET conserves system resources and allows data access to scale up with a minimal impact on performance. ADO.NET DATA ARCHITECTURE Data access in ADO.NET relies on two entities: the Dataset, which stores data on the local machine, and the Data Provider, a set of components that mediates interaction between the program and the database.
  36. 36. 36 The DATASET The Dataset is a disconnected, in-memory representation of data. It can be thought of as a local copy of the relevant portions of a database. Data can be loaded into a Dataset from any valid data source, such as a SQL Server database, a Microsoft Access database, or an XML file. The Dataset persists in memory, and the data therein can be manipulated and updated independent of the database. When appropriate, the Dataset can then act as a template for updating the central database. The Dataset object contains a collection of zero or more Data Table objects, each of which is an in-memory representation of a single table. The structure of a particular Data Table is defined by the Data Columns collection, which enumerates the columns in a particular table, and the Constraint collection, which enumerates any constraints on the table. Together, these two collections make up the table schema. A Data Table also contains a Data Rows collection, which contains the actual data in the Dataset. The Dataset contains a Data Relations collection. A Data Relation object allows you to create associations between rows in one table and rows in another table. The Data Relations collection enumerates a set of Data Relation objects that define the relationships between tables in the Dataset. For example, consider a Dataset that contains two related tables: an Employees table and a Projects table. In the Employees table, each employee is represented only once and is identified by a unique Employee field. In the Projects table, an employee in charge of a project is identified by the Employee field, but can appear more than once if that employee is in charge of multiple projects. This is an example of a one-to-many relationship;
  37. 37. 37 you would use a Data Relation object to define this relationship. Additionally, a Dataset contains an Extended Properties collection, which is used to store custom information about the Dataset. THE DATA PROVIDER The link to the database is created and maintained by a data provider. A data provider is not a single component; rather it is a set of related components that work together to provide data in an efficient, performance-driven manner. The first version of the Microsoft .NET Framework shipped with two data providers: the SQL Server .NET Data Provider, designed specifically to work with SQL Server 7 or later, and the Loeb .NET Data Provider, which connects with other types of databases. Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2005 added two more data providers: the ODBC Data Provider and the Oracle Data Provider. Each data provider consists of versions of the following generic component classes: • The Connection object provides the connection to the database. • The Command object executes a command against a data source. It can execute non-query commands, such as INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE, or return a Data Reader with the results of a SELECT command. • The Data Reader object provides a forward-only, read-only, connected record set. • The Data Adapter object populates a disconnected Dataset or Data Table with data and performs updates. Data access in ADO.NET is facilitated as follows: a Connection object establishes a connection between the application and the database. This connection
  38. 38. 38 can be accessed directly by a Command object or by a Data Adapter object. The Command object provides direct execution of a command to the database. If the command returns more than a single value, the Command object returns a Data Reader to provide the data. This data can be directly processed by application logic. Alternatively, you can use the Data Adapter to fill a Dataset object. Updates to the database can be achieved through the Command object or through the Data Adapter. The generic classes that make up the data providers are summarized in the following sections. THE CONNECTION OBJECT The Connection object represents the actual connection to the database. Visual Studio .NET 2003 supplies two types of Connection classes: the SqlConnection object, which is designed specifically to connect to SQL Server 7 or later, and the OleDbConnection object, which can provide connections to a wide range of database types. Visual Studio .NET 2003 further provides a multipurpose ODBCConnection class, as well as an Oracle Connection class optimized for connecting to Oracle databases. The Connection object contains all of the information required to open a channel to the database in the Connection String property. The Connection object also incorporates methods that facilitate data transactions. THE COMMAND OBJECT The Command object is represented by two corresponding classes, SqlCommand and OleDbCommand. You can use Command objects to execute commands to a database across a data connection. Command objects can be used to execute stored procedures on the database and SQL commands, or return
  39. 39. 39 complete tables. Command objects provide three methods that are used to execute commands on the database. • EXECUTENONQUERY Executes commands that return no records, such as INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE • EXECUTESCALAR Returns a single value from a database query • EXECUTEREADER Returns a result set by way of a DataReader object THE DATA READER OBJECT The Data Reader object provides a forward-only, read-only, connected stream record set from a database. Unlike other components of a data provider, Data Reader objects cannot be directly instantiated. Rather, the Data Reader is returned as the result of a Command object’s ExecuteReader method. The SqlCommand.ExecuteReader method returns a SqlDataReader object, and the OleDbCommand.ExecuteReader method returns an OleDbDataReader object. Likewise, the ODBC and Oracle Command.ExecuteReader methods return a DataReader specific to the ODBC and Oracle Data Providers respectively. The DataReader can supply rows of data directly to application logic when you do not need to keep the data cached in memory.
