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# Non –verbal reasoning

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### Non –verbal reasoning

1. 1. NON –VERBAL REASONING C.S.VEERARAGAVAN
2. 2. NON – VERBAL REASONING 1. SERIES 2. ANALOGY 3. CLASSIFICATION 4. ANALYTICAL REASONING 5. MIRROR IMAGES 6. WATER IMAGES 7. EMBEDDED FIGURES 8. COMPLETION OF INCOMPLETE PATTERN 9. FIGURE MATRIX 10. PAPER FOLDING 11.PAPER CUTTING 12.RULE DETECTION 13.GROUPING OF IDENTICAL FIGURES 14.CUBES AND DICE 15.DOT SITUATION 16.CONSTRUCTION OF SQUARES AND TRIANGLES 17.FIGURE FORMATION & ANALYSIS
3. 3. SERIES 1. FIVE FIGURED SERIES 2. FOUR FIGURED SERIES 3. CHOOSING THE MISSING FIGURE 4. DETECTING THE INCORRECT ORDER 5. DETECTING THE WRONG FIGURE
4. 4. 1. FIVE FIGURED SERIES
5. 5. FOUR FIGURED SERIES • This type of questions are similar to type-1 • The only difference is there are four problem figures and • you are required to select a figure amongst the answer figures • which would be the fifth figure to continue the series.
6. 6. 3.CHOOSING THE MISSING FIGURE • In this type, you are given a set of four or five figures (labelled A,B,C,D and E) following a certain sequence. • However the figure at C is missing. • You are required to choose this figure from the alternatives 1,2,3,4 and 5.
7. 7. (3). The main figure rotates 900 ACW in each step; a side separates from it and arranges itself vertically in the lower right corner in each step. (3). The outer figure rotates 900 ACW in every second step. The symbol moves 900 CW in every step and gets replaced by a new symbol in first, third, fifth steps.
8. 8. 4.DETECTING THE INCORRECT ORDER • This type of questions consists of an un–numbered figure followed by five other figures numbered as 1,2,3,4 and 5. • All the six figures together form a series. • The un–numbered figure marks the beginning of the series and so its position is fixed. • However, the positions of two of the figures in the series are incorrect. • The series would be complete if these figures are interchanged. • The earlier of the two numbered figures whose positions are interchanged is the answer. • In case, the positions of no two figures is to be interchanged, then the answer is 5.
9. 9. 3. One of the convex portions of the broken circle turns concave in each step and once all are concave, these curved lines change into straight lines in a sequence. But to establish this sequence, figures(3) and (4) have to be interchanged.
10. 10. NON-VERBAL REASONING For the pattern sequence above, find the picture that follows logically from one of the five below:
11. 11. Examples Abstract Reasoning (Non – Verbal)
12. 12. Example 1 • 1. Which symbol in the Answer Figure completes the sequence in the Problem Figure ?
13. 13. Solution for Example 1 1. C - The Problem figure is rotated clockwise through 90 degrees each time.
14. 14. Example 2 • 2. Which of the Answer Figures belongs in neither group?
15. 15. Solution for Example 2 2. D & E - Group 1 shapes are all straight lines, group 2 shapes are all curved.
16. 16. Abstract Reasoning Non – Verbal • These tests are of particular value when the job involves dealing with abstract ideas or concepts as many technical jobs do. •However, as they also provide the best measure of your general intellectual ability they are very widely used and you will usually find some questions of this type whichever particular tests you are given.
17. 17. Abstract Reasoning Non – Verbal These tests are particularly valued where the job you are applying for involves: •A high degree of problem solving •Dealing with complex data or concepts •Developing strategies or policies •Performing non-routine tasks where initiative is required
18. 18. Abstract Reasoning Non – Verbal • Abstract Reasoning assesses your ability to understand complex concepts and assimilate new information beyond previous experience. • The questions consist of items which require you to recognize patterns and similarities between shapes and figures. •As a measure of reasoning, it is independent of educational and cultural background and can be used to provide an indication of intellectual potential.
19. 19. Diagrammatic Reasoning This is often interchanged with Abstract Reasoning – Non Verbal
20. 20. If you apply for job in Information Technology… • These diagrammatic reasoning tests measure your ability to infer a set of rules from a flowchart or similar diagram and then to apply those rules to new situation. • These questions are often found in tests aimed at selecting information technology specialists who need to work through complex problems in an analytical way.
21. 21. Examples Diagrammatic Reasoning alias Abstract Reasoning – Nonverbal
22. 22. Example 1 The functions 'M' and 'S' transform the input shapes in a certain way. You need to use the diagram to determine what effect each of these functions has. Apply them to the input shape in the question to arrive at the correct output.
23. 23. Solution for Example 1 B - Function 'M' inverts color (black > white and white > black). Function 'S' rotates shape anticlockwise through 90 degrees.
24. 24. Example 2 Another type of question that appears in these tests measures your ability to follow a set of logical instructions. In the next example, the operators are defined in the first diagram. Each operator acts on the figure that it is attached to. The sequence of operations is from top to bottom. Use this information to answer the questions.
25. 25. Example 2(a) Which figure results from the operations shown?
26. 26. Answer to Example 2(a) Which figure results from the operations shown? 2) B - work from top to bottom, making a note of the effect of each operator at each stage.
