SlideShare a Scribd company logo

LTE Schedulers – A Definitive Approach

Abstract— Scheduler is the backbone of intelligence in a LTE network. Scheduler will often have clashing needs that can make its design very complex and non-trivial. The overall system throughput needs to be maintained at the best possible value without sacrificing the cell edge user experience. In this paper, authors compared different scheduler designs for voice and packet services. They explained the role of configuration parameters through simulations. These parameters control the tradeoff between the sector throughput and the fairness in system through. They explained a possible scheduler implementation.

1 of 5
International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences (IJIES)
ISSN: 2319–9598, Volume-2, Issue-4, March 2014
43
Published By:
Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering
& Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.

Abstract— Scheduler is the backbone of intelligence in a LTE
network. Scheduler will often have clashing needs that can make
its design very complex and non-trivial. The overall system
throughput needs to be maintained at the best possible value
without sacrificing the cell edge user experience. In this paper,
authors compared different scheduler designs for voice and
packet services. They explained the role of configuration
parameters through simulations. These parameters control the
tradeoff between the sector throughput and the fairness in
system through. They explained a possible scheduler
implementation.
Index Terms—LTE, Scheduler, Quality of service, GBR, Non
GBR, Proportional fair.
I. INTRODUCTION
Long Term Evolution (LTE) has been introduced by 3GPP
with an objective of high data rate, low-latency, better user
experiences of services and packet-optimized radio access
technology. LTE is also referred to as EUTRA (Evolved
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access) or E-UTRAN (Evolved
UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network).
The LTE Scheduler will have the following major objectives:
 Link Adaptation: It selects the optimal combination of
parameters such as modulation, channel Coding &
transmit schemes i.e. TM Modes as a function of the RF
conditions.
 Rate Control: It is in charge of resource allocation
among radio bearers of the same UE which are
available at the eNB for DL and at the UE for UL.
 Packet Scheduler: It arbitrates access to air interface
resources on 1ms-TTI basis amongst all active
Users (Users in RRC Connected State).
 Resource Assignment: It allocates air interface
resources to selected active users on per TTI basis.
 Power Control: Provides the desired SINR level for
achieving the desired data rate, but also controls
the interference to the neighbouring cells.
 HARQ (ARQ + FEC): It allows recovering from
residual errors by link adaptation.
Manuscript received March 2014.
Lakshmikishore Nittala B.Tech in Electronics and Communication
Engineering from JNTU Hyderabad in 2003 with Honors. Having about 10
years of experience in WCDMA/LTE product validation and field deployments.
Preet Kanwar Singh Rekhi B.Tech in Electronics and Communication
Engineering from GGSIPU in 2010 with Honors. Having about 4 years of
experience in LTE QA/QC in testing Schedulers, radio conformance and IOT..
Sukhvinder Singh Malik B.E. in Electronics and Communication
Engineering from MDU Rohtak in 2010 with Honors. Having about 4 years of
experience in in LTE QA/QC in testing Schedulers, radio conformance and
IOT.
Rahul Sharma B.Tech in Electronics and Communication Engineering from
GGSIPU in 2011 with Honors. Having 3 years of experience in LTE
development industry in different fields i.e. LTE Physical layer procedures,
Signal processing chain and Integration with upper layers.
The Services/ Applications are broadly classified into two
categories as Real time services and Non-Real time services.
Real time services includes Conversational Voice, Video
Phony [Conversational Video], MPEG Video [Non-
Conversational Video], Real-time gaming etc.
Non-Real time services include Voice Messaging, Buffered
Streaming, ftp, www, email, Interactive gaming etc.
The data transmission characteristics of these services are
 Delay tolerance
 Data Packet Size [Fixed or Variable]
 Periodic or Aperiodic data transmission
 Packet error loss rate, etc.
Some or all of these characteristics determine what kind of
Packet schedulers are required at the LTE MAC to adhere to
the required QoS requirements of the relevant applications.
LTE MAC supports the following three types of Scheduling
 Dynamic Scheduling
 Persistent Scheduling
 Semi-Persistent Scheduling
Dynamic Scheduling: Every TTI, MAC checks for the UEs
to be scheduled, the Data Availability for each UE to be
scheduled and the feedback from the UE on the Channel
conditions. Based on these data, it can schedule the resources
for the UE through the PDCCH. If data is not available, UE
will not get scheduled. All Services can be scheduled using
Dynamic Scheduling, but at the expense of the Control
signalling [PDCCH Usage – a scarce resource].
Persistent Scheduling: In this case, Packets are scheduled
on a fixed basis, similar to the Circuit Switched fashion.
Here, it does not depend on the Channel Condition. The
Resource allocation remains constant for the period of the
call.
Semi-Persistent Scheduling: It is a Hybrid way of
scheduling, which tries to overcome the drawbacks of the
Dynamic Scheduling and the Persistent Scheduling.
This rest of the paper is organized as follows:
Section II explains persistent and semi persistent scheduling
and describes why SPS is more suitable for voice services.
Section III explains different scheduler types for packet based
services.
Section IV explains the configuration parameters and
simulations.
Section V adds a practical scheduler implementation.
Section VI and VII provide the ‘Conclusion and Future
Work’ and References authors used for preparing this article
respectively.
LTE Schedulers – A Definitive Approach
Lakshmikishore Nittala, Preet Kanwar Singh Rekhi, Sukhvinder Singh Malik, Rahul Sharma
LTE Schedulers – A Definitive Approach
44
Published By:
Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering
& Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.
II. SEMI PERSISTENT SCHEDULING
In the above diagram conversational voice is considered for
persistent scheduling. It is clear that, because of the fixed
resource allocation, UE will end up in underutilizing the
allocated resources, because of non-availability of the
sufficient data during the persistently scheduled TTIs. Here,
because the Speaker sometimes speaks and sometimes user
may give pauses during the conversation, Voice activity
period and Voice Inactivity period exist in the Speech data. If
the Speech Codec without VAD is involved, then it sends the
Voice Payload at the end of every voice frame length of 20ms
during the Voice activityperiod and sends nothing during the
Voice Inactivity period. So, the fixed resource allocations
will get utilised during the Voice activity periods to transmit
the received voice payloads over the air interface and it gets
unused during the Voice inactivityperiods, which is a critical
drawback. Semi persistent scheduling addresses this
drawback in a unique way.
As shown above, whenever the Voice Payloads arrive at the
L2, the MAC Scheduler will activate the SPS resources and
whenever there are no transmissions for few of the
transmission opportunities, the SPS resources were
implicitly released. Again, it gets activated, when the voice
payloads arrives at the next Voice activity period. During the
Voice Inactivity period and after the implicit release of the
SPS resources, these radio resources will be allocated for
different UEs, which are in need of it.
It is clear that, only those services, which are real time in
nature, with fixed packet size payloads, and fixed periodicity
of the payload arrival, can effectively and efficiently utilize
the Semi-Persistent Scheduling. Such services or
applications, which fulfils these characteristics are
conversational voice, conversational video [only
Conversational voice part of the video], and any other real
time applications [Only Conversational Voice part].
III. SCHEDULERS FOR PACKET BASED SERVICES
Three kinds of schedulers are compared in this document.
The RR scheduler selects and schedules UEs in a round robin
manner, thereby creating an equal resource share. The
disadvantage of this approach is that UEs with sub-optimal
CQIs may be allocated Physical Radio Resources (PRBs),
thus reducing the overall cell throughput.
The max-CQI scheduler selects the schedulable UEs based
on the experienced CQI. The UEs with the highest CQI
therefore become candidates for scheduling thereby
increasing the overall cell throughput. The disadvantage of
this approach is that UEs with lower CQI are denied
scheduling instances, thus being starved for throughput and
leading to degraded user experience.
The PFS is expected to strike a balance between the
traditional Round Robin (RR) scheduler and the max
Throughput Scheduler (also known max-CQI (Channel
QualityIndicator) scheduler). The PFS scheduler performs in
such a manner that it considers resource fairness as well as
maximizing cell throughput (in addition to other possible
performance metrics).
SCH
Type
Max C/I Round
Robin
Proportional
Fair (PF)
How
it
works
Allocates
resources to the
user with the
instantaneous best
RF conditions. UE
with the best
channel conditions
is always
prioritized
Resources
are shared
across users
over time
regardless of
the RF
conditions.
Sharing the cell
throughput but
as a function of
RF conditions
and bearer
priorities.
Pros Very Good
Throughput
Resources
shared in an
equal
manner
Trade-off
between
fairness and
cell
throughput.
Cons Cell Edge UEs
starved of
scheduling
instances leading
to degraded user
experience.
UEs with
sub optimal
CQI
conditions
will reduce
the cell
throughput
Implementatio
n complexity
and overall cell
throughput will
not be the
highest
For a Max C/I scheduler, the Sector throughput improves
while cell edge throughput drops compared to a PF scheduler
where sector throughput may not be as good as Max C/I but
cell edge throughput thoroughly improves.
Let us first consider the time-domain scheduling such as is
the case for the non-frequency selective scheduling scheme.