  40. 40. 40 THE DATAADAPTER OBJECT The DataAdapter is the class at the core of ADO.NET disconnected data access. It is essentially the middleman, facilitating all communication between the database and a DataSet.The DataAdapter provides four properties that represent database commands. The four properties are: • SELECT COMMAND Contains the command text or object that selects the data from the database. This command is executed when the Fill method is called and fills a Data Table or a DataSet. • INSERT COMMAND Contains the command text or object that inserts a row into a table. • DELETE COMMAND Contains the command text or object that deletes a row from a table. • UPDATE COMMAND Contains the command text or object that updates the values of a database. When the Update method is called, changes in the DataSet are copied back to the database, and the appropriate Insert Command, Delete Command, or Update Command is executed.
  41. 41. 41 ACCESSING DATA Visual Studio .NET has many built-in wizards and designers to help you shape your data-access architecture rapidly and efficiently. With minimal actual coding, you can implement robust data access for your application. However, the ADO.NET object model is fully available through code to implement customized features or to fine-tune your program. FEATURES OF SQL SERVER The OLAP Services feature available in SQL Server version 7.0 is now called SQL Server 2000 Analysis Services. The term OLAP Services has been replaced with the term Analysis Services. Analysis Services also includes a new data mining component. The Repository component available in SQL Server version 7.0 is now called Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Meta Data Services. References to the component now use the term Meta Data Services. SQL-SERVER database consist of six type of objects, They are, 1. TABLE 2. QUERY 3. FORM 4. REPORT 5. MACRO 6. MODULE
  42. 42. 42 TABLE: A database is a collection of data about a specific topic. VIEWS OF TABLE: We can work with a table in two types, 1. Design View 2. Datasheet View QUERY: A query is a question that has to be asked the data. Access gathers data that answers the question from one or more table. The data that make up the answer is either dynaset (if you edit it) or a snapshot (it cannot be edited).Each time we run query, we get latest information in the dynaset. Access either displays the dynaset or snapshot for us to view or perform an action on it, such as deleting or updating. FORMS: A form is used to view and edit information in the database record by record .A form displays only the information we want to see in the way we want to see it. Forms use the familiar controls such as textboxes and checkboxes. This makes viewing and entering data easy.
  43. 43. 43 VIEWS OF FORM: We can work with forms in several primarily there are two views, They are, • Design View • Form View DESIGN VIEW: To build or modify the structure of a form, we work in forms design view. We can add control to the form that are bound to fields in a table or query, includes textboxes, option buttons, graphs and pictures. FORM VIEW: The form view which display the whole design of the form. REPORT: A report is used to views and print information from the database. The report can ground records into many levels and compute totals and average by checking values from many records at once. Also the report is attractive and distinctive because we have control over the size and appearance of it. MACRO: A macro is a set of actions. Each action in macros does something. Such as opening a form or printing a report .We write macros to automate the common tasks the work easy and save the time. MODULE: Modules are units of code written in access basic language. We can write and use module to automate and customize the database in very sophisticated ways.
