Introduction to networking

188 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
188
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
9
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Introduction to networking

  1. 1. Chapter OneChapter One An IntroductionAn Introduction to Networkingto Networking
  2. 2. ObjectivesObjectives List advantages of networked computingList advantages of networked computing relative to standalone computingrelative to standalone computing Identify elements of a networkIdentify elements of a network Describe several specific uses of aDescribe several specific uses of a networknetwork
  3. 3. ObjectivesObjectives Distinguish between client/server andDistinguish between client/server and peer-to-peer networkspeer-to-peer networks Identify some of the certifications availableIdentify some of the certifications available to networking professionalsto networking professionals Identify kinds of non-technical, or “soft,”Identify kinds of non-technical, or “soft,” skills to help in succeeding as askills to help in succeeding as a networking professionalnetworking professional
  4. 4. Networks and StandaloneNetworks and Standalone ComputersComputers NetworkNetwork  Group of computers and other devicesGroup of computers and other devices connected by some type of transmissionconnected by some type of transmission mediamedia  Networks enable users to share devices andNetworks enable users to share devices and data, collectively called a network’sdata, collectively called a network’s resourcesresources Standalone computerStandalone computer  Uses programs and data only from its localUses programs and data only from its local disks and is not connected to a networkdisks and is not connected to a network
  5. 5. SneakernetSneakernet Method of sharing data by copying it to a diskMethod of sharing data by copying it to a disk and carrying the disk from computer to computerand carrying the disk from computer to computer Figure 1-1: Data sharing before the advent of networks
  6. 6. Local and Remote ComputersLocal and Remote Computers Local computerLocal computer  Computer on which user is workingComputer on which user is working Remote computerRemote computer  Computer that user controls or works on viaComputer that user controls or works on via network connectionnetwork connection
  7. 7. Peer-to-Peer NetworkPeer-to-Peer Network Computers communicate on single segment of cable andComputers communicate on single segment of cable and share each other’s data and devicesshare each other’s data and devices Simple example of a local area network (LAN)Simple example of a local area network (LAN) Figure 1-2: Simple peer-to-peer network
  8. 8. Local Area Network (LAN)Local Area Network (LAN) Network of computers and other devicesNetwork of computers and other devices confined to relatively small spaceconfined to relatively small space LANs involving many computers areLANs involving many computers are usually server-basedusually server-based  On aOn a server-based networkserver-based network, special, special computers (known ascomputers (known as serversservers) process data) process data for and facilitate communication betweenfor and facilitate communication between other computers on the network (known asother computers on the network (known as clientsclients))
  9. 9. Networking BasicsNetworking Basics WorkstationWorkstation  Computer that typically runs a desktopComputer that typically runs a desktop operating system and connects to aoperating system and connects to a networknetwork Client/server architectureClient/server architecture  Networking model in which clients useNetworking model in which clients use central server to share applications,central server to share applications, devices, and datadevices, and data
  10. 10. Networking BasicsNetworking Basics Client/server networkClient/server network  Network based on client/server architectureNetwork based on client/server architecture Network operating systemNetwork operating system  Special software designed to manage dataSpecial software designed to manage data and other resources on a server for a numberand other resources on a server for a number of clientsof clients
  11. 11. Networking BasicsNetworking Basics Figure 1-3: LAN with a file server
  12. 12. Networking BasicsNetworking Basics Figure 1-4: An example of a complex network
  13. 13. Advantages of Server-BasedAdvantages of Server-Based over Peer-to-Peer Networksover Peer-to-Peer Networks User login accounts and passwords can beUser login accounts and passwords can be assigned in one placeassigned in one place Access to multiple shared resources can beAccess to multiple shared resources can be centrally grantedcentrally granted Servers are optimized to handle heavyServers are optimized to handle heavy processing loads and dedicated to handlingprocessing loads and dedicated to handling requests from clientsrequests from clients Servers can connect more than a handful ofServers can connect more than a handful of computerscomputers
  14. 14. MANs and WANsMANs and WANs Metropolitan area network (MAN)Metropolitan area network (MAN)  Network connecting clients and servers inNetwork connecting clients and servers in multiple buildings within limited geographicmultiple buildings within limited geographic areaarea Wide area network (WAN)Wide area network (WAN)  Network that spans large distance andNetwork that spans large distance and connects two or more LANsconnects two or more LANs  TheThe InternetInternet is an example of a veryis an example of a very intricate and extensive WAN that spans theintricate and extensive WAN that spans the globeglobe