By using proportional fair scheduling (PFS), eNB transmits
to the user m* in the nth sub frame:
……………………... (1)
International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences (IJIES)
ISSN: 2319–9598, Volume-2, Issue-4, March 2014
45
Published By:
Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering
& Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.
where Rm (n), m = 1, 2, . . . , M is the data rate for the mth
user in the nth sub frame. Also Tm (n) is the average
throughput for the mth user in a past window and is updated
at each sub frame according to:
…………………………… (2)
where tc is the window length that can be adjusted to
maintain fairness over a predetermined time horizon. The
PFS algorithm schedules a user when its channel quality is
better than its average channel quality condition over the
time scale tc. A smaller value for tc maintains fairness over
short time periods, which may be the case for delay-sensitive
services. For larger tc, throughput is averaged over longer
periods, which means that the scheduler can afford to wait
longer before scheduling a user at its peak. On plotting 1/T
(n) as a function of time for tc = 50, 100 and 200 the
following observations were made. As the scheduler has little
time to wait for peaks, a smaller value for tc will make the
user scheduled at relatively lower peaks reducing the
scheduling gains. A larger tc will allow the scheduler to wait
for really high peaks and therefore results in improved
system throughput at the expense of increased latency. The
value of tc can therefore be selected to strike a balance
between latency and throughput.
For very large tc (approaching ∞ ), the PFS algorithm
maximizes:
…………………………… (3)
where Tm is the long-term average throughput for user m.
Also, log (Tm) can be interpreted as the level of satisfaction or
utility for user m. We can therefore define the PF algorithm
in terms of the system utility function:
………………………. (4)
Figure 1: 1/Tn as a function of time for tc = 50, 100 and 200
sub frames.
eNB transmits to the user m* in the nth sub frame:
……………… (5)
where
………….. (6)
where Tm (n + 1|m) denotes Tm (n + 1) given that user m is
scheduled is sub frame n. Therefore the PF algorithm
schedules a user in sub frame n that gives the largest
instantaneous reward in the system utility function U (n).
IV. CONFIGURATIONS PARAMETERS
In this document the authors have considered α, β and γ as
the configuration parameters and describe how to control the
trade-off between the sector throughput and fairness in the
system.
 α defines the priority of cell throughput realization, aka
CQI priority. CQI is a 4-bit integer and is based on the
observed signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR)
at the UE. It contains information sent from a UE to the
eNB to indicate a suitable Modulation and Coding
Scheme (MCS) value. There are 15 different CQI
indexes defined in LTE ranging from 1 to 15 and each
of these has a mapping with the modulation scheme.
The MCS set by the link adaptation maps to a spectral
efficiency per Resource Element (RE) as per 3GPPTS
36.213. The Spectral Efficiency per RE is a function of
CQI. A higher CQI index will be given more priority.
Figure 2: Spectral Efficiency
 β defines the Bit rate priority. A user with unscheduled
data will be given higher priority than a user with
already scheduled data. β is defined to be a measure of
how much the logical channel may be under-allocated
compared to the agreed bit rate during bearer
establishment.
 γ defines the PDB(Packet Delay Budget ) Priority.
There are 9 QCI’s (QOS Class Indicators) in LTE each
with different PDB ranging from 50 to 300 ms. The user
with lower PDB will be given higher priority.
Therefore, based on the PDB, the priority for the logical
channel should be updated so that the logical channel
with the first packet approaching its PDB would be
prioritized for scheduling.
α + β + γ =1 …………………………………... (7)
The equation (7) represents the only relation between the
three parameters considered.
LTE Schedulers – A Definitive Approach
46
Published By:
Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering
& Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.
α =1 ………………………………… (8)
The equation (8) represents a Max C/I scheduler.
Testing for various parameter metrics was done with β and γ
always kept at the same values and with α value being varied
from 0 to 1. The testing consisted of 7identical LTE category
3 UEs placed at different radio conditions. Three UEs were
placed at cell center with UEs reporting CQIs greater than 14
on an average. Two UEs were placed at an intermediate
distance from the cell center, with them reporting CQI values
less than 10 and greater than 8 on an average. Two more UEs
were placed at cell edge radio conditions with CQIs never
greater than 5. Use of a radio channel emulator was
considered to achieve the above radio conditions for all the
UEs. The propagation model chosen was EPA, which is
pedestrian model with minimum Doppler. The results
observed for PFS scheduler’s sector throughput with
changing α is as below:
Figure 3: Sector throughput vs Alpha
Also, the throughputs observed from α > 0.9 were identical to
the throughputs of a MAX C/I Scheduler.
V. PRACTICAL SCHEDULER IMPLEMENTATION
A. Conversion of QoS weight and channel information
into priority metric for each users
The SINR per PRB on the UL or per resource block group
(RBG) on the DL for the traffic channel is estimated from the
SRS (for the UL) and the CQI report (for the DL).
The priority metric per user is formed by mapping the SINR
to an achievable rate per PRB (or RBG) using a look up table,
and dividing by the average user rate and multiplying by the
QoS weight. The QoS weight is used to distinguish the
Dynamic Scheduler scheduling decisions across Non –GBR
bearers. The GBR bearers have QCI values ranging from 1-4
and Non-GBR from 5-9.
B. Identification of user with highest priority metric
For each PRB (UL) or RBG (DL) the user with the highest
priority metric is identified.
In DL a user is allowed to be assigned discontinuous PRBs.
Each RBG is assigned to the user with the highest priority
metric, which maximizes the original sum rate metric.
International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences (IJIES)
ISSN: 2319–9598, Volume-2, Issue-4, March 2014
47
Published By:
Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering
& Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.
C. Maximum Priority Envelope
In UL the multiple access techniques is SC-FDMA. This
induces constraint of contiguous PRBs and UE power
headroom (PH). The sub carrier mapping in SC-FDMA maps
DFT output tones to specified subcarriers for transmission
and the working assumption is that the contiguous (localised)
tones will be used. Power headroom indicates how much
transmission power left for a UE to use in addition to the
power being used by current transmission. The Maximum
Priority Envelope (MPE) algorithm has been developed for
UL user scheduling and resource allocation which accounts
for constraints like UE PH (Power Headroom) and the
contiguous PRB restriction.
In this case UE 2 has NumPRB with maximum power as 3.
D. Conclusion based on highest sum metric
Iterative process to assign contiguous sets of winning user
PRBs (called envelope groups) based on the highest sum
priority metric.
Assume S5 has highest priority metric, make assignment for
UE2, and update PRBs not allocated to UE2 in which it was
the winner. Finally, S1 gets assigned to UE3 and S2 gets
assigned to UE1.
VII. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK
The simulation results indicated that the sector throughputs
were identical with PFS scheduler with α =1, and for a max
C/I Scheduler. However, the authors feel that the values to be
configured for the three parameters considered should be
specific to the site under discussion and operator
configurable. All the scenarios presented in this paper were
done using identical category 3 LTE devices. At all
instances, 3 devices were kept at cell centre, two at
intermediate distance from the cell centre and two at the cell
edge conditions. It was also observed that for values of α >
0.8, the performance did not increase as expected. For α =
0.75, β = 0.15 and γ =0.1optimum performance was
observed. Also, the test was carried out with other eNBs
radiating on the same or different frequency under lab
conditions. More work need to be done in identifying the
range of these parameters for specific models such as rural,
semi urban, urban and dense urban scenarios.
REFERENCES
[1] LTE - The UMTS Long Term Evolution from Theory To Practice 2nd
Edition by Stefania Sesia , Issam Toufik, Matthew Baker
[2] Essentials of LTE and LTE-A (The Cambridge Wireless Essentials
Series) by Amitabha Ghosh and Rapeepat Ratasuk
[3] 3G Evolution: HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband by Erik Dahlman,
Stefan Parkvall, Johan Sköld and Per Beming
[4] 3GPP TS 36.211 “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
(E-UTRA); Physical channels and modulation”.
[5] 3GPP TS 36.213 “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
(E-UTRA) Physical layer procedures”.
[6] 3GPP TS 36.321 “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
(E-UTRA); Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification”
[7] 3GPP TS 36.331: “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access
(E-UTRAN); Radio Resource Control (RRC) Protocol Specification”.
Lakshmikishore Nittala B.Tech in Electronics and Communication
Engineering from JNTU Hyderabad in 2003 with Honors. Having about 10
years of experience in WCDMA/LTE product validation and field deployments.
Preet Kanwar Singh Rekhi B.Tech in Electronics and Communication
Engineering from GGSIPU in 2010 with Honors. Having about 4 years of
experience in LTE QA/QC in testing Schedulers, radio conformance and IOT.
Sukhvinder Singh Malik B.E. in Electronics and Communication
Engineering from MDU Rohtak in 2010 with Honors. Having about 4 years of
experience in in LTE QA/QC in testing Schedulers, radio conformance and
IOT.
Rahul Sharma B.Tech in Electronics and Communication Engineering from
GGSIPU in 2011 with Honors. Having 3 years of experience in LTE
development industry in different fields i.e. LTE Physical layer procedures,
Signal processing chain and Integration with upper layers .

