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Dit congres is een initiatief van:




                              Meer winst uit
                              samenwerking




                              Risico-emoties als beginpunt van discussie en samenwerken
                                              ‘Geen woorden maar daden’



                          Prof.dr. Sabine Roeser
         Philosophy Departments TU Delft and University of Twente
          Managing Director, 3TU.Centre for Ethics and Technology
                       NWO-VIDI-fellow 2010-2015




                                                                                          1
Conventional risk management

 • Risk = probability x unwanted
   effect
 • Eg. Annual fatalities as
   consequence of a technology
 • Cost/benefit-analysis in order
   to decide whether a
   technology is implemented
 • ‘Rational, objective, value
   neutral method’- ???




                       The public
• Takes other considerations into account
  in determining whether a risk is
  acceptable:
• Fair distribution costs/benefits?
• Risky activity freely chosen?
• Available alternatives?
• Some risks can lead to enormous
  catastrophes, unacceptable, even if low
  probability




                                            2
The Ethics of Technological Risk

• Same concerns are
  shared by risk
  ethicists:
• Justice, fairness,
  equity, autonomy…
• C/B-analysis far
  from value neutral




                 Emotions

• Emotions such as fear
  important factor in
  laypeople’s risk
  perceptions
• Cass Sunstein (2005):
  risk-emotions are
  irrational; we should
  follow cost/benefit-
  analysis (with
  constraints)




                                    3
Affect in Decision Making under
                          Uncertainty
• Paul Slovic and others: emotions and
  rationality are distinct sources of insight
  that have opposite tasks
• Dual Process Theory (DPT):
• System 1 is emotional, affective, intuitive,
  spontaneous and evolutionary prior.
• System 2 is rational, analytical, reflective
  and occurred later in our evolution.
• System 2 normatively superior to system
  1.
• Similar to common dichotomy emotion vs
  reason




             An alternative view about emotions

       • Emotions are needed for practical rationality
         (Damasio 1994)
       • Emotions are affective and cognitive at the same
         time
       • They are evaluative judgments (Nussbaum,
         Solomon etc) or ‘concern-based construals’
         (Robert C. Roberts)
       • I.e. they involve propositional attitudes and care
         about the object of the proposition
       • ‘I am afraid of nuclear energy because I fear a
         meltdown and I care about the environment’
       •  Features of system 1 and system 2
       •  emotions fall into both systems or neither
         (‘system 3’?)




                                                              4
Moral Emotions and Risk
• Emotions indispensable source of ethical
  insight (Roeser 2002, 2011)
• Also concerning ethical aspects of
  technological risk (Roeser VENI-project
  2006-2009)
• Sympathy, fear, indignation, enthousiasm
• Point to morally salient aspects of
  technologies
• Such as risks, benefits, autonomy, fairness




        Emotions and Risky Technologies
        • Moral emotions are
          legitimate, even
          necessary sources of
          insight concerning
          the moral
          acceptability of risks
        • Emotions should be
          included in decision
          making about
          acceptable risks




                                                5
Moral emotions and risk decisions



   • In order to avoid e.g. ‘probability neglect’ (Sunstein
     2005):
   •  Moral emotions about risk have to be informed by
     science and statistics
   • However, in order to avoid ‘complexity neglect’:
   •  Decisions about risk have to be informed by moral
     emotions




                          Risk-emotions of experts



• Example of nanotechnology
  (Scheufele et al. 2007):
• Experts more worried than public.
• My claim:
• Experts should take their
  emotional concerns seriously in
  design of risky technologies




                                                              6
Correcting Emotion through Emotion


• Emotions can be misguided
• But:
• Emotions can be reflective
• Possibility of shifting points of view
• Caring for the wellbeing of others
• Reflective emotions can help us assess initial
  emotions (cf. Lacewing 2005)
• E.g. solve NIMBY-problem: altruistic emotions can
  help overcome egoistic emotions (cf. Robert Frank)




                 Emoties en management van integrale
                              veiligheid


    • Kennis van elkaars drijfveren, zienswijzen en emoties
      kan tot beter begrip leiden en daarmee tot draagvlak
      en bundeling van competenties.
    • Door emoties als uitgangspunt te nemen is het
      mogelijk om samenwerking te bewerkstellingen en
      zo aan een veiligere leefomgeving bij te dragen.




