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5 introduction to internet


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5 introduction to internet

  1. 1. Computer and Internet Basics
  2. 2. A Computer is a device that accepts input processes data stores data produces output (all according to a series of stored instructions)
  3. 3. Computer system consists of: Hardware: microprocessor Peripheral devices: input and output Software: programs
  4. 4. Computer Network Two or more computers that are connected and share data and programs LAN is a local area network
  5. 5. Computer Functions •Words, symbols, numbers, sound, pictures, program instructionsInput •Program calculates, sorts modifies data •Uses microprocessor or CPU Process •Memory is temporary holding area (RAM) •Storage is permanent (disk)Store •Results of processing •Reports, graphs, documents, pictures •Printer or monitor Output •Remember to periodically save your work and ALWAYS keep a backup copy!!!!!Save!
  6. 6. Categorizing Computers Cost Usage Size Capability
  7. 7. Less Powerful Computers •Handheld computer/PDA •Videogame console –Sony PlayStation® •PC/microcomputer •Workstations
  8. 8. More Powerful Computers Server – Supplies network computers with data Mainframe – Large, expensive, powerful, many users – Reliability, data security, central control important Supercomputer – Fastest and most powerful
  9. 9. Computer System Computer + input devices + output devices + storage devices Peripherals
  10. 10. System Unit Power Supply Storage Devices Circuit Boards
  11. 11. Input/Output Devices Monitor Keyboard Mouse Modem Printer Speakers/sound card
  12. 12. Storage Devices Floppy disk drive Hard disk drive CD-ROM drive DVD drive CD writer Zip / Jaz disks
  13. 13. Data vs. Information Data (symbols) used by computers Information (meaningful) used by people
  14. 14. Data Binary number system to define electronic data 0 or 1 Bit Byte (8 bits)
  15. 15. Files Collection of data on a storage medium Data file (passive) Executable file (active) Filename and extension Resume.docWord.exeImage.jpg
  16. 16. System Software Helps the computer monitor itself in order to function efficiently Operating system – Master controller of all computer activities Popular operating systems – PCs: Microsoft Windows, Mac OS – Handhelds: Windows CE and Palm OS – Servers: Linus and UNIX
  17. 17. Platform Mac and PC compatibility is an issue Apple computer = Mac platform Original IBM computer = Windows or PC platform Microprocessor + Operating system
  18. 18. Application Software Microsoft PowerPointMicrosoft Excel Designed to carry out a particular task
  19. 19. Internet Basics (Cyberspace) Internet is a collection of local, regional, national and international computer networks that are linked together to exchange data and distribute processing tasks.
  20. 20. Internet Terminology Backbone: defines main Internet routes – Constructed and maintained by major telecommunications companies TCP/IP: – Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol
  21. 21. Internet Terminology Server software IP Address: unique number for each Internet computer Packets: small chunks of data ready to travel the Internet Router: helps send along the packets to correct destination
  22. 22. Internet Resources E-commerce E-mail Web Sites Chat Groups Internet Radio Download Or Upload Usenet Internet Telephony Instant Messaging
  23. 23. Modem Internet Connections Dial-up connection via modem (56K) Cable modems – Network card and cable modem required – Always-on and 25 times faster than dial-up
  24. 24. Faster Internet Connections ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) – 64K or 128K – Always-on and expensive DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) and xDSL – Up to 125 times faster than dialup DSS (Digital Satellite Service) – 500K Need proximity to a telephone switching station
  25. 25. Internet Service Provider (ISP) Provides internet access to businesses, organizations and individuals Provides telecommunications equipment User ID and password required Connects you to backbone Email account monthly fee Should have local access
  26. 26. World Wide Web Basics Files interconnected via hypertext Web pages make up a web site Home Page Links or hyperlinks Web servers
  27. 27. World Wide Web Basics URL – No spaces and Case sensitive – HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) – .htm or .html file extension Document name and filename extension Folder name Web server name Web protocol standard
  28. 28. Using Browsers Can type URLs HTML tags tell browser how to display web page data Back, forward and stop buttons Setting a home page Print options History list Favorites and bookmarks Edit and Find Microsoft Internet Explorer® and Netscape Navigator®
  29. 29. Search Engines Keywords
  30. 30. E-mail Basics Account = Mailbox Message Attachment ASCII vs HTML format Netiquette userid@computer
  31. 31. E-mail System E-mail servers Store-and-forward technology Types – POP (Post Office Protocol) used via ISP – IMAP (Internet Messaging Access Protocol) – Web-based like Hotmail or Yahoo
  32. 32. E-mail System
  33. 33. TechTalk: Boot Process Power up ROM runs bootstrap program POST (Power-on self-test) – Identifies and checks peripherals ROM loads operating system from hard disk into RAM Checks configuration and customization startup routines – Safe Mode if this process is not successful
  34. 34. Issue How Private is E-Mail?