More Related Content

What's hot

Lte system signaling procedures
Lte system signaling proceduresLte system signaling procedures
Lte system signaling procedurestharinduwije
 
Volte troubleshooting
Volte troubleshootingVolte troubleshooting
Volte troubleshootingJamil Awan
 
Lte mac presentation
Lte mac presentationLte mac presentation
Lte mac presentationPraveen Kumar
 
LTE Architecture and LTE Attach
LTE Architecture and LTE AttachLTE Architecture and LTE Attach
LTE Architecture and LTE Attachaliirfan04
 
LTE Interference troubleshooting guide
LTE Interference troubleshooting guideLTE Interference troubleshooting guide
LTE Interference troubleshooting guideKlajdi Husi
 
carrier aggregation for LTE
carrier aggregation for LTEcarrier aggregation for LTE
carrier aggregation for LTEJenil. Jacob
 
lte physical layer overview
 lte physical layer overview lte physical layer overview
lte physical layer overviewPraveen Kumar
 
Lte irat-troubleshooting-guide
Lte irat-troubleshooting-guideLte irat-troubleshooting-guide
Lte irat-troubleshooting-guideDenmark Wilson
 
Throughput Calculation for LTE TDD and FDD System
Throughput Calculation for  LTE TDD and FDD SystemThroughput Calculation for  LTE TDD and FDD System
Throughput Calculation for LTE TDD and FDD SystemSukhvinder Singh Malik
 
Interview question for 2g,3g,4g
Interview question for 2g,3g,4gInterview question for 2g,3g,4g
Interview question for 2g,3g,4gVijay Anand
 
Best practices-lte-call-flow-guide
Best practices-lte-call-flow-guideBest practices-lte-call-flow-guide
Best practices-lte-call-flow-guideMorg
 
3GPP SON Series: SON Management in HetNets and Enhanced ICIC (eICIC)
3GPP SON Series: SON Management in HetNets and Enhanced ICIC (eICIC)3GPP SON Series: SON Management in HetNets and Enhanced ICIC (eICIC)
3GPP SON Series: SON Management in HetNets and Enhanced ICIC (eICIC)3G4G
 
AIRCOM LTE Webinar 6 - Comparison between GSM, UMTS & LTE
AIRCOM LTE Webinar 6 - Comparison between GSM, UMTS & LTEAIRCOM LTE Webinar 6 - Comparison between GSM, UMTS & LTE
AIRCOM LTE Webinar 6 - Comparison between GSM, UMTS & LTEAIRCOM International
 
How to dimension user traffic in LTE
How to dimension user traffic in LTEHow to dimension user traffic in LTE
How to dimension user traffic in LTEAlthaf Hussain
 
Lte default and dedicated bearer / VoLTE
Lte default and dedicated bearer / VoLTELte default and dedicated bearer / VoLTE
Lte default and dedicated bearer / VoLTEmanish_sapra
 
AIRCOM LTE Webinar 2 - Air Interface
AIRCOM LTE Webinar 2 - Air InterfaceAIRCOM LTE Webinar 2 - Air Interface
AIRCOM LTE Webinar 2 - Air InterfaceAIRCOM International
 

What's hot (20)

Lte system signaling procedures
Lte system signaling proceduresLte system signaling procedures
Lte system signaling procedures
 
Volte troubleshooting
Volte troubleshootingVolte troubleshooting
Volte troubleshooting
 
Lte mac presentation
Lte mac presentationLte mac presentation
Lte mac presentation
 
LTE Architecture and LTE Attach
LTE Architecture and LTE AttachLTE Architecture and LTE Attach
LTE Architecture and LTE Attach
 
GSMA-VOLTE
GSMA-VOLTE GSMA-VOLTE
GSMA-VOLTE
 
LTE Interference troubleshooting guide
LTE Interference troubleshooting guideLTE Interference troubleshooting guide
LTE Interference troubleshooting guide
 
Handover parameters in_lte
Handover parameters in_lteHandover parameters in_lte
Handover parameters in_lte
 
carrier aggregation for LTE
carrier aggregation for LTEcarrier aggregation for LTE
carrier aggregation for LTE
 
lte physical layer overview
 lte physical layer overview lte physical layer overview
lte physical layer overview
 
Harq & arq interactions in lte
Harq & arq interactions in lteHarq & arq interactions in lte
Harq & arq interactions in lte
 
Lte irat-troubleshooting-guide
Lte irat-troubleshooting-guideLte irat-troubleshooting-guide
Lte irat-troubleshooting-guide
 
Throughput Calculation for LTE TDD and FDD System
Throughput Calculation for  LTE TDD and FDD SystemThroughput Calculation for  LTE TDD and FDD System
Throughput Calculation for LTE TDD and FDD System
 
Interview question for 2g,3g,4g
Interview question for 2g,3g,4gInterview question for 2g,3g,4g
Interview question for 2g,3g,4g
 
Presentation 5G high school
Presentation 5G high schoolPresentation 5G high school
Presentation 5G high school
 
Best practices-lte-call-flow-guide
Best practices-lte-call-flow-guideBest practices-lte-call-flow-guide
Best practices-lte-call-flow-guide
 
3GPP SON Series: SON Management in HetNets and Enhanced ICIC (eICIC)
3GPP SON Series: SON Management in HetNets and Enhanced ICIC (eICIC)3GPP SON Series: SON Management in HetNets and Enhanced ICIC (eICIC)
3GPP SON Series: SON Management in HetNets and Enhanced ICIC (eICIC)
 
AIRCOM LTE Webinar 6 - Comparison between GSM, UMTS & LTE
AIRCOM LTE Webinar 6 - Comparison between GSM, UMTS & LTEAIRCOM LTE Webinar 6 - Comparison between GSM, UMTS & LTE
AIRCOM LTE Webinar 6 - Comparison between GSM, UMTS & LTE
 
How to dimension user traffic in LTE
How to dimension user traffic in LTEHow to dimension user traffic in LTE
How to dimension user traffic in LTE
 
Lte default and dedicated bearer / VoLTE
Lte default and dedicated bearer / VoLTELte default and dedicated bearer / VoLTE
Lte default and dedicated bearer / VoLTE
 
AIRCOM LTE Webinar 2 - Air Interface
AIRCOM LTE Webinar 2 - Air InterfaceAIRCOM LTE Webinar 2 - Air Interface
AIRCOM LTE Webinar 2 - Air Interface
 

Viewers also liked

SIMULATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL AND QoS AWARE SCHEDULER TO ENHANCE THE CAPACIT...
SIMULATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL AND QoS AWARE SCHEDULER TO ENHANCE THE CAPACIT...SIMULATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL AND QoS AWARE SCHEDULER TO ENHANCE THE CAPACIT...
SIMULATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL AND QoS AWARE SCHEDULER TO ENHANCE THE CAPACIT...IAEME Publication
 
Scheduler performance in manycore architecture
Scheduler performance in manycore architectureScheduler performance in manycore architecture
Scheduler performance in manycore architecturechiportal
 
LCU13: Discussion on ODP – Fastpath networking applications on manycore SoCs
LCU13: Discussion on ODP – Fastpath networking applications on manycore SoCsLCU13: Discussion on ODP – Fastpath networking applications on manycore SoCs
LCU13: Discussion on ODP – Fastpath networking applications on manycore SoCsLinaro
 
enodeb sw to dual core
enodeb sw to dual coreenodeb sw to dual core
enodeb sw to dual coreYoung Hwan Kim
 
Introduction to NS2 - Cont..
Introduction to NS2 - Cont..Introduction to NS2 - Cont..
Introduction to NS2 - Cont..cscarcas
 
Hsupa (enhanced uplink)
Hsupa (enhanced uplink)Hsupa (enhanced uplink)
Hsupa (enhanced uplink)Praveen Kumar
 
A Novel Parameterized QoS based Uplink and Downlink Scheduler for Bandwidth/D...
A Novel Parameterized QoS based Uplink and Downlink Scheduler for Bandwidth/D...A Novel Parameterized QoS based Uplink and Downlink Scheduler for Bandwidth/D...
A Novel Parameterized QoS based Uplink and Downlink Scheduler for Bandwidth/D...IDES Editor
 
rrc-procedures-in-lte
rrc-procedures-in-lterrc-procedures-in-lte
rrc-procedures-in-lteMorg
 

Viewers also liked (9)

SIMULATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL AND QoS AWARE SCHEDULER TO ENHANCE THE CAPACIT...
SIMULATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL AND QoS AWARE SCHEDULER TO ENHANCE THE CAPACIT...SIMULATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL AND QoS AWARE SCHEDULER TO ENHANCE THE CAPACIT...
SIMULATIVE ANALYSIS OF CHANNEL AND QoS AWARE SCHEDULER TO ENHANCE THE CAPACIT...
 
