Mechanism for early preterm birth unclear. Pathological mechanical stretching of uterus is the most common etiology causing twin preterm birth Hodgson EJ, Preterm birth: a complex Disease, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010:8–16.
Very few weapons in our armamentariumOne of the commonly performed surgical interventions.
…and the positive evidence Prophylactic cerclage decreased significantly the incidence of extremely LBW neonates in triplet pregnancies. The proportion of neonates delivered at 31 weeks or more, and at 32 weeks or more was higher in the cerclage group. 1999 May-Jun;8(3):119-22.J maternal fetal medicine
Is Elective Cerclage Justified in the Managementof Triplet and Quadruplet Pregnancy? It seems that elective cervical suture is a definite contribution to the successful management of multiple pregnancies with more than two fetuses. Gil A. Goldman et al, Australian and New Zealand J of Obstet and Gynaecol first published online: 28 JUN 2008
Negative evidencecerclage in twins.. In cerclage group, 45% delivered prematurely; neonatal death rate 18.2% In non-cerclage group, 48% delivered preterm; neonatal death rate 15.2% Dor et al. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1982; 13:55
Cerclage in TRIPLETS 248 of 3278 women (7.6%) underwent prophylacticCerclage No differences in GA at delivery, birth at <32 weeks,birthweight, or neonatal outcomes Rebarber et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;193:1193-6.
But.. Even for singletons cerclage did not prevent preterm birth in women with a short cervix but their results should be confirmed in larger trials Berghella V et al, Am J Obstet Gynecol 2004;191:1311-7. To et al. Lancet 2004;363:1849-53
Cochrane library Overall, no reduction in pregnancy loss or pretermdelivery rates with prophylactic cerclage. Cerclage associated with higher rates of febrile morbidity, tocolysis, and hospitalization Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(1):CD003253
Green-top Guideline No. 60May 2011 The insertion of a history- or ultrasound- indicated cerclage in women with multiple pregnancies is not recommended.
Green-top Guideline No. 60May 2011 …however, they were of insufficient number ….to draw conclusions…regarding the effect of cerclage in preventing preterm birth. … the results should be interpreted with caution owing to the relatively small number of women included.
Clinical aspects of cervical insufficiency There is a need for more basic knowledge of cervical ripening, objective assessment of cervical visco-elastic properties, and randomized controlled trials of technical aspects of cervical cerclage Frederik K Lotgering BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2007, 7(Suppl 1):S17
why no large-scale randomizedcontrolled trials ? To definitively prove the effectiveness of cervical cerclage, when there is obvious need for such studies Frederik K Lotgering BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2007, 7(Suppl 1):S17
patients at high risk … are unwilling to give their consent to randomization ….informed that… observational studies have shown approximately 90% infant viability after cerclage and a low rate of procedure related complications. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 2007, 7(Suppl 1):S17
lack of effectiveness in a low risk population is falsely extrapolated to high-risk patients who, in contrast to low-risk patients, were not studied and might well benefit from such a procedure.
Multifetal pregnancy lossWhat Can Be Done?– Discourage multi-embryo transfers– Be optimistic !!
CL measurement for the prediction of PT birth in MFG:a systematic review and bivariate meta-analysis. In the absence of effective preventive strategies, there is currently no place in clinical practice for cervical length measurement in this population. However, future studies should evaluate preventive interventions in women with multiple pregnancies and a short cervix, and cervical length should be measured in any trial studying preventive strategies in multiple pregnancies. ultrasound obstet gynecol 2011 Jul;38(1):10-7.
Despite published meta-analyses and other studies demonstrating the lack of efficacy of cerclage in multiple gestations recent U.S. data indicates roughly 10% of triplets, and 1.3% of twins are still receiving cerclages Menacker F, National Vital Statistics Reports 2008; Vol.56, issue 13.
Patient speaks.. I will tell you a lot of MFMs will delay cerclages to the last minute point of no return type deal. In my opinion, the risks of "wait and see" are far greater than any potential risks of having a preventative cerclage. Im still very nervous … but I do feel a little more secure now that the cerclage is in place. www.fertilethoughts.com/forum
Oh Lord!! Please dont wait!! I lost twins because my EX-OB said... " Lets wait and just weekly check it“ HAD my doc done the cerclage.. I Strongly Believe, my twins would be here now! Waiting to long to do the cerclage can be more dangerous! Another reason is Infection is WAY higher later in rescue cerclages than ones done before 16wks. www.fertilethoughts.com/forum
All I cared about was having a living child and wanted any and all treatments that would increase our chances. If that meant a cerclage that so be it. also why they would not consider a cerclage if only for our peace of mind. www.fertilethoughts.com/forum