  44. 44. 44 CHAPTER 5 SYSTEM DESIGN 5.1 ARCHITECTURAL DIAGRAM:
  45. 45. 45 Fig 5.1 Architectural Diagram
  46. 46. 46 5.2 ALGORITHM Relevance ranking algorithm: There exist multiple variations of neighborhood-based CF techniques. In this paper, to estimate R*(u, i), i.e., the rating that user u would give to item i, we first compute the similarity between user u and other users u' using a cosine similarity metric. Formula : for finding prediction by using recommendation techniques: Sim(u,u’)=sum[R(u,i).R(u’,i)]/sqrt[sum[R(u,i)2].sqrt[sum[R(u’,i)] Where I (u, u') represents the set of all items rated by both user u and user u'. Based on the similarity calculation, set N (u) of nearest neighbors of user u is obtained. The size of set N (u) can range anywhere from 1 to |U|-1, i.e., all other users in the dataset. Then, R*(u, i) is calculated as the adjusted weighted sum of all known ratings R (u', i) Here R (u) represents the average rating of user u. A neighborhood-based CF technique can be user-based or item-based, depending on whether the similarity is calculated between users or items, the user-based approach, but they can be straightforwardly rewritten for the item-based approach because of the symmetry between users and items in all neighborhood-based CF calculations. In our experiments we used both user-based and item-based approaches for rating estimation
  47. 47. 47 CHAPTER 6 MODULE DESCRIPTION 6.1 MODULES • Posting the opinion • Recommendation Technique • Rating Prediction • Ranking Approach 6.2 MODULES DESCRIPTION POSTING THE OPINION: In this module, we get the opinions from various people about business, e-commerce and products through online. The opinions may be of two types. Direct opinion and comparative opinion. Direct opinion is to post a comment about the components and attributes of products directly. Comparative opinion is to post a comment based on comparison of two or more products. The comments may be positive or negative. RECOMMENDATION TECHNIQUE: The quality of recommendations can be evaluated along a number of dimensions, and relying on the accuracy of recommendations alone may not be enough to find the most relevant items for each User, these studies argue that one of the goals of recommender systems is to provide a user with highly personalized items, and more diverse recommendations result in more opportunities for users to get recommended such items. With this motivation, some studies proposed new
  48. 48. 48 recommendation methods that can increase the diversity of recommendation sets for a given individual user. They can give the feedback of such items. RATING PREDICTION: First, the ratings of unrated items are estimated based on the available information (typically using known user ratings and possibly also information about item content) using some recommendation algorithm. Heuristic techniques typically calculate recommendations based directly on the previous user activities (e.g., transactional data or rating values). For each user, ranks all the predicted items according to the predicted rating value ranking the candidate (highly predicted) items based on their predicted rating value, from lowest to highest (as a result choosing less popular items). RANKING APPROACH: Ranking items according to the rating variance of neighbors of a particular user for a particular item. There exist a number of different ranking approaches that can improve recommendation diversity by recommending items other than the ones with topmost predicted rating values to a user. A comprehensive set of experiments was performed using every rating prediction technique in conjunction with every recommendation ranking function on every dataset for different number of top-N recommendations.
  49. 49. 49 CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSION In this paper, we describe the motivation and evolution of WSMA, and it is analyzed that the existing approaches mainly focus on narrow domains. Aiming at a more general approach, we propose a novel scheme to answer questions using media data by leveraging textual answers in cQA. For a given QA pair, our scheme first predicts which type of medium is appropriate for enriching the original textual answer. Following that, it automatically generates a query based on the QA knowledge and then performs multimedia search with the query. Finally, query- adaptive reranking and duplicate removal are performed to obtain a set of images and videos for presentation along with the original textual answer. Different from the conventional WSMA research that aims to automatically generate multimedia answers with given questions, our approach is built based on the community- contributed answers, and it can thus deal with more general questions and achieve better performance