Scheduler performance in manycore architecture
Scheduler performance in manycore architectureScheduler performance in manycore architecture
Scheduler performance in manycore architecture
 
Tr ns802 11
Tr ns802 11Tr ns802 11
Tr ns802 11
 
LCU13: Discussion on ODP – Fastpath networking applications on manycore SoCs
LCU13: Discussion on ODP – Fastpath networking applications on manycore SoCsLCU13: Discussion on ODP – Fastpath networking applications on manycore SoCs
LCU13: Discussion on ODP – Fastpath networking applications on manycore SoCs
 
enodeb sw to dual core
enodeb sw to dual coreenodeb sw to dual core
enodeb sw to dual core
 
Introduction to NS2 - Cont..
Introduction to NS2 - Cont..Introduction to NS2 - Cont..
Introduction to NS2 - Cont..
 
Hsupa (enhanced uplink)
Hsupa (enhanced uplink)Hsupa (enhanced uplink)
Hsupa (enhanced uplink)
 
A Novel Parameterized QoS based Uplink and Downlink Scheduler for Bandwidth/D...
A Novel Parameterized QoS based Uplink and Downlink Scheduler for Bandwidth/D...A Novel Parameterized QoS based Uplink and Downlink Scheduler for Bandwidth/D...
A Novel Parameterized QoS based Uplink and Downlink Scheduler for Bandwidth/D...
 
rrc-procedures-in-lte
rrc-procedures-in-lterrc-procedures-in-lte
rrc-procedures-in-lte
 

Similar to LTE Schedulers – A Definitive Approach

S URVEY OF L TE D OWNLINK S CHEDULERS A LGORITHMS IN O PEN A CCESS S IM...
S URVEY OF  L TE  D OWNLINK  S CHEDULERS A LGORITHMS IN  O PEN  A CCESS  S IM...S URVEY OF  L TE  D OWNLINK  S CHEDULERS A LGORITHMS IN  O PEN  A CCESS  S IM...
S URVEY OF L TE D OWNLINK S CHEDULERS A LGORITHMS IN O PEN A CCESS S IM...ijwmn
 
FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAIN PACKET SCHEDULING BASED ON CHANNEL PREDICTION WITH ...
FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAIN PACKET SCHEDULING BASED ON CHANNEL PREDICTION WITH ...FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAIN PACKET SCHEDULING BASED ON CHANNEL PREDICTION WITH ...
FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAIN PACKET SCHEDULING BASED ON CHANNEL PREDICTION WITH ...ijwmn
 
Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...
Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...
Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...IJCNCJournal
 
Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...
Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...
Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...IJCNCJournal
 
Enhancement of qos in lte downlink systems using
Enhancement of qos in lte downlink systems usingEnhancement of qos in lte downlink systems using
Enhancement of qos in lte downlink systems usingeSAT Publishing House
 
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF PACKET SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS FOR VIDEO TRAFFIC IN L...
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF PACKET SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS FOR VIDEO TRAFFIC IN L...PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF PACKET SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS FOR VIDEO TRAFFIC IN L...
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF PACKET SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS FOR VIDEO TRAFFIC IN L...ijmnct
 
QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...
QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...
QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...csandit
 
QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...
QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...
QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...csandit
 
Survey on scheduling and radio resources allocation in lte
Survey on scheduling and radio resources allocation in lteSurvey on scheduling and radio resources allocation in lte
Survey on scheduling and radio resources allocation in lteijngnjournal
 
Implementing a Session Aware Policy Based Mechanism for QoS Control in LTE
Implementing a Session Aware Policy Based Mechanism for QoS Control in LTEImplementing a Session Aware Policy Based Mechanism for QoS Control in LTE
Implementing a Session Aware Policy Based Mechanism for QoS Control in LTEIJERA Editor
 
Resource Allocation in MIMO – OFDM Communication System under Signal Strength...
Resource Allocation in MIMO – OFDM Communication System under Signal Strength...Resource Allocation in MIMO – OFDM Communication System under Signal Strength...
Resource Allocation in MIMO – OFDM Communication System under Signal Strength...Kumar Goud
 
Performance Evolution of LTE Cellular Technology
Performance Evolution of LTE Cellular TechnologyPerformance Evolution of LTE Cellular Technology
Performance Evolution of LTE Cellular TechnologyIRJET Journal
 
Scheduling schemes for carrier aggregation in lte advanced systems
Scheduling schemes for carrier aggregation in lte advanced systemsScheduling schemes for carrier aggregation in lte advanced systems
Scheduling schemes for carrier aggregation in lte advanced systemseSAT Publishing House
 
ADAPTIVE HANDOVER HYSTERESIS AND CALL ADMISSION CONTROL FOR MOBILE RELAY NODES
ADAPTIVE HANDOVER HYSTERESIS AND CALL ADMISSION CONTROL FOR MOBILE RELAY NODESADAPTIVE HANDOVER HYSTERESIS AND CALL ADMISSION CONTROL FOR MOBILE RELAY NODES
ADAPTIVE HANDOVER HYSTERESIS AND CALL ADMISSION CONTROL FOR MOBILE RELAY NODESIJCNCJournal
 
A SURVEY ON CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEMES IN LTE
A SURVEY ON CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEMES IN LTEA SURVEY ON CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEMES IN LTE
A SURVEY ON CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEMES IN LTEIJCSES Journal
 
Analytical average throughput and delay estimations for LTE
Analytical average throughput and delay estimations for LTEAnalytical average throughput and delay estimations for LTE
Analytical average throughput and delay estimations for LTESpiros Louvros
 
Performance analysis of resource
Performance analysis of resourcePerformance analysis of resource
Performance analysis of resourcecsandit
 
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE SCHEDULING IN LTE FEMTOCELLS NETWORKS
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE SCHEDULING IN LTE FEMTOCELLS NETWORKSPERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE SCHEDULING IN LTE FEMTOCELLS NETWORKS
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE SCHEDULING IN LTE FEMTOCELLS NETWORKScscpconf
 
IRJET- Achieving Cognitive Radio for Improved Spectrum Utilization: An Implem...
IRJET- Achieving Cognitive Radio for Improved Spectrum Utilization: An Implem...IRJET- Achieving Cognitive Radio for Improved Spectrum Utilization: An Implem...
IRJET- Achieving Cognitive Radio for Improved Spectrum Utilization: An Implem...IRJET Journal
 

Similar to LTE Schedulers – A Definitive Approach (20)

S URVEY OF L TE D OWNLINK S CHEDULERS A LGORITHMS IN O PEN A CCESS S IM...
S URVEY OF  L TE  D OWNLINK  S CHEDULERS A LGORITHMS IN  O PEN  A CCESS  S IM...S URVEY OF  L TE  D OWNLINK  S CHEDULERS A LGORITHMS IN  O PEN  A CCESS  S IM...
S URVEY OF L TE D OWNLINK S CHEDULERS A LGORITHMS IN O PEN A CCESS S IM...
 
FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAIN PACKET SCHEDULING BASED ON CHANNEL PREDICTION WITH ...
FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAIN PACKET SCHEDULING BASED ON CHANNEL PREDICTION WITH ...FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAIN PACKET SCHEDULING BASED ON CHANNEL PREDICTION WITH ...
FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAIN PACKET SCHEDULING BASED ON CHANNEL PREDICTION WITH ...
 
Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...
Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...
Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...
 
Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...
Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...
Spectrum Sharing between Cellular and Wi-Fi Networks based on Deep Reinforcem...
 