27. 27. Spatial Ability • Spatial Ability questions measure your ability to form mental images, and visualize movement or change in those images. • Spatial Ability often involve the visual assembly and the disassembly of objects that have been rotated or which are viewed from different angles. • Spatial ability is required in production, technical and design jobs where plans and drawings are used, for example; engineering, architecture, surveying and design. • However, it is also important in some branches of science where the ability to envisage the interactions of 3 dimensional components is essential.
28. 28. Why Spatial Ability is different? At first sight some of these questions look very similar to previous examples of abstract reasoning – nonverbal – they are not. Spatial ability questions are concerned only with your ability to mentally manipulate shapes, not to identify patterns and make logical deductions.
29. 29. Spatial Ability – Examples Combining Shapes
30. 30. Spatial Ability – Combining shapesThese questions involve 2-dimensional shapes that have been cut-up into pieces. You are asked to match the pieces to the shape that they came from. Example Question 1) Which of the complete shapes can be made from the components shown?
31. 31. Spatial Ability – Combining Shapes Answer 1) B – is the only shape that can be made from the components shown. The best strategy for answering these questions is to look at the Complete Shapes and see if there are any distinct features that would make it impossible to construct such a shape from the components.
32. 32. Spatial Ability – Cubes Example These questions show you several (usually 3) views of a 3-dimensional cube with unique symbols or markings on each face and then asks you a question about it. Example Question 1) Three views of the same cube are shown above. Which symbol is opposite the X?
33. 33. Spatial Ability – Cubes Example 1) Three views of the same cube are shown above. Which symbol is opposite the X? Answer D In the question above for example, you can simply use a process of elimination. If you can see a symbol on the same illustration as the ‘X’ then it cannot be opposite. The second and third cubes eliminate A, B and C. This leaves only D and ‘other’ as possibilities. D has edges shared with A and B which would be consistent with the third cube illustrated. Therefore D is correct.
34. 34. Spatial Ability – Cubes Although it is not usually specified in the instructions, it is almost always true that in these questions each symbol is used only once. This means that even in cases where elimination is not possible, it is sometimes quite easy to see the solution without mentally manipulating the cube too much. In the example above, you can simply compare the first and third illustrations. The third illustration shows a 90 degree clockwise rotation (looking at the cube from above) of the first illustration. Therefore D must be opposite the ‘X’.
35. 35. Spatial Ability – Cubes in 2 dimensionsCubes in 2 and 3 Dimensions These questions show a flat (2-dimensional) pattern which can be folded to make a cube and a number of 3-dimensional cubes (usually 4). The pattern and the cubes have symbols or marking on each face. You need to look at the pattern and decide which of the cubes, if any could be made from it. Example Questions 2) Which of the cubes shown could be made from the pattern?
36. 36. Spatial Ability – cubes fold type 3) Which of the patterns when folded will make the cube shown?
37. 37. Spatial Ability – cubes fold type 3) Which of the patterns when folded will make the cube shown? Answer 3) B - The same strategy can be used to solve these questions, remember don’t be intimidated by these problems even if imagining things in 3 dimensions does not come easily to you. The problem can always be reduced to the relationship between three elements, which you can then try to locate in the answer figures.
38. 38. Spatial Ability Group Rotation These are questions where a group of five or six two dimensional shapes or elements are presented and you need to determine which groups are rotations of each other. This is slightly more complex than the rotations in the two-dimensional shape matching questions.
39. 39. Spatial Ability – Group Rotation These are questions where a group of five or six two dimensional shapes or elements are presented and you need to determine which groups are rotations of each other. This is slightly more complex than the rotations in the two-dimensional shape matching questions. 1) Which of the Answer Figures is a rotation of the Question Figure?
40. 40. Spatial Ability – Group Rotation Answer 1) C You need to be careful that you don’t identify reflections. The best strategy is to choose the most asymmetrical shape in the group – in this case the arrow. Then determine the shapes ‘clockwise’ and ‘anticlockwise’ and opposite. Thinking in these terms is more logical than ‘right’, ‘left’ ‘above’ or ‘below’ as ‘clockwise’ etc are constant even when the figures are rotated. In the example above, the white square is clockwise from the arrow. This means that A, B and D cannot be rotations of the Question Figure. This leaves only C as a possibility which can quickly be checked element by element.
41. 41. Spatial Ability – other types • Maps and Plans • Shape Matching • Solid Shapes
42. 42. Spatial Ability – Maps and Plans • The ability to follow or give directions based on a map or street plan Never Eat Sour Wheat
43. 43. Spatial Ability – Shape Matching• Which shape in Group 2 corresponds to the shape in Group 1?
44. 44. Spatial Ability – Shape Matching
45. 45. Making Selection Decisions The rank-ordering of test results, the use of cut-off scores, or some combination of the two is commonly used to assess the test scores and make employment- related decisions about them. There are essentially three approaches that can be taken.
46. 46. Making Selection Decisions Rank Ordering Firstly the organization could simply select the top scorers. This would seem to be the most obvious approach, but it does have a major drawback, at least where ‘ordinary’ jobs are concerned. In times of high unemployment the job is likely to attract some candidates who are too ‘high-powered’ and who will probably get bored quickly and more on as soon as they can. Alternatively, if unemployment is very low then all of the candidates may have poor scores and may not be up to the job. Neither of these represents a successful outcome for the organization.