1 allison dutoit

497 views

Published on

Матеріали першої національної конференції з міської мобільності, Київ, 24.10.2013

Published in: Technology, Real Estate
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
497
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
19
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

1 allison dutoit

  1. 1. Changing the urban design paradigm: Mobility oriented planning Allison Dutoit Head of Gehl Studio, Gehl Architects Architect; BFA, M. Arch
  2. 2. Think Mobility rather than transit Gehl Approach Shifting the discourse in a time of scarcity 1. Exemplify change rather than lobby for it (New York City) 3. What gets measured gets done 2. Consider Behaviour 4. A smart city for people (SF)
  3. 3. Think Mobility rather than transit
  4. 4. It’s not just about transit…
  5. 5. It’s about the experience of mobility
  6. 6. And everything that comes in between
  7. 7. Micro-mobility
  8. 8. Mobility…. It is about bicycling and public space ... ... and about pedestrians and public transport
  9. 9. It is about bicycling and public transport
  10. 10. It’s about joined-up thinking
  11. 11. It´s about what you create around transport hubs
  12. 12. It´s about what you create around transport hubs
  13. 13. Joined-up thinking to make for better quality of life…
  14. 14. It’s about It’s about everyone! everyone! It’s about everyone….
  15. 15. Shifting the Shifting the discourse in discourse in a a time of scarcity time of scarcity
  16. 16. It’s about sustainability?
  17. 17. ….”location close to transit!” Reduction of CO2 by locating workplaces close to transit stations has 10 times more effect than insulating new buildings from the normal standard to a higher level. ”The role of the cities in the climate strategy” Byernes rolle i klimastrategien, Frederikshavn Kommune, Sønderborg Kommune, Albertslund Kommune og COWI A/S 2009
  18. 18. Reduction of C02 by further insulation of new buildings 0,08 ton/year/workplace (From The Danish Building Code standards to the level below a zero energy house called “klasse 1”) ”The role of the cities in the climate strategy” Byernes rolle i klimastrategien, Frederikshavn Kommune, Sønderborg Kommune, Albertslund Kommune og COWI A/S 2009
  19. 19. Reduction of C02 by building close to transit-stations =10 x larger effect 0,70 ton/year/workplace (Moving the buildings with in 7-8 minutes walking distance) ”The role of the cities in the climate strategy” Byernes rolle i klimastrategien, Frederikshavn Kommune, Sønderborg Kommune, Albertslund Kommune og COWI A/S 2009
  20. 20. There is nothing so useless as doing efficiently what should not be done at all – Peter Drucker
  21. 21. Shifting the discourse
  22. 22. We need both simultaneously Sustainability is about the viatality of the planet tomorrow: A global issue Livability is about the lifestyle of people today: A local issue
  23. 23. Good for You Good for the Planet
  24. 24. Gehl Approach
  25. 25. Cultures are different…
  26. 26. Climates are different…
  27. 27. But the way People inhabit and use Space is universal
  28. 28. “Man is man’s greatest joy” (Old Icelandic saying)
  29. 29. PEOPLE ARE NOT IN THE CENTER OF THE CURRENT PLANNING PROCESS All cities have - Traffic departments -- Data on traffic volumes and needs -- Prognoses for future traffic volumes Few cities have - Departments for pedestrians and public life - Statistics for the use of public spaces - Strategies for development of city life culture
  30. 30. Joined-up thinking Designing objects Making places (creating opportunities for place to flourish)
  31. 31. Two key indicators to help city leaders make wiser decisions about the city for people • We count how many are walking – Movement • We log what they are doing when they are staying in a space Stationary activities
  32. 32. Our work is about the interaction between FORM (buildings and infrastructure) and LIFE
  33. 33. Planning for a Liveable City Not only is new quality criteria required - but also a new planning process life space buildings
  34. 34. 5 challenges 3. Process rather than product 1. Exemplify change rather than lobby for it (New York City) 3. What gets measured gets done 2. Consider Behaviour 4. A smart city for people (SF)
  35. 35. 1. Exemplfy change rather than lobby for it – Urban prototyping as a way to ensure effective use of resources, time and money 2. Consider behavior - Measure systems and characteristics of things or measure people and outcomes (health, happiness, safety). Create design and policy incentives that foster sustainable behavior 4. What gets measured gets done - What is the efficiency in which mobility, accessibility to public space and the built environment delivers health and well-being in the 21st century? 5. A smart city for people - Using technology to augment everyday urban routines only increases the need for thoughtfully designed streets and public spaces
