What role do expanding circle country users play in the spread of english
What role do expanding circle country users play in the spread of English?<br />“Freak shows” or suppliers of new linguistic energy?: The “Charlie Brown complex” <br />Presentationprepared by<br />Víctor Lugo<br />
The song and the video show aspects of linguicism<br />Philipson (1988), defined linguicism as:<br />The ideologies and structures which are used to legitimate, effectuate and reproduce an unequal division of power and resources (both material and non-material) between groups which are defined on the basis of their language (i.e., of their mother tongue).<br />(As cited in Penny, 2002, p. 5)<br />
Key concepts: Kachru’s model<br />Kachru’s (1989) three-concentric-circle model of English users worldwide, updated by Graddol (2006).<br />From Graddol, D. (2006, p. 110)<br />
Can the English language be accurately defined?<br />English as a Foreign Language (EFL) or English as a Second Language (ESL) distinction based on setting and mainly important to language teachers and language teaching policies for ethnic minorities.<br />English as an International Language (IL) (McKay, 2002):<br />Main features:<br />Learners do not have to internalise the cultural norms of native speakers.<br />It is used both in a global sense for International Communication (IC) between countries and in a local sense within multilingual societies. <br />An IL is first “de-nationalised” and then re-nationalised.<br />Learning aims at enabling learners to communicate their ideas and culture to others. <br />
English as a Global language<br />Crystal (2003): “Global Language” is one which “develops<br />a special role that is recognized in every country” (p. 3):<br />Large numbers of people speak it as first language.<br />Other countries give a special status to that language:<br />It is made an official language for certain situations.<br />It can be seen as a priority though it is not taught.<br />Reasons for Global Language<br />Power (chiefly political, economic and military)<br />
English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)<br />Jenkins (2008) definedit as:<br />“ELF is a way of referring to communication in English between speakers who have different first languages”.<br />Implications<br />Part of World Englishes<br />Other speaker is an equal.<br />Code-mixing and switching are valid communication instruments.<br />Mutual intelligibility<br />
Native or nativised varieties?<br />Nativisedvariety = WorldEnglishes(McKay, 2002, p. 133)<br />Kirkpatrick’s in 2007:<br />“Allvarieties are nativised. […] [T]hereis no justification in assumingthatthe ‘native’ varietyyouspeakissomehowbetter and purerthanthenativisedvarietyspokenbysomeoneelse.”<br />Bilingual user of English<br />McKay (2002): “individuals who use English as their second language alongside one or more other languages”<br />
World Englishes<br />Thisperspectiveimplies a shift in thetraditionalperspective of monolithicstandards of language.<br /><ul><li>Normprovidingspeechcommunities (Innercirclecountries)
Norm-developingspeechcommunities (Outercircle).</li></ul>WorldEnglishes: “Indigenous, nativisedvarietiesthathavedevelopedaroundtheworld and thatreflectthe cultural and pragmaticnorms of theirspeakers” (Kirkpatrick, 2007, p. 3)<br />
Pride & Prejudice<br />“Fee, fi, fo, fum” “Jack and the Beanstalk” English fairy tale.<br />“Daddy-O” slang for an older man that you do not respect.<br />“Charlie” in the video:<br /><ul><li>Sitting alone in the corner, facing the wall as a punishment.
Should await the punishment he deserves.</li></li></ul><li>The “Charlie Brown” Effect from NES towards NNES<br />They were “freaks of nature” who deserved to observed but not taken seriously; they were necessary entertainment.<br />They did not “keep distance” and were overfriendly.<br />Their influence could be negative on traditions.<br />They might push locals away with their improper rules and habits.<br />They deserved to be punished and ridiculed for their threatening and abusive behaviour in ways similar to those of Charlie Brown.<br />
How are these ideas relevant to the WE scenario?<br />Bilingual users of English (BUE) have been traditionally allowed to use the language, but teaching policies have not promoted high quality in the use.<br />Prejudice: “If they are allowed too much room, they will become invasive.”<br />Need to develop pragmatic and rhetorical competence is seen as a threat.<br />Stereotypes which demoted nativised varieties resulted in resentment and action from bilingual users.<br />
New energy suppliers<br />The dominant position of monolingual users of English (MUE) is undeniable, but<br />BUE outnumber MUE.<br />BUE have adopted and adapted English to serve their purposes.<br />Having been submitted for some time, BUE learnt to expand the possibilities of the language with dignity:<br /><ul><li>Learnt how to use English to establish an exchange in even conditions.
Incorporated and promoted their culture to the world through English.
Understood the importance of teaching it properly to their new generations.</li></li></ul><li>References<br />Bley-Vroman, R. (1989). What is the logical problem of foreign language learning?. In Gass, S. M. & Schachter, S. (Eds.), Linguistic perspectives on second language acquisition: Cambridge applied linguistics.Cambridge: Cambridge Univesity Press.<br />Daddy-O. (2010) In Urban dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.urbandictionary.com.<br />freak show. (2010). In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.Retrieved April 26, 2010, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/freak show.<br />Graddol, D. English next: Why global English might mean the end of “English as a foreign language”. Milton Keynes, England : British Council – The English Company (UK) Ltd.<br />
References<br />Jenkins, J. (2008). English as a lingua franca. [Powerpoint Presentation]. Retrieved on 2010, April 22 from http://www.jacet.org/2008convention/JACET2008_keynote_jenkins.pdf.<br />Kirkpatrick, A. (2007). World Englishes: Implications for international communication and English language teaching. Oxford handbooks for language teachers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.<br />GB356. (2009, June 28). The Coasters –Charlie Brown (1959). [Video File]. Video posted to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cBKh3PDbDg4.<br />Lieber, J. & Stoller, M. (1959). Charlie Brown. (Recorded by The Coasters). On The Coasters: 50 Coastin’ Classics. [CD]. New York: Rhino/WEA.<br />McKay, S. (2002). Teaching English as an international language: Rethinking goals and approaches. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<br />Penny, W. K. (2002). Linguistic imperialism: The role of English as an international language. Retrieved from http://www.cels.bham.ac.uk/resources/essays/Penny6.pdf.<br />