Enhancement of qos in lte downlink systems using
Enhancement of qos in lte downlink systems usingEnhancement of qos in lte downlink systems using
Enhancement of qos in lte downlink systems using
 
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF PACKET SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS FOR VIDEO TRAFFIC IN L...
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF PACKET SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS FOR VIDEO TRAFFIC IN L...PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF PACKET SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS FOR VIDEO TRAFFIC IN L...
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON OF PACKET SCHEDULING ALGORITHMS FOR VIDEO TRAFFIC IN L...
 
QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...
QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...
QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...
 
QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...
QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...
QOS-B ASED P ERFORMANCE E VALUATION OF C HANNEL -A WARE /QOS-A WARE S CHEDULI...
 
Survey on scheduling and radio resources allocation in lte
Survey on scheduling and radio resources allocation in lteSurvey on scheduling and radio resources allocation in lte
Survey on scheduling and radio resources allocation in lte
 
paperpublished.pdf
paperpublished.pdfpaperpublished.pdf
paperpublished.pdf
 
Implementing a Session Aware Policy Based Mechanism for QoS Control in LTE
Implementing a Session Aware Policy Based Mechanism for QoS Control in LTEImplementing a Session Aware Policy Based Mechanism for QoS Control in LTE
Implementing a Session Aware Policy Based Mechanism for QoS Control in LTE
 
Resource Allocation in MIMO – OFDM Communication System under Signal Strength...
Resource Allocation in MIMO – OFDM Communication System under Signal Strength...Resource Allocation in MIMO – OFDM Communication System under Signal Strength...
Resource Allocation in MIMO – OFDM Communication System under Signal Strength...
 
Performance Evolution of LTE Cellular Technology
Performance Evolution of LTE Cellular TechnologyPerformance Evolution of LTE Cellular Technology
Performance Evolution of LTE Cellular Technology
 
Scheduling schemes for carrier aggregation in lte advanced systems
Scheduling schemes for carrier aggregation in lte advanced systemsScheduling schemes for carrier aggregation in lte advanced systems
Scheduling schemes for carrier aggregation in lte advanced systems
 
ADAPTIVE HANDOVER HYSTERESIS AND CALL ADMISSION CONTROL FOR MOBILE RELAY NODES
ADAPTIVE HANDOVER HYSTERESIS AND CALL ADMISSION CONTROL FOR MOBILE RELAY NODESADAPTIVE HANDOVER HYSTERESIS AND CALL ADMISSION CONTROL FOR MOBILE RELAY NODES
ADAPTIVE HANDOVER HYSTERESIS AND CALL ADMISSION CONTROL FOR MOBILE RELAY NODES
 
A SURVEY ON CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEMES IN LTE
A SURVEY ON CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEMES IN LTEA SURVEY ON CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEMES IN LTE
A SURVEY ON CALL ADMISSION CONTROL SCHEMES IN LTE
 
Analytical average throughput and delay estimations for LTE
Analytical average throughput and delay estimations for LTEAnalytical average throughput and delay estimations for LTE
Analytical average throughput and delay estimations for LTE
 
Performance analysis of resource
Performance analysis of resourcePerformance analysis of resource
Performance analysis of resource
 
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE SCHEDULING IN LTE FEMTOCELLS NETWORKS
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE SCHEDULING IN LTE FEMTOCELLS NETWORKSPERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE SCHEDULING IN LTE FEMTOCELLS NETWORKS
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF RESOURCE SCHEDULING IN LTE FEMTOCELLS NETWORKS
 
IRJET- Achieving Cognitive Radio for Improved Spectrum Utilization: An Implem...
IRJET- Achieving Cognitive Radio for Improved Spectrum Utilization: An Implem...IRJET- Achieving Cognitive Radio for Improved Spectrum Utilization: An Implem...
IRJET- Achieving Cognitive Radio for Improved Spectrum Utilization: An Implem...
 

More from Sukhvinder Singh Malik

5G New Radio Technology Throughput Calculation
5G New Radio Technology  Throughput Calculation5G New Radio Technology  Throughput Calculation
5G New Radio Technology Throughput CalculationSukhvinder Singh Malik
 
5G Transport Network Requirement for Indian Telecom By Subrata Sen
5G Transport Network Requirement for Indian Telecom By Subrata Sen5G Transport Network Requirement for Indian Telecom By Subrata Sen
5G Transport Network Requirement for Indian Telecom By Subrata SenSukhvinder Singh Malik
 
WANI Network Architecture Proposal for TRAI PDO
WANI Network Architecture Proposal for TRAI PDOWANI Network Architecture Proposal for TRAI PDO
WANI Network Architecture Proposal for TRAI PDOSukhvinder Singh Malik
 
Open stack iaas overview certificate of completion
Open stack iaas overview certificate of completionOpen stack iaas overview certificate of completion
Open stack iaas overview certificate of completionSukhvinder Singh Malik
 
Cloud ran overview certificate of completion
Cloud ran overview certificate of completionCloud ran overview certificate of completion
Cloud ran overview certificate of completionSukhvinder Singh Malik
 
Radio Link Analysis for 4G TD- LTE Technology at 2.3 GHz Frequency
Radio Link Analysis for 4G TD- LTE Technology at 2.3 GHz FrequencyRadio Link Analysis for 4G TD- LTE Technology at 2.3 GHz Frequency
Radio Link Analysis for 4G TD- LTE Technology at 2.3 GHz FrequencySukhvinder Singh Malik
 
COMPARISON OF BER AND NUMBER OF ERRORS WITH DIFFERENT MODULATION TECHNIQUES I...
COMPARISON OF BER AND NUMBER OF ERRORS WITH DIFFERENT MODULATION TECHNIQUES I...COMPARISON OF BER AND NUMBER OF ERRORS WITH DIFFERENT MODULATION TECHNIQUES I...
COMPARISON OF BER AND NUMBER OF ERRORS WITH DIFFERENT MODULATION TECHNIQUES I...Sukhvinder Singh Malik
 
Fundamentals of cellular antenna creating magic in the air
Fundamentals of cellular antenna creating magic in the airFundamentals of cellular antenna creating magic in the air
Fundamentals of cellular antenna creating magic in the airSukhvinder Singh Malik
 

More from Sukhvinder Singh Malik (17)

5G New Radio Technology Throughput Calculation
5G New Radio Technology  Throughput Calculation5G New Radio Technology  Throughput Calculation
5G New Radio Technology Throughput Calculation
 
5G Transport Network Requirement for Indian Telecom By Subrata Sen
5G Transport Network Requirement for Indian Telecom By Subrata Sen5G Transport Network Requirement for Indian Telecom By Subrata Sen
5G Transport Network Requirement for Indian Telecom By Subrata Sen
 
SON Enabled Smarted Poles
SON Enabled Smarted PolesSON Enabled Smarted Poles
SON Enabled Smarted Poles
 
WANI Network Architecture Proposal for TRAI PDO
WANI Network Architecture Proposal for TRAI PDOWANI Network Architecture Proposal for TRAI PDO
WANI Network Architecture Proposal for TRAI PDO
 
Unpacking the Internet of Things
Unpacking the Internet of Things Unpacking the Internet of Things
Unpacking the Internet of Things
 
Open stack iaas overview certificate of completion
Open stack iaas overview certificate of completionOpen stack iaas overview certificate of completion
Open stack iaas overview certificate of completion
 
Cloud ran overview certificate of completion
Cloud ran overview certificate of completionCloud ran overview certificate of completion
Cloud ran overview certificate of completion
 
Python certificate
Python certificatePython certificate
Python certificate
 
IoT Certification
IoT CertificationIoT Certification
IoT Certification
 
Cellular Narrow Band IoT- using LTE
Cellular Narrow Band IoT- using LTE Cellular Narrow Band IoT- using LTE
Cellular Narrow Band IoT- using LTE
 
HetNet
HetNet HetNet
HetNet
 
Radio Link Analysis for 4G TD- LTE Technology at 2.3 GHz Frequency
Radio Link Analysis for 4G TD- LTE Technology at 2.3 GHz FrequencyRadio Link Analysis for 4G TD- LTE Technology at 2.3 GHz Frequency
Radio Link Analysis for 4G TD- LTE Technology at 2.3 GHz Frequency
 
COMPARISON OF BER AND NUMBER OF ERRORS WITH DIFFERENT MODULATION TECHNIQUES I...
COMPARISON OF BER AND NUMBER OF ERRORS WITH DIFFERENT MODULATION TECHNIQUES I...COMPARISON OF BER AND NUMBER OF ERRORS WITH DIFFERENT MODULATION TECHNIQUES I...
COMPARISON OF BER AND NUMBER OF ERRORS WITH DIFFERENT MODULATION TECHNIQUES I...
 