                                                              7

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Presentatie Risico-emoties als beginpunt van discussie en samenwerken

  • 1. Dit congres is een initiatief van: Meer winst uit samenwerking Risico-emoties als beginpunt van discussie en samenwerken ‘Geen woorden maar daden’ Prof.dr. Sabine Roeser Philosophy Departments TU Delft and University of Twente Managing Director, 3TU.Centre for Ethics and Technology NWO-VIDI-fellow 2010-2015 1
  • 2. Conventional risk management • Risk = probability x unwanted effect • Eg. Annual fatalities as consequence of a technology • Cost/benefit-analysis in order to decide whether a technology is implemented • ‘Rational, objective, value neutral method’- ??? The public • Takes other considerations into account in determining whether a risk is acceptable: • Fair distribution costs/benefits? • Risky activity freely chosen? • Available alternatives? • Some risks can lead to enormous catastrophes, unacceptable, even if low probability 2
  • 3. The Ethics of Technological Risk • Same concerns are shared by risk ethicists: • Justice, fairness, equity, autonomy… • C/B-analysis far from value neutral Emotions • Emotions such as fear important factor in laypeople’s risk perceptions • Cass Sunstein (2005): risk-emotions are irrational; we should follow cost/benefit- analysis (with constraints) 3
  • 4. Affect in Decision Making under Uncertainty • Paul Slovic and others: emotions and rationality are distinct sources of insight that have opposite tasks • Dual Process Theory (DPT): • System 1 is emotional, affective, intuitive, spontaneous and evolutionary prior. • System 2 is rational, analytical, reflective and occurred later in our evolution. • System 2 normatively superior to system 1. • Similar to common dichotomy emotion vs reason An alternative view about emotions • Emotions are needed for practical rationality (Damasio 1994) • Emotions are affective and cognitive at the same time • They are evaluative judgments (Nussbaum, Solomon etc) or ‘concern-based construals’ (Robert C. Roberts) • I.e. they involve propositional attitudes and care about the object of the proposition • ‘I am afraid of nuclear energy because I fear a meltdown and I care about the environment’ •  Features of system 1 and system 2 •  emotions fall into both systems or neither (‘system 3’?) 4
  • 5. Moral Emotions and Risk • Emotions indispensable source of ethical insight (Roeser 2002, 2011) • Also concerning ethical aspects of technological risk (Roeser VENI-project 2006-2009) • Sympathy, fear, indignation, enthousiasm • Point to morally salient aspects of technologies • Such as risks, benefits, autonomy, fairness Emotions and Risky Technologies • Moral emotions are legitimate, even necessary sources of insight concerning the moral acceptability of risks • Emotions should be included in decision making about acceptable risks 5
  • 6. Moral emotions and risk decisions • In order to avoid e.g. ‘probability neglect’ (Sunstein 2005): •  Moral emotions about risk have to be informed by science and statistics • However, in order to avoid ‘complexity neglect’: •  Decisions about risk have to be informed by moral emotions Risk-emotions of experts • Example of nanotechnology (Scheufele et al. 2007): • Experts more worried than public. • My claim: • Experts should take their emotional concerns seriously in design of risky technologies 6
  • 7. Correcting Emotion through Emotion • Emotions can be misguided • But: • Emotions can be reflective • Possibility of shifting points of view • Caring for the wellbeing of others • Reflective emotions can help us assess initial emotions (cf. Lacewing 2005) • E.g. solve NIMBY-problem: altruistic emotions can help overcome egoistic emotions (cf. Robert Frank) Emoties en management van integrale veiligheid • Kennis van elkaars drijfveren, zienswijzen en emoties kan tot beter begrip leiden en daarmee tot draagvlak en bundeling van competenties. • Door emoties als uitgangspunt te nemen is het mogelijk om samenwerking te bewerkstellingen en zo aan een veiligere leefomgeving bij te dragen. 7