  50. 50. 50 APPENDICES-1 Source Code: Admin Login: using System; using System.Data; using System.Configuration; using System.Collections; using System.Web; using System.Web.Security; using System.Web.UI; using System.Web.UI.WebControls; using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts; using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls; using System.Data.SqlClient; public partial class adminlogin : System.Web.UI.Page { SqlConnection con = new SqlConnection(System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["con"]); protected void Button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) { SqlCommand cmd=new SqlCommand ("select count(*) from login where uid='"+TextBox1 .Text +"' and pwd='"+ TextBox2 .Text +"' ", con); con.Open();
  51. 51. 51 int c = Convert .ToInt32 (cmd.ExecuteScalar()); if (c > 0) { Label3.Text = "successful"; } else Label3.Text = "Invalid Data"; con.Close(); } } Ask Question: using System; using System.Data; using System.Configuration; using System.Collections; using System.Web; using System.Web.Security; using System.Web.UI; using System.Web.UI.WebControls; using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts; using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls; using System.Data.SqlClient; using System.Windows.Forms;
  52. 52. 52 public partial class Askquest : System.Web.UI.Page { SqlConnection con = new SqlConnection(System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["con"]); protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e) { DateTime d = Convert.ToDateTime(DateTime.Now.ToLongTimeString()); Label3.Text = d.ToString(); Label6.Text = Session["uid"].ToString(); } protected void Button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) { string str = "insert into askqust (ques,qdetail,mailfrom,today)values ('" + TextBox5.Text + "','" + TextBox1.Text + "','" + Label6.Text + "','" + Label3.Text + "')"; Connection.ExecuteQuery(str); MessageBox.Show("Datas Saved"); TextBox1.Text = ""; TextBox5.Text = ""; } } Doc Details: using System; using System.Data;
  53. 53. 53 using System.Configuration; using System.Collections; using System.Web; using System.Web.Security; using System.Web.UI; using System.Web.UI.WebControls; using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts; using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls; using System.Data.SqlClient; using System.IO; using System.Windows.Forms; public partial class docdetails : System.Web.UI.Page { SqlConnection con = new SqlConnection(System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["con"]); protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e) { string qry = string.Empty; qry="select *from askqust where qid='"+Request.QueryString["id"]+"'"; DataSet ds=new DataSet(); ds=Connection.ExecuteQuery(qry); if (ds != null) { Label7.Text=ds.Tables[0].Rows[0]["ques"].ToString(); TextBox1.Text=ds.Tables[0].Rows[0]["qdetail"].ToString();
  54. 54. 54 } } protected void Button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) { string vfilename = string.Empty; string filename = string.Empty; MessageBox.Show("Saved"); } } Doc Register: using System; using System.Data; using System.Configuration; using System.Collections; using System.Web; using System.Web.Security; using System.Web.UI; using System.Web.UI.WebControls; using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts; using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls; using System.Data.SqlClient; public partial class docregister : System.Web.UI.Page {
  55. 55. 55 SqlConnection con = new SqlConnection(System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["con"]) protected void Button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) { try { string str = "insert into docreg values('" + TextBox1.Text + "','" + TextBox2.Text + "'," + TextBox3.Text + ",'" + TextBox4.Text + "','" + TextBox5.Text + "','" + TextBox6.Text + "','"+TextBox7.Text+"')"; SqlCommand cmd = new SqlCommand(str , con); con.Open(); int c = cmd.ExecuteNonQuery(); if (c > 0) { Label8.Text = "Successfully Register"; } con.Close(); TextBox1.Text = ""; TextBox2.Text = ""; TextBox3.Text = " "; TextBox4.Text = ""; TextBox5.Text = ""; TextBox6.Text = ""; TextBox7.Text = ""; }
  56. 56. 56 catch (Exception ex) { Response.Redirect(ex.Message); } finally { if (con.State == ConnectionState.Open) con.Close(); } } } Register: using System; using System.Data; using System.Configuration; using System.Collections; using System.Web; using System.Web.Security; using System.Web.UI; using System.Web.UI.WebControls; using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts; using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls; using System.Data.SqlClient;
  57. 57. 57 public partial class register : System.Web.UI.Page { SqlConnection con = new SqlConnection(System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["con"]); protected void Button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) { try { string str="insert into register values('"+TextBox1.Text+ "','" + TextBox2.Text + "','" + DropDownList1.SelectedItem.Value + "','" + TextBox4.Text + "','" + TextBox5.Text + "','" + TextBox7.Text + "','" + TextBox8.Text + "')"; Connection.ExecuteQuery(str); TextBox1.Text = ""; TextBox2.Text = ""; TextBox4.Text = ""; TextBox5.Text = ""; TextBox7.Text = ""; TextBox8.Text = ""; } catch (Exception ex) { Response.Redirect(ex.Message); } finally { if (con.State == ConnectionState.Open)