Security In LTE Access Network
Security In LTE Access NetworkSecurity In LTE Access Network
Security In LTE Access Network
 
Radio Conformance Test
Radio Conformance TestRadio Conformance Test
Radio Conformance Test
 
Fundamentals of cellular antenna creating magic in the air
Fundamentals of cellular antenna creating magic in the airFundamentals of cellular antenna creating magic in the air
Fundamentals of cellular antenna creating magic in the air
 
Long Term Evolution
Long Term EvolutionLong Term Evolution
Long Term Evolution
 

Recently uploaded

Chapter 1 - Drilling Fluid Functions GR.ppt
Chapter 1 - Drilling Fluid Functions GR.pptChapter 1 - Drilling Fluid Functions GR.ppt
Chapter 1 - Drilling Fluid Functions GR.pptzeidali3
 
21 SCHEME_21EC53_VTU_MODULE-4_COMPUTER COMMUNCATION NETWORK.pdf
21 SCHEME_21EC53_VTU_MODULE-4_COMPUTER COMMUNCATION NETWORK.pdf21 SCHEME_21EC53_VTU_MODULE-4_COMPUTER COMMUNCATION NETWORK.pdf
21 SCHEME_21EC53_VTU_MODULE-4_COMPUTER COMMUNCATION NETWORK.pdfDr. Shivashankar
 
Lesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdf
Lesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdfLesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdf
Lesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdff1002753214
 
Checklist to troubleshoot CD moisture profiles.docx
Checklist to troubleshoot CD moisture profiles.docxChecklist to troubleshoot CD moisture profiles.docx
Checklist to troubleshoot CD moisture profiles.docxNoman khan
 
1 Energy Management for Lighting Systems.pptx
1 Energy Management for Lighting Systems.pptx1 Energy Management for Lighting Systems.pptx
1 Energy Management for Lighting Systems.pptxrevathiragavi77
 
Series of training sessions by our experts for you to provide necessary insig...
Series of training sessions by our experts for you to provide necessary insig...Series of training sessions by our experts for you to provide necessary insig...
Series of training sessions by our experts for you to provide necessary insig...AshishChanchal1
 
Basic Concepts of Material Science for Electrical and Electronic Materials ...
Basic Concepts of Material Science for  Electrical and Electronic Materials  ...Basic Concepts of Material Science for  Electrical and Electronic Materials  ...
Basic Concepts of Material Science for Electrical and Electronic Materials ...PeopleFinder
 
streelmaking technology for the last 100 years.pdf
streelmaking technology for the last 100 years.pdfstreelmaking technology for the last 100 years.pdf
streelmaking technology for the last 100 years.pdfAlbertoConejoPadre1
 
Application of eddy current in industry and domestic purposes.pptx
Application of eddy current in industry and domestic purposes.pptxApplication of eddy current in industry and domestic purposes.pptx
Application of eddy current in industry and domestic purposes.pptxsukantatechedu
 
Research and Publication PELecture_Notes.ppsx
Research and Publication PELecture_Notes.ppsxResearch and Publication PELecture_Notes.ppsx
Research and Publication PELecture_Notes.ppsxVASANTHIG10
 
MedTech R&D - Tamer Emara - resume @2024
MedTech R&D - Tamer Emara - resume @2024MedTech R&D - Tamer Emara - resume @2024
MedTech R&D - Tamer Emara - resume @2024Tamer Emara
 
【文凭定制】坎特伯雷大学毕业证学历认证
【文凭定制】坎特伯雷大学毕业证学历认证【文凭定制】坎特伯雷大学毕业证学历认证
【文凭定制】坎特伯雷大学毕业证学历认证muvgemo
 
Basic Instrumentation Symbols | P&ID | PFD | Gaurav Singh Rajput
Basic Instrumentation Symbols | P&ID | PFD | Gaurav Singh RajputBasic Instrumentation Symbols | P&ID | PFD | Gaurav Singh Rajput
Basic Instrumentation Symbols | P&ID | PFD | Gaurav Singh RajputGaurav Singh Rajput
 
Center Enamel is the leading bolted steel tanks manufacturer in China.docx
Center Enamel is the leading bolted steel tanks manufacturer in China.docxCenter Enamel is the leading bolted steel tanks manufacturer in China.docx
Center Enamel is the leading bolted steel tanks manufacturer in China.docxsjzzztc
 
Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)
Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)
Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)MANICKAVASAHAM G
 
HB Self-Body characteristics UHV understanding
HB Self-Body characteristics UHV understandingHB Self-Body characteristics UHV understanding
HB Self-Body characteristics UHV understandingLeoRaju4
 
seminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptx
seminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptxseminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptx
seminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptxGetahunShankoKefeni
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Chapter 1 - Drilling Fluid Functions GR.ppt
Chapter 1 - Drilling Fluid Functions GR.pptChapter 1 - Drilling Fluid Functions GR.ppt
Chapter 1 - Drilling Fluid Functions GR.ppt
 
21 SCHEME_21EC53_VTU_MODULE-4_COMPUTER COMMUNCATION NETWORK.pdf
21 SCHEME_21EC53_VTU_MODULE-4_COMPUTER COMMUNCATION NETWORK.pdf21 SCHEME_21EC53_VTU_MODULE-4_COMPUTER COMMUNCATION NETWORK.pdf
21 SCHEME_21EC53_VTU_MODULE-4_COMPUTER COMMUNCATION NETWORK.pdf
 
Lesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdf
Lesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdfLesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdf
Lesson2 Stoichiometry and mass balance.pdf
 
Checklist to troubleshoot CD moisture profiles.docx
Checklist to troubleshoot CD moisture profiles.docxChecklist to troubleshoot CD moisture profiles.docx
Checklist to troubleshoot CD moisture profiles.docx
 
WIPAC Monthly Magazine - February 2024
WIPAC Monthly Magazine  -  February 2024WIPAC Monthly Magazine  -  February 2024
WIPAC Monthly Magazine - February 2024
 
1 Energy Management for Lighting Systems.pptx
1 Energy Management for Lighting Systems.pptx1 Energy Management for Lighting Systems.pptx
1 Energy Management for Lighting Systems.pptx
 
Series of training sessions by our experts for you to provide necessary insig...
Series of training sessions by our experts for you to provide necessary insig...Series of training sessions by our experts for you to provide necessary insig...
Series of training sessions by our experts for you to provide necessary insig...
 
Basic Concepts of Material Science for Electrical and Electronic Materials ...
Basic Concepts of Material Science for  Electrical and Electronic Materials  ...Basic Concepts of Material Science for  Electrical and Electronic Materials  ...
Basic Concepts of Material Science for Electrical and Electronic Materials ...
 
Présentation IIRB 2024 Corentin Sochard - ÌTB
Présentation IIRB 2024 Corentin Sochard - ÌTBPrésentation IIRB 2024 Corentin Sochard - ÌTB
Présentation IIRB 2024 Corentin Sochard - ÌTB
 
streelmaking technology for the last 100 years.pdf
streelmaking technology for the last 100 years.pdfstreelmaking technology for the last 100 years.pdf
streelmaking technology for the last 100 years.pdf
 
Application of eddy current in industry and domestic purposes.pptx
Application of eddy current in industry and domestic purposes.pptxApplication of eddy current in industry and domestic purposes.pptx
Application of eddy current in industry and domestic purposes.pptx
 
Research and Publication PELecture_Notes.ppsx
Research and Publication PELecture_Notes.ppsxResearch and Publication PELecture_Notes.ppsx
Research and Publication PELecture_Notes.ppsx
 
MedTech R&D - Tamer Emara - resume @2024
MedTech R&D - Tamer Emara - resume @2024MedTech R&D - Tamer Emara - resume @2024
MedTech R&D - Tamer Emara - resume @2024
 
【文凭定制】坎特伯雷大学毕业证学历认证
【文凭定制】坎特伯雷大学毕业证学历认证【文凭定制】坎特伯雷大学毕业证学历认证
【文凭定制】坎特伯雷大学毕业证学历认证
 
Basic Instrumentation Symbols | P&ID | PFD | Gaurav Singh Rajput
Basic Instrumentation Symbols | P&ID | PFD | Gaurav Singh RajputBasic Instrumentation Symbols | P&ID | PFD | Gaurav Singh Rajput
Basic Instrumentation Symbols | P&ID | PFD | Gaurav Singh Rajput
 
Center Enamel is the leading bolted steel tanks manufacturer in China.docx
Center Enamel is the leading bolted steel tanks manufacturer in China.docxCenter Enamel is the leading bolted steel tanks manufacturer in China.docx
Center Enamel is the leading bolted steel tanks manufacturer in China.docx
 
