Children & Youths Online


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Children & Youths Online

  1. 1. Children & Youths Online: An Overview Jane Bailey Faculty of Law University of Ottawa [email_address]
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>What are children and youths doing online? </li></ul><ul><li>Harmful online content </li></ul><ul><li>Online hate </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing online hate </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are children and youths doing online? <ul><li>Young Canadians in a Wired World II (2003-05) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>focus groups of parents & children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national survey of 5200 students in grades 4-11 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>94% go online from home </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>61% with high speed access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>37% with their own Internet-connected computer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>23% with their own cell phone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>44% with Internet capability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>56% with text messaging </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>17% with cameras </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>22% with their own webcam </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>KIDS ARE CONNECTED!!!! </li></ul>
  5. 5. What are children & youths doing online? <ul><li>email (86% with own account) </li></ul><ul><li>online games (89% of grade 4 students) </li></ul><ul><li>instant messaging (86% of grade 11 students) </li></ul><ul><li>chatrooms least preferred </li></ul><ul><li>students with own connection spend twice as much time online as those with a shared family connection </li></ul>
  6. 6. What are children & youths doing online? <ul><li>majority describe online experiences as positive & socially rewarding </li></ul><ul><li>socializing </li></ul><ul><li>schoolwork </li></ul>
  7. 7. What are children & youths doing online? <ul><li>rule against meeting online acquaintances in person (74%) </li></ul><ul><li>supervised online by a parent (13%) </li></ul><ul><li>more likely not to visit inappropriate sites where there are rules against it </li></ul>
  8. 8. Harmful Online Content <ul><li>many mainstream websites expose children & youths to violent & highly sexualized content </li></ul><ul><li>bullying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>17% had assumed an identity in order to threaten & intimidate others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>34% of grades 7-11 had been bullied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>sexual harassment (12% grades 7-11 students had been) </li></ul><ul><li>privacy intrusions (e.g. website registrations) </li></ul><ul><li>pornography (16% grades 7-11 students had visited) </li></ul><ul><li>violence (18% grades 7-11 students had visited) </li></ul><ul><li>hate (5% grades 7-11 students had visited) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Online Hate <ul><li>growing trend </li></ul><ul><li>digital fora: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chatrooms/newsgroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>video games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>music </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Online Hate - Recruiting <ul><li>create commonality with recruit by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>covert use of current hot-button topics/concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offering other-focused explanations for target’s failures or unhappiness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>appeal to science, pseudo-science &/or half-truth </li></ul><ul><li>appeal to “higher power” </li></ul><ul><li>portrayal of members of target groups as evil, threatening, less than human </li></ul>
  11. 11. Online Hate – The Law <ul><li>Criminal Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>advocating genocide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wilfully promoting hatred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>publicly inciting hatred </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Canadian Human Rights Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>communicating messages likely to expose members of target groups to hatred or contempt </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Online Hate – The Law <ul><li>“ Essentially, there are two sorts of injury caused by hate propaganda. First , there is harm done to members of the target group.  It is indisputable that the emotional damage caused by words may be of grave psychological and social consequence. </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul><ul><li>A second harmful effect of hate propaganda which is of pressing and substantial concern is its influence upon society at large. … The threat to the self-dignity of target group members is thus matched by the possibility that prejudiced messages will gain some credence, with the attendant result of discrimination, and perhaps even violence, against minority groups in Canadian society.” </li></ul><ul><li>Keegstra , Supreme Court of Canada </li></ul>
  13. 13. Addressing Online Hate <ul><li>rules, discussion & supervision </li></ul><ul><li>civil society initiatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INACH </li></ul></ul><ul><li>reports to authorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian Human Rights Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>police </li></ul></ul><ul><li>reports to ISPs </li></ul><ul><li>filtering technology </li></ul><ul><li>education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Awareness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADL </li></ul></ul>