  15. 15. WANWAN Figure 1-5: A simple WAN
  16. 16. Elements Common to AllElements Common to All Server-Based NetworksServer-Based Networks ClientClient  In addition to referring to a computer on theIn addition to referring to a computer on the network, may also refers to humannetwork, may also refers to human useruser ofof client workstationclient workstation ServerServer WorkstationWorkstation Network interface card (NIC)Network interface card (NIC)  Enables workstation to connect to the networkEnables workstation to connect to the network and communicate with other computersand communicate with other computers
  17. 17. Elements Common to AllElements Common to All Server-Based NetworksServer-Based Networks Figure 1-6: A network interface card (NIC)
  18. 18. Network operating system (NOS)Network operating system (NOS) HostHost  Server that manages shared resourcesServer that manages shared resources NodeNode  Client, server, or other device that canClient, server, or other device that can communicate over a network and that iscommunicate over a network and that is identified by a unique identifying number,identified by a unique identifying number, known as its network addressknown as its network address Elements Common to AllElements Common to All Server-Based NetworksServer-Based Networks
  19. 19. Elements Common to AllElements Common to All Server-Based NetworksServer-Based Networks TopologyTopology  PhysicalPhysical layout oflayout of computercomputer networknetwork Figure 1-7: Commonly used network topologies
  20. 20. Elements Common to AllElements Common to All Server-Based NetworksServer-Based Networks ProtocolProtocol  Rules network uses to transfer dataRules network uses to transfer data Data PacketsData Packets  The distinct units of data transmitted from oneThe distinct units of data transmitted from one computer to another on a networkcomputer to another on a network
  21. 21. Elements Common to AllElements Common to All Server-Based NetworksServer-Based Networks AddressingAddressing  Scheme for assigning unique identifyingScheme for assigning unique identifying number to every workstation on networknumber to every workstation on network  The number that uniquely identifies eachThe number that uniquely identifies each workstation and device on a network is itsworkstation and device on a network is its addressaddress
  22. 22. Elements Common to AllElements Common to All Server-Based NetworksServer-Based Networks TransmissionTransmission mediamedia  MeansMeans throughthrough which datawhich data areare transmittedtransmitted and receivedand received Figure 1-8: Examples of network transmission media
  23. 23. How Networks Are UsedHow Networks Are Used ServicesServices  Features provided by a networkFeatures provided by a network File and print servicesFile and print services Communications servicesCommunications services Mail servicesMail services Internet servicesInternet services Management servicesManagement services
  24. 24. Network ServicesNetwork Services File servicesFile services  Refers to capability of a server to share dataRefers to capability of a server to share data files, applications, and disk storage spacefiles, applications, and disk storage space  Server that provides file services is called aServer that provides file services is called a file serverfile server Print servicesPrint services  Allows printers to be shared by several usersAllows printers to be shared by several users on a networkon a network
  25. 25. Network ServicesNetwork Services Communications servicesCommunications services  Allow remote users to connect to a networkAllow remote users to connect to a network Remote userRemote user  Person working on a computer in a differentPerson working on a computer in a different geographical location from the LAN’s servergeographical location from the LAN’s server  Communications serverCommunications server Server that runs communications servicesServer that runs communications services Also referred to asAlso referred to as access serversaccess servers andand remoteremote access serversaccess servers
  26. 26. Network ServicesNetwork Services Mail servicesMail services  Coordinate storage and transfer of e-mailCoordinate storage and transfer of e-mail between users on a networkbetween users on a network GatewayGateway  Combination of software and hardware enabling twoCombination of software and hardware enabling two different kinds of networks to exchange datadifferent kinds of networks to exchange data Internet servicesInternet services  Enable networks to communicate with theEnable networks to communicate with the InternetInternet
  27. 27. Network ServicesNetwork Services Management servicesManagement services  Centrally administer and simplify complicatedCentrally administer and simplify complicated management tasks on the networkmanagement tasks on the network  Numerous services fall under category ofNumerous services fall under category of network managementnetwork management
  28. 28. Important ManagementImportant Management ServicesServices Traffic monitoring and controlTraffic monitoring and control  TrafficTraffic Data transmission and processing activity takingData transmission and processing activity taking place on a computer network at any given timeplace on a computer network at any given time  SegmentSegment Part of LAN that is logically separated from otherPart of LAN that is logically separated from other parts of LAN and that shares fixed amount ofparts of LAN and that shares fixed amount of traffic capacitytraffic capacity