Présentation IIRB 2024 Prévibest T. Leborgne
Présentation IIRB 2024 Prévibest T. LeborgnePrésentation IIRB 2024 Prévibest T. Leborgne
Présentation IIRB 2024 Prévibest T. Leborgne
 
Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)
Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)
Microstructure of Hadfield Steels (Robert Hadfield)
 
HB Self-Body characteristics UHV understanding
HB Self-Body characteristics UHV understandingHB Self-Body characteristics UHV understanding
HB Self-Body characteristics UHV understanding
 
seminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptx
seminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptxseminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptx
seminar power point presentation by Getahun Shanko.pptx
 

LTE Schedulers – A Definitive Approach

  • 1. International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences (IJIES) ISSN: 2319–9598, Volume-2, Issue-4, March 2014 43 Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd.  Abstract— Scheduler is the backbone of intelligence in a LTE network. Scheduler will often have clashing needs that can make its design very complex and non-trivial. The overall system throughput needs to be maintained at the best possible value without sacrificing the cell edge user experience. In this paper, authors compared different scheduler designs for voice and packet services. They explained the role of configuration parameters through simulations. These parameters control the tradeoff between the sector throughput and the fairness in system through. They explained a possible scheduler implementation. Index Terms—LTE, Scheduler, Quality of service, GBR, Non GBR, Proportional fair. I. INTRODUCTION Long Term Evolution (LTE) has been introduced by 3GPP with an objective of high data rate, low-latency, better user experiences of services and packet-optimized radio access technology. LTE is also referred to as EUTRA (Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access) or E-UTRAN (Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network). The LTE Scheduler will have the following major objectives:  Link Adaptation: It selects the optimal combination of parameters such as modulation, channel Coding & transmit schemes i.e. TM Modes as a function of the RF conditions.  Rate Control: It is in charge of resource allocation among radio bearers of the same UE which are available at the eNB for DL and at the UE for UL.  Packet Scheduler: It arbitrates access to air interface resources on 1ms-TTI basis amongst all active Users (Users in RRC Connected State).  Resource Assignment: It allocates air interface resources to selected active users on per TTI basis.  Power Control: Provides the desired SINR level for achieving the desired data rate, but also controls the interference to the neighbouring cells.  HARQ (ARQ + FEC): It allows recovering from residual errors by link adaptation. Manuscript received March 2014. Lakshmikishore Nittala B.Tech in Electronics and Communication Engineering from JNTU Hyderabad in 2003 with Honors. Having about 10 years of experience in WCDMA/LTE product validation and field deployments. Preet Kanwar Singh Rekhi B.Tech in Electronics and Communication Engineering from GGSIPU in 2010 with Honors. Having about 4 years of experience in LTE QA/QC in testing Schedulers, radio conformance and IOT.. Sukhvinder Singh Malik B.E. in Electronics and Communication Engineering from MDU Rohtak in 2010 with Honors. Having about 4 years of experience in in LTE QA/QC in testing Schedulers, radio conformance and IOT. Rahul Sharma B.Tech in Electronics and Communication Engineering from GGSIPU in 2011 with Honors. Having 3 years of experience in LTE development industry in different fields i.e. LTE Physical layer procedures, Signal processing chain and Integration with upper layers. The Services/ Applications are broadly classified into two categories as Real time services and Non-Real time services. Real time services includes Conversational Voice, Video Phony [Conversational Video], MPEG Video [Non- Conversational Video], Real-time gaming etc. Non-Real time services include Voice Messaging, Buffered Streaming, ftp, www, email, Interactive gaming etc. The data transmission characteristics of these services are  Delay tolerance  Data Packet Size [Fixed or Variable]  Periodic or Aperiodic data transmission  Packet error loss rate, etc. Some or all of these characteristics determine what kind of Packet schedulers are required at the LTE MAC to adhere to the required QoS requirements of the relevant applications. LTE MAC supports the following three types of Scheduling  Dynamic Scheduling  Persistent Scheduling  Semi-Persistent Scheduling Dynamic Scheduling: Every TTI, MAC checks for the UEs to be scheduled, the Data Availability for each UE to be scheduled and the feedback from the UE on the Channel conditions. Based on these data, it can schedule the resources for the UE through the PDCCH. If data is not available, UE will not get scheduled. All Services can be scheduled using Dynamic Scheduling, but at the expense of the Control signalling [PDCCH Usage – a scarce resource]. Persistent Scheduling: In this case, Packets are scheduled on a fixed basis, similar to the Circuit Switched fashion. Here, it does not depend on the Channel Condition. The Resource allocation remains constant for the period of the call. Semi-Persistent Scheduling: It is a Hybrid way of scheduling, which tries to overcome the drawbacks of the Dynamic Scheduling and the Persistent Scheduling. This rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section II explains persistent and semi persistent scheduling and describes why SPS is more suitable for voice services. Section III explains different scheduler types for packet based services. Section IV explains the configuration parameters and simulations. Section V adds a practical scheduler implementation. Section VI and VII provide the ‘Conclusion and Future Work’ and References authors used for preparing this article respectively. LTE Schedulers – A Definitive Approach Lakshmikishore Nittala, Preet Kanwar Singh Rekhi, Sukhvinder Singh Malik, Rahul Sharma
  • 2. LTE Schedulers – A Definitive Approach 44 Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. II. SEMI PERSISTENT SCHEDULING In the above diagram conversational voice is considered for persistent scheduling. It is clear that, because of the fixed resource allocation, UE will end up in underutilizing the allocated resources, because of non-availability of the sufficient data during the persistently scheduled TTIs. Here, because the Speaker sometimes speaks and sometimes user may give pauses during the conversation, Voice activity period and Voice Inactivity period exist in the Speech data. If the Speech Codec without VAD is involved, then it sends the Voice Payload at the end of every voice frame length of 20ms during the Voice activityperiod and sends nothing during the Voice Inactivity period. So, the fixed resource allocations will get utilised during the Voice activity periods to transmit the received voice payloads over the air interface and it gets unused during the Voice inactivityperiods, which is a critical drawback. Semi persistent scheduling addresses this drawback in a unique way. As shown above, whenever the Voice Payloads arrive at the L2, the MAC Scheduler will activate the SPS resources and whenever there are no transmissions for few of the transmission opportunities, the SPS resources were implicitly released. Again, it gets activated, when the voice payloads arrives at the next Voice activity period. During the Voice Inactivity period and after the implicit release of the SPS resources, these radio resources will be allocated for different UEs, which are in need of it. It is clear that, only those services, which are real time in nature, with fixed packet size payloads, and fixed periodicity of the payload arrival, can effectively and efficiently utilize the Semi-Persistent Scheduling. Such services or applications, which fulfils these characteristics are conversational voice, conversational video [only Conversational voice part of the video], and any other real time applications [Only Conversational Voice part]. III. SCHEDULERS FOR PACKET BASED SERVICES Three kinds of schedulers are compared in this document. The RR scheduler selects and schedules UEs in a round robin manner, thereby creating an equal resource share. The disadvantage of this approach is that UEs with sub-optimal CQIs may be allocated Physical Radio Resources (PRBs), thus reducing the overall cell throughput. The max-CQI scheduler selects the schedulable UEs based on the experienced CQI. The UEs with the highest CQI therefore become candidates for scheduling thereby increasing the overall cell throughput. The disadvantage of this approach is that UEs with lower CQI are denied scheduling instances, thus being starved for throughput and leading to degraded user experience. The PFS is expected to strike a balance between the traditional Round Robin (RR) scheduler and the max Throughput Scheduler (also known max-CQI (Channel QualityIndicator) scheduler). The PFS scheduler performs in such a manner that it considers resource fairness as well as maximizing cell throughput (in addition to other possible performance metrics). SCH Type Max C/I Round Robin Proportional Fair (PF) How it works Allocates resources to the user with the instantaneous best RF conditions. UE with the best channel conditions is always prioritized Resources are shared across users over time regardless of the RF conditions. Sharing the cell throughput but as a function of RF conditions and bearer priorities. Pros Very Good Throughput Resources shared in an equal manner Trade-off between fairness and cell throughput. Cons Cell Edge UEs starved of scheduling instances leading to degraded user experience. UEs with sub optimal CQI conditions will reduce the cell throughput Implementatio n complexity and overall cell throughput will not be the highest For a Max C/I scheduler, the Sector throughput improves while cell edge throughput drops compared to a PF scheduler where sector throughput may not be as good as Max C/I but cell edge throughput thoroughly improves. Let us first consider the time-domain scheduling such as is the case for the non-frequency selective scheduling scheme. By using proportional fair scheduling (PFS), eNB transmits to the user m* in the nth sub frame: ……………………... (1)