  58. 58. 58 con.Close(); } } } Search: using System; using System.Collections; using System.Configuration; using System.Data; using System.Linq; using System.Web; using System.Web.Security; using System.Web.UI; using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls; using System.Web.UI.WebControls; using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts; using System.Xml.Linq; using System.Data.SqlClient; public partial class search : System.Web.UI.Page { DataTable dt = new DataTable(); protected void Button1_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) {
  59. 59. 59 SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(ConfigurationManager.ConnectionStrings["con"].ConnectionString ); SqlCommand command = new SqlCommand("SELECT * from replydata where ques like '%"+TextBox1.Text+"%' ", connection); SqlDataAdapter ada = new SqlDataAdapter(command); ada.Fill(dt); gvImages.DataSource = dt; gvImages.DataBind(); BindGrid(); textbind(); } private void BindGrid() { string strConnString = ConfigurationManager.ConnectionStrings["con"].ConnectionString; using (SqlConnection con = new SqlConnection(strConnString)) { using (SqlCommand cmd = new SqlCommand()) { cmd.CommandText = "select qid, Name from replydata where ques like'%" + TextBox1.Text + "%'"; cmd.Connection = con; con.Open(); DataList1.DataSource = cmd.ExecuteReader(); DataList1.DataBind();
  60. 60. 60 con.Close(); } } } void textbind() { SqlConnection connection = new SqlConnection(ConfigurationManager.ConnectionStrings["con"].ConnectionString ); SqlCommand command = new SqlCommand("SELECT* from replydata where ques like '%" + TextBox1.Text + "%'", connection); SqlDataAdapter ada = new SqlDataAdapter(command); ada.Fill(dt); GridView1.DataSource = dt; GridView1.DataBind(); } } View: using System; using System.Data; using System.Configuration; using System.Collections; using System.Web; using System.Web.Security; using System.Web.UI;
  61. 61. 61 using System.Web.UI.WebControls; using System.Web.UI.WebControls.WebParts; using System.Web.UI.HtmlControls; using System.Data.SqlClient; public partial class viewdoct : System.Web.UI.Page { SqlConnection con = new SqlConnection(System.Configuration.ConfigurationManager.AppSettings["con"]); protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e) { DataSet ds = new DataSet(); ds = Connection.ExecuteQuery("select * from askqust"); GridView1.DataSource = ds.Tables[0]; GridView1.DataBind(); } protected void GridView1_RowDeleting(object sender, GridViewDeleteEventArgs e) { Label txtcity = (Label)GridView1.Rows[e.RowIndex].FindControl("Label3"); string m = txtcity.ToString(); Response.Redirect("docdetails.aspx?id=" + txtcity.Text.ToString()); }
  62. 62. 62 APPENDICES-2 SCREENSHOTS: User registration:
  63. 63. 63 User aa login: Other inbox
  64. 64. 64 Raise question: Another user bb:
  65. 65. 65 Another user cc
  66. 66. 66 Another user dd: Other user going to anwer the aa question:(user open other inbox to view aa question)
  67. 67. 67 If u knw the answer enter correct detsil
  68. 68. 68
  69. 69. 69
  70. 70. 70
  71. 71. 71 Answer for user a:
  72. 72. 72 REFERENCES [1] L. A. Adamic, J. Zhang, E. Bakshy, andM. S. Ackerman,(2008) “Knowledge sharing and Yahoo answers: Everyone knows something,” in Proc. Int. World Wide Web Conf. [2] J. Cao, F. Jay, and J. Nunamaker,(2004)“Question answering on lecture videos: A multifaceted approach,” in Proc. Int. Joint Conf. Digital Libraries. [3] H. Cui, M.-Y. Kan, and T.-S. Chua,(2007) “Soft pattern matching models for definitional question answering,” ACM Trans. Inf. Syst., vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 30–30. [4] L. Nie, M. Wang, Z. Zha, G. Li, and T.-S. Chua,(2011)“Multimedia answering: Enriching text QA with media information,” in Proc. ACM Int. SIGIR Conf. [5] S. A. Quarteroni and S. Manandhar,(2008)“Designing an interactive open domain question answering system,” J. Natural Lang. Eng., vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 73–95. [6] M. Wang, X. S. Hua, T. Mei, R. Hong, G. J. Qi, Y. Song, and L. R. Dai,(2009) “Semi-supervised kernel density estimation for video annotation,” Comput. Vision Image Understand., vol. 113, no. 3, pp. 384–396. [7] R. C. Wang, N. Schlaefer, W. W. Cohen, and E. Nyberg,(2008) “Automatic set expansion for list question answering,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing. [8] Z.-J. Zha, X.-S. Hua, T. Mei, J. Wang, G.-J. Qi, and Z. Wang,(2008)“Joint multi- label multi-instance learning for image classification,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, pp. 1–8.
  73. 73. 73

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