  29. 29. Important ManagementImportant Management ServicesServices Load balancingLoad balancing  Distributing process activity evenly across aDistributing process activity evenly across a network so that no single device isnetwork so that no single device is overwhelmedoverwhelmed Hardware diagnosis and failure alertHardware diagnosis and failure alert  Determining when a network componentDetermining when a network component fails and automatically notifying networkfails and automatically notifying network administrators through e-mail or pageradministrators through e-mail or pager
  30. 30. Important ManagementImportant Management ServicesServices Asset managementAsset management  Collecting and storing data on number andCollecting and storing data on number and types of software and hardware assets in antypes of software and hardware assets in an organization’s networkorganization’s network License trackingLicense tracking  Determining how many copies of a singleDetermining how many copies of a single application are currently in use on a networkapplication are currently in use on a network
  31. 31. Important ManagementImportant Management ServicesServices Security auditingSecurity auditing  Evaluating what security measures areEvaluating what security measures are currently in force and notifying networkcurrently in force and notifying network administrator if a security breach occursadministrator if a security breach occurs Software distributionSoftware distribution  Automatically transferring data file or programAutomatically transferring data file or program from the server to a client on the networkfrom the server to a client on the network
  32. 32. Important ManagementImportant Management ServicesServices Address managementAddress management  Centrally administering a finite number ofCentrally administering a finite number of network addresses for an entire LANnetwork addresses for an entire LAN Backup and restoration of dataBackup and restoration of data  Backing upBacking up Copying critical files to a secure storage areaCopying critical files to a secure storage area  RestoringRestoring Retrieving data if original files are lost or deletedRetrieving data if original files are lost or deleted
  33. 33. Becoming a NetworkBecoming a Network ProfessionalProfessional Mastering the technical challengesMastering the technical challenges Developing your “soft skills”Developing your “soft skills” Pursuing certificationPursuing certification Finding a job in networkingFinding a job in networking Joining professional associationsJoining professional associations
  34. 34. Mastering the TechnicalMastering the Technical ChallengesChallenges Installing, configuring, and troubleshootingInstalling, configuring, and troubleshooting network server softwarenetwork server software Installing, configuring, and troubleshootingInstalling, configuring, and troubleshooting network server hardwarenetwork server hardware Installing, configuring, and troubleshootingInstalling, configuring, and troubleshooting network client softwarenetwork client software Installing, configuring, and troubleshootingInstalling, configuring, and troubleshooting network client hardwarenetwork client hardware
  35. 35. Mastering the TechnicalMastering the Technical ChallengesChallenges Understanding the characteristics ofUnderstanding the characteristics of different transmission mediadifferent transmission media Understanding network designUnderstanding network design Understanding network protocolsUnderstanding network protocols Understanding how users interact with theUnderstanding how users interact with the networknetwork
  36. 36. Mastering the TechnicalMastering the Technical ChallengesChallenges Specialty areas in high demand forSpecialty areas in high demand for networking professionals:networking professionals:  Network securityNetwork security  Internet and intranet designInternet and intranet design  Network managementNetwork management  Voice/data integrationVoice/data integration  Remote and mobile computingRemote and mobile computing
  37. 37. Mastering the TechnicalMastering the Technical ChallengesChallenges Specialty areas in high demand forSpecialty areas in high demand for networking professionals (cont.):networking professionals (cont.):  Data integrity and fault toleranceData integrity and fault tolerance  In-depth knowledge of Microsoft networkingIn-depth knowledge of Microsoft networking productsproducts  In-depth knowledge of NetWare networkingIn-depth knowledge of NetWare networking productsproducts  In-depth knowledge of router configurationIn-depth knowledge of router configuration and managementand management
  38. 38. Developing Your “Soft Skills”Developing Your “Soft Skills” Skills not easily measured but important toSkills not easily measured but important to a networking career:a networking career:  Customer relationsCustomer relations  Oral and written communicationsOral and written communications  DependabilityDependability  TeamworkTeamwork  Leadership abilitiesLeadership abilities