  • 3. International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences (IJIES) ISSN: 2319–9598, Volume-2, Issue-4, March 2014 45 Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. where Rm (n), m = 1, 2, . . . , M is the data rate for the mth user in the nth sub frame. Also Tm (n) is the average throughput for the mth user in a past window and is updated at each sub frame according to: …………………………… (2) where tc is the window length that can be adjusted to maintain fairness over a predetermined time horizon. The PFS algorithm schedules a user when its channel quality is better than its average channel quality condition over the time scale tc. A smaller value for tc maintains fairness over short time periods, which may be the case for delay-sensitive services. For larger tc, throughput is averaged over longer periods, which means that the scheduler can afford to wait longer before scheduling a user at its peak. On plotting 1/T (n) as a function of time for tc = 50, 100 and 200 the following observations were made. As the scheduler has little time to wait for peaks, a smaller value for tc will make the user scheduled at relatively lower peaks reducing the scheduling gains. A larger tc will allow the scheduler to wait for really high peaks and therefore results in improved system throughput at the expense of increased latency. The value of tc can therefore be selected to strike a balance between latency and throughput. For very large tc (approaching ∞ ), the PFS algorithm maximizes: …………………………… (3) where Tm is the long-term average throughput for user m. Also, log (Tm) can be interpreted as the level of satisfaction or utility for user m. We can therefore define the PF algorithm in terms of the system utility function: ………………………. (4) Figure 1: 1/Tn as a function of time for tc = 50, 100 and 200 sub frames. eNB transmits to the user m* in the nth sub frame: ……………… (5) where ………….. (6) where Tm (n + 1|m) denotes Tm (n + 1) given that user m is scheduled is sub frame n. Therefore the PF algorithm schedules a user in sub frame n that gives the largest instantaneous reward in the system utility function U (n). IV. CONFIGURATIONS PARAMETERS In this document the authors have considered α, β and γ as the configuration parameters and describe how to control the trade-off between the sector throughput and fairness in the system.  α defines the priority of cell throughput realization, aka CQI priority. CQI is a 4-bit integer and is based on the observed signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) at the UE. It contains information sent from a UE to the eNB to indicate a suitable Modulation and Coding Scheme (MCS) value. There are 15 different CQI indexes defined in LTE ranging from 1 to 15 and each of these has a mapping with the modulation scheme. The MCS set by the link adaptation maps to a spectral efficiency per Resource Element (RE) as per 3GPPTS 36.213. The Spectral Efficiency per RE is a function of CQI. A higher CQI index will be given more priority. Figure 2: Spectral Efficiency  β defines the Bit rate priority. A user with unscheduled data will be given higher priority than a user with already scheduled data. β is defined to be a measure of how much the logical channel may be under-allocated compared to the agreed bit rate during bearer establishment.  γ defines the PDB(Packet Delay Budget ) Priority. There are 9 QCI’s (QOS Class Indicators) in LTE each with different PDB ranging from 50 to 300 ms. The user with lower PDB will be given higher priority. Therefore, based on the PDB, the priority for the logical channel should be updated so that the logical channel with the first packet approaching its PDB would be prioritized for scheduling. α + β + γ =1 …………………………………... (7) The equation (7) represents the only relation between the three parameters considered.
  • 4. LTE Schedulers – A Definitive Approach 46 Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. α =1 ………………………………… (8) The equation (8) represents a Max C/I scheduler. Testing for various parameter metrics was done with β and γ always kept at the same values and with α value being varied from 0 to 1. The testing consisted of 7identical LTE category 3 UEs placed at different radio conditions. Three UEs were placed at cell center with UEs reporting CQIs greater than 14 on an average. Two UEs were placed at an intermediate distance from the cell center, with them reporting CQI values less than 10 and greater than 8 on an average. Two more UEs were placed at cell edge radio conditions with CQIs never greater than 5. Use of a radio channel emulator was considered to achieve the above radio conditions for all the UEs. The propagation model chosen was EPA, which is pedestrian model with minimum Doppler. The results observed for PFS scheduler’s sector throughput with changing α is as below: Figure 3: Sector throughput vs Alpha Also, the throughputs observed from α > 0.9 were identical to the throughputs of a MAX C/I Scheduler. V. PRACTICAL SCHEDULER IMPLEMENTATION A. Conversion of QoS weight and channel information into priority metric for each users The SINR per PRB on the UL or per resource block group (RBG) on the DL for the traffic channel is estimated from the SRS (for the UL) and the CQI report (for the DL). The priority metric per user is formed by mapping the SINR to an achievable rate per PRB (or RBG) using a look up table, and dividing by the average user rate and multiplying by the QoS weight. The QoS weight is used to distinguish the Dynamic Scheduler scheduling decisions across Non –GBR bearers. The GBR bearers have QCI values ranging from 1-4 and Non-GBR from 5-9. B. Identification of user with highest priority metric For each PRB (UL) or RBG (DL) the user with the highest priority metric is identified. In DL a user is allowed to be assigned discontinuous PRBs. Each RBG is assigned to the user with the highest priority metric, which maximizes the original sum rate metric.
  • 5. International Journal of Inventive Engineering and Sciences (IJIES) ISSN: 2319–9598, Volume-2, Issue-4, March 2014 47 Published By: Blue Eyes Intelligence Engineering & Sciences Publication Pvt. Ltd. C. Maximum Priority Envelope In UL the multiple access techniques is SC-FDMA. This induces constraint of contiguous PRBs and UE power headroom (PH). The sub carrier mapping in SC-FDMA maps DFT output tones to specified subcarriers for transmission and the working assumption is that the contiguous (localised) tones will be used. Power headroom indicates how much transmission power left for a UE to use in addition to the power being used by current transmission. The Maximum Priority Envelope (MPE) algorithm has been developed for UL user scheduling and resource allocation which accounts for constraints like UE PH (Power Headroom) and the contiguous PRB restriction. In this case UE 2 has NumPRB with maximum power as 3. D. Conclusion based on highest sum metric Iterative process to assign contiguous sets of winning user PRBs (called envelope groups) based on the highest sum priority metric. Assume S5 has highest priority metric, make assignment for UE2, and update PRBs not allocated to UE2 in which it was the winner. Finally, S1 gets assigned to UE3 and S2 gets assigned to UE1. VII. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK The simulation results indicated that the sector throughputs were identical with PFS scheduler with α =1, and for a max C/I Scheduler. However, the authors feel that the values to be configured for the three parameters considered should be specific to the site under discussion and operator configurable. All the scenarios presented in this paper were done using identical category 3 LTE devices. At all instances, 3 devices were kept at cell centre, two at intermediate distance from the cell centre and two at the cell edge conditions. It was also observed that for values of α > 0.8, the performance did not increase as expected. For α = 0.75, β = 0.15 and γ =0.1optimum performance was observed. Also, the test was carried out with other eNBs radiating on the same or different frequency under lab conditions. More work need to be done in identifying the range of these parameters for specific models such as rural, semi urban, urban and dense urban scenarios. REFERENCES [1] LTE - The UMTS Long Term Evolution from Theory To Practice 2nd Edition by Stefania Sesia , Issam Toufik, Matthew Baker [2] Essentials of LTE and LTE-A (The Cambridge Wireless Essentials Series) by Amitabha Ghosh and Rapeepat Ratasuk [3] 3G Evolution: HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband by Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Sköld and Per Beming [4] 3GPP TS 36.211 “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical channels and modulation”. [5] 3GPP TS 36.213 “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA) Physical layer procedures”. [6] 3GPP TS 36.321 “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification” [7] 3GPP TS 36.331: “Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRAN); Radio Resource Control (RRC) Protocol Specification”. Lakshmikishore Nittala B.Tech in Electronics and Communication Engineering from JNTU Hyderabad in 2003 with Honors. Having about 10 years of experience in WCDMA/LTE product validation and field deployments. Preet Kanwar Singh Rekhi B.Tech in Electronics and Communication Engineering from GGSIPU in 2010 with Honors. Having about 4 years of experience in LTE QA/QC in testing Schedulers, radio conformance and IOT. Sukhvinder Singh Malik B.E. in Electronics and Communication Engineering from MDU Rohtak in 2010 with Honors. Having about 4 years of experience in in LTE QA/QC in testing Schedulers, radio conformance and IOT. Rahul Sharma B.Tech in Electronics and Communication Engineering from GGSIPU in 2011 with Honors. Having 3 years of experience in LTE development industry in different fields i.e. LTE Physical layer procedures, Signal processing chain and Integration with upper layers .