  36. 36. 1. Exemplify change rather than lobby for it (New York City) Urban prototyping as a way to ensure effective use of resources, time and money
  37. 37. NEW YORK – WORLD CLASS STREETS
  38. 38. Measuring what matters
  39. 39. Quantifying impressions A CITY OF SCAFFOLDING
  40. 40. Framing the situation politically Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, 4.tv · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · www.gehlarchitects.dk
  41. 41. Times Square
  42. 42. Seeing places with fresh eyes
  43. 43. Broadway scheme Access is allowed but through traffic is prohibited And space is reclaimed as the ‘Pearls on a String’ for Broadway
  44. 44. Herald Square - before
  45. 45. Herald Square - after
  46. 46. Herald Square - before
  47. 47. Herald Square - after
  48. 48. DOT used in-house staff and resources to deliver the project. Estimated cost $1.5 million
  49. 49. New opportunities to experience the City Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, 4.tv · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · www.gehlarchitects.dk
  50. 50. Invitations to soak in the atmosphere – Times Square Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, 4.tv · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · www.gehlarchitects.dk
  51. 51. 40% decrease in pedestrian injuries in Times Square 84% more people are lingering (eg. Reading, eating) 42% of NYC residents shop in Times Square more often The percentage of area employees satisfied with the Times Square experience increased by 72% (from 43% to 74% of those surveyed) 74% of New Yorkers say Times Square has improved dramatically
  52. 52. 11% increase in pedestrian numbers 35% decrease in pedestrian injuries throughout project 17% improvements in travel time 63% decrease in injuries
  53. 53. Source: Sustainable streets index – 2010 NYC DOT
  54. 54. 1. Exemplify change rather than lobby for it (New York City) Pilot Projects & Rapid Urban Prototyping 1. Should the temporary ever become permanent? - or should it just evolve with the fast changing cultural landscape ? 2. How do we shorten the time between design and implementation of large infrastructure projects like the CPH metro (designed in the 90’s built up through 2018)
  55. 55. 2. Consider Behaviour Measure systems and characteristics of things or measure people and outcomes (health, happiness, safety). Create design and policy incentives that foster sustainable behavior
  56. 56. By 2030, energy efficiency and behavior change will offset more CO2 than all the new wind, solar, and other alternative energy generation methods combined World Energy Outlook 2009 IEA/OECD
  57. 57. Measuring Systems and Things OR measuring People and Relations Measuring building focuses on the sustainability of building construction…. And doesn’t engage enough in capitalising on some of the human behavioral savings .
  58. 58. Investing in Sustainable Infrastructure? Dehli Metro Rail Corporation 1/5 of Projected Use Projected 2.2 million passengers per day - Actually 450,000 Ridership Proposed Actual Regular metro riders are being subsidized $712 USD/year Average Income in India is $510 USD/year
  59. 59. Investing in Sustainable Infrastructure? Metroselskabet 1/2 of Projected Use Flintholm hub projected at 13,270 but only 7,500 Ridership 7.3 billion write off of value of project Proposed Actual Ridership expected to fall an additional 15-23% 12 billion kr. Extension under construction
  60. 60. Inviting a new user group… …locals
  61. 61. A place more accessible for all Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, 4.tv · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · www.gehlarchitects.dk
  62. 62. Copenhagen Municipal Vision Copenhagen has a vision We will become the world’s most liveable city: a sustainable city with urban space inviting people to a unique and varied urban life. We will become a metropolis for people.
  63. 63. Copenhagen Municipal Vision
  64. 64. Copenhagen Municipal Vision
  65. 65. Copenhagen Municipal Vision
  66. 66. The Portland Plan Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, 4.tv · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · www.gehlarchitects.dk
  67. 67. The Portland Plan Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, 4.tv · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · www.gehlarchitects.dk
  68. 68. The Portland Plan Gehl Architects · Urban Quality Consultants · Gl. Kongevej 1, 4.tv · 1610 Copenhagen V · Denmark · www.gehlarchitects.dk
  69. 69. Copenhagen
  70. 70. Copenhagen’s Bicycle Account Every second year from 1995 The Copenhagen Bicycle Account 2013
  71. 71. Why do Danes cycle? Is it because of the environment? 5% state that it is because of the environment Copenhagen Bicycle Account 2010 Copenhageners cycling save over 90.000 t CO2 annually
  72. 72. A larger percentage bike for financial reasons …. 15% state that it is because it is cheap Copenhagen Bicycle Account 2010
  73. 73. Even more because cycling is part of a healthy lifestyle ... 17% state that it is because of the exercise Copenhagen Bicycle Account 2010
  74. 74. But most people bike because it is the most convenient, fast, direct and pleasurable way to move through the city! 63% state that it is because it is convenient and fast and most direct and pleasurable? Copenhagen Bicycle Account 2010
  75. 75. People don’t change their behavior when you tell them to; Copenhagen Modal Split 63% of those who bike do so out of convenience People change when the context compels them to
  76. 76. Investment works København and Amsterdam: Investment per. capita approx. 180 per year, share of trips +30% Holland: Investment per. capita approx. 180 per year, share of trips around. 30% Capital Region: Investment per. capita 82 per year, share of trips 17%
  77. 77. 2. Consider Behaviour How can we promote or ’nudge’ people to align their habits with the needs of the planet? •Investing in public transport is only worthwhile if it people choose to use it. •A building is only sustainable if it is part of a sustainable network •Investment in green technology is only sustainable if people behave the way we predict they will
  78. 78. 3. What gets measured gets done What is the efficiency at which mobility, accessibility to public space, and the built environment delivers health and well-being in the 21st century?
  79. 79. Learning from use and adapting
  80. 80. The Third Generation of Pilot Projects places the bicycle lane next to parked cars
  81. 81. Efficiently using scarce public resources 50% earned in 7 extra years of productive life 20% saved on fewer days of illness 30% on health care savings
  82. 82. Safety in numbers….. As the number of cyclists in the city increased The number of serious accidents decreased
  83. 83. Safety in numbers…..
  84. 84. INCENTIVES, BARRIERS, SOCIAL NORMS Refine Measure Test
  85. 85. 3. What gets measured gets done 1. Can we capture the social and cultural value of investments made in mobility as well as the economic and environmental ones 2. Can we create a quality criteria for mobility based on comfort, convenience, and quality of experience
  86. 86. 4. A smart city for people Using technology to augment everyday urban routines only increases the need for thoughtfully designed streets and public spaces and networks
  87. 87. BETTER MARKET STREET
  88. 88. APPROACH
  89. 89. VISION – A NEW SYNERGY
  90. 90. VISION – A NEW SYNERGY
  91. 91. 5 Thematic issues 1. Public Space 2. Street Life 3. Bicycle Facility 4. Public Transit 5. Private vehicle circulation
  92. 92. PUBLIC SPACE
  93. 93. PUBLIC SPACE City Space District Scale Local Node
  94. 94. STREETLIFE
  95. 95. THE STREETLIFE ZONE
  96. 96. THE STREETLIFE ZONE CONNECTOR
  97. 97. THE STREETLIFE ZONE NODE
  98. 98. THE STREETLIFE ZONE NODE
  99. 99. A SERIES OF NEW EXPERIENCES
  100. 100. BICYCLE FACILITY
  101. 101. BICYCLE FACILITY
  102. 102. TRADE-OFFS A cycletrack reduces conflicts between vehicles and bicyclists but increases potential conflicts with commercial and passenger loading activity, including accessible services. A shared bicycle lane retains conflicts with vehicles and boarding activity but reduces these with pedestrians. However, vehicle conflicts would be reduced with more vehicle restrictions.
  103. 103. PUBLIC TRANSIT
  104. 104. IMPROVING THE EXPERIENCE
  105. 105. FINDING PERFORMANCE MEASURES The RFP just stipulates •15% improvement in travel time •50% increase in transit capacity As success criterias this is incredibly limiting – starts with the technical problem, rather than a vision that we work toward achieving.
  106. 106. PRIVATE VEHICLE CIRCULATION
  107. 107. PRIVATE AUTO CIRCULATION OPTIONS
  108. 108. AUTO RESTRICTIONS
  109. 109. 4. A smart city for people 1. How can we invite the people that work, live, and visit places like Market Street to meet, linger, collaborate and share knowledge? 2. What types of physical infrastructure, urban design and land uses will facilitate spontaneous or planned interaction? 3. How can smart city technology augment interaction, collaboration, mobility,
  110. 110. Think Mobility rather than transit Gehl Approach Shifting the discourse in a time of scarcity 1. Exemplify change rather than lobby for it (New York City) 3. What gets measured gets done 2. Consider Behaviour 4. A smart city for people (SF)
  111. 111. the starting point is people The starting point is people
  112. 112. the starting point is people The starting point is people Thank you.

×