  39. 39. Pursuing CertificationPursuing Certification CertificationCertification  Process of mastering material pertaining to aProcess of mastering material pertaining to a particular hardware system, operating system,particular hardware system, operating system, programming language, or other softwareprogramming language, or other software program, then proving your mastery by passingprogram, then proving your mastery by passing a series of examsa series of exams Computer Technology AssociationComputer Technology Association (CompTIA)(CompTIA)  An association that sets industry-wideAn association that sets industry-wide standards for computer professionalsstandards for computer professionals
  40. 40. Pursuing CertificationPursuing Certification A+A+  Certification established by CompTIACertification established by CompTIA  Verifies knowledge about PC operation,Verifies knowledge about PC operation, repair, and managementrepair, and management Microsoft Certified Systems EngineerMicrosoft Certified Systems Engineer (MCSE)(MCSE)  Certification established by MicrosoftCertification established by Microsoft  Demonstrates in-depth knowledge aboutDemonstrates in-depth knowledge about Microsoft’s productsMicrosoft’s products
  41. 41. Pursuing CertificationPursuing Certification Certified NetWare Engineer (CNE)Certified NetWare Engineer (CNE)  Certification established by NovellCertification established by Novell  Demonstrates in-depth understanding ofDemonstrates in-depth understanding of Novell’s networking softwareNovell’s networking software Network+ (Net+)Network+ (Net+)  Certification established by CompTIACertification established by CompTIA  Verifies broad, vendor-independentVerifies broad, vendor-independent networking technology skillsnetworking technology skills
  42. 42. Pursuing CertificationPursuing Certification Benefits of becoming certified include:Benefits of becoming certified include:  Better salaryBetter salary  Greater opportunitiesGreater opportunities  Professional respectProfessional respect  Access to better supportAccess to better support
  43. 43. Finding a Job in NetworkingFinding a Job in Networking Search the WebSearch the Web Read the paperRead the paper Visit a career centerVisit a career center NetworkNetwork Attend career fairsAttend career fairs
  44. 44. Finding a Job in NetworkingFinding a Job in Networking Table 1-1: Web sites with job databases
  45. 45. Joining ProfessionalJoining Professional AssociationsAssociations Benefits can include:Benefits can include:  Connecting with people who have similarConnecting with people who have similar interestsinterests  Providing new opportunities for learningProviding new opportunities for learning  Allowing access to specialized informationAllowing access to specialized information  Giving you tangible assets such as free goodsGiving you tangible assets such as free goods
  46. 46. Joining ProfessionalJoining Professional AssociationsAssociations Table 1-2: Web sites of networking organizations
  47. 47. Chapter SummaryChapter Summary A Network is a group of computers or otherA Network is a group of computers or other devices connected by some type ofdevices connected by some type of transmission mediatransmission media Networks may be small or large, connectingNetworks may be small or large, connecting computers in one office or across the worldcomputers in one office or across the world All networks offer advantages relative to theAll networks offer advantages relative to the use of standalone computersuse of standalone computers Simplest form of a network still used todaySimplest form of a network still used today connects a handful of computers through oneconnects a handful of computers through one cable and uses peer-to-peer communicationcable and uses peer-to-peer communication
  48. 48. Chapter SummaryChapter Summary A LAN is a network of computers and otherA LAN is a network of computers and other devices confined to a relatively small spacedevices confined to a relatively small space A WAN is a network connecting two or moreA WAN is a network connecting two or more geographically distinct LANsgeographically distinct LANs All server-based networks share some commonAll server-based networks share some common elementselements The physical layout of a computer network isThe physical layout of a computer network is called a topologycalled a topology Network protocols are rules the network uses toNetwork protocols are rules the network uses to transfer datatransfer data
  49. 49. Chapter SummaryChapter Summary File and print services provide foundation forFile and print services provide foundation for networkingnetworking Communications services allow remote users toCommunications services allow remote users to connect to the networkconnect to the network Mail services allow networks users to exchangeMail services allow networks users to exchange and store e-mailand store e-mail Internet services enable organizations to connectInternet services enable organizations to connect to the Internetto the Internet Network management services centrallyNetwork management services centrally administer and simplify complicated managementadminister and simplify complicated management tasks on networktasks on network
  50. 50. Chapter SummaryChapter Summary Networking professionals are in demandNetworking professionals are in demand Pursuing certification can benefit you inPursuing certification can benefit you in many waysmany ways Hone your soft skillsHone your soft skills Numerous resources are available inNumerous resources are available in searching for networking positionssearching for networking positions Joining associations can benefit yourJoining associations can benefit your professional growthprofessional growth

×