  35. 35. The Internet for Beginners
  36. 36. The Itinerary • Introduction to the Internet • Segments of the Internet • Introduction to the browser • How to speak "URL" • Curriculum tie-ins • How to find what you want
  37. 37. What is the Internet? • Computers connected together are called a network. • Networks let computers share programs and information. • The Internet is a network of many smaller networks made up of millions of personal computers connected to thousands of host servers.
  38. 38. Everyone’s computer connected!
  39. 39. Segments of the Internet • World Wide Web • Gopher • Telnet • E-mail • FTP • Newsgroups
  40. 40. World Wide Web (WWW) • Includes text and pictures • Hypertext and non-linear • Sound and video can be accessed • Point-and-click • Use a Web browser to access
  41. 41. Example of a WWW Page
  42. 42. Gopher • Text-based • Menu-driven and linear • Precursor to World Wide Web • Accessible through a Web browser
  43. 43. Example of a Gopher page
  44. 44. Telnet • A way of using distant computers as if you were right there in person • Used to access large databases, like libraries • Need a special Telnet program to use
  45. 45. Example of a Telnet session
  46. 46. Electronic Mail (E-mail) • Electronic mail allows you to send and receive electronic messages • Fast and convenient • Can also include attachments like files and pictures with e-mail messages
  47. 47. Example of Netscape Mail
  48. 48. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • FTP is a way to share files and programs • Download files from large archives to your own computer • Done via the browser or a special piece of FTP software
  49. 49. Example of FTP Archive
  50. 50. Newsgroups • Bulletin-board discussion groups based on various topics • Thousands exist • A good place to get information about an area of interest • Remember that the responses come from all types of people
  51. 51. Example of Newsgroup Reader
  52. 52. Using The World Wide Web
  53. 53. Web Browsers • A computer program that lets you access the WWW and “browse” the Internet for information • Common browsers : Netscape Navigator Internet Explorer Mosaic
  54. 54. Web Sites • A single group of many pages dealing with the same topic and written by the same person is called a Web site. • A Web site is like a magazine with many articles. A home page is like a front cover that tells what is inside.
  55. 55. Hypertext Links • Underlined words on a Web page that allow you to jump to another place or Web page • They look like this : the survey included • Hidden codes are attached to these words • This coding is called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
  56. 56. More on Links • The links might be in the form of pictures such as • Links might lead to text, video, or sounds • When you move your cursor over a link, it turns into a pointing finger
  57. 57. The Browser Toolbar : Netscape To go forward one page To go to the home page To find a word on that page To print that page To stop a page from loading To move backward one page To open a dialog box to type a URL
  58. 58. The Browser Toolbar : Internet Explorer To move backward one page To move forward one page Stop Refresh Start Page Search the Net Read Newsgroups Open Favorites Add to Favorites Change Font Size Edit Source SendOpen
  59. 59. Uniform Resource Locators • A URL is the unique address assigned to each page on the Internet • Your browser uses the URL to find information located on another computer and to retrieve the corresponding page situated on that server
  60. 60. Anatomy of a URL Hypertext Transfer Protocol Address of ISP Network domain Directory on the server File name (HTML format)
  61. 61. Different Protocols on the Net http:// hypertext transfer protocol (WWW) ftp:// file transfer protocol gopher:// gopher site news: newsgroup telnet:// telnet mailto: e-mail address
  62. 62. Different Domains on the Net .com commercial .net network .edu educational .org organization .net network .mil military .gov government
  63. 63. Speaking “URL” h-t-t-p colon slash slash w-w-w dot capecod dot net slash tilde kschrock slash index dot htm
  64. 64. Internet • E-mail projects • Internet resources for teachers • Internet curriculum integration • WebQuests
  65. 65. E-Mail Projects
  66. 66. E-Mail Projects •Person-to-person exchanges •Information collections •Problem-solving projects
  67. 67. Person-to-Person Exchanges • Keypals : e-mail penpals • Global classrooms : 2 or more classrooms studying the same topic • Electronic appearances by special guests • Electronic mentoring by subject experts • Impersonations : participants communicate with each other in character
  68. 68. Information Collections • Information exchanges : jokes, slang, etc. • Electronic publishing : collaborative • TeleField Trips : sharing real field trips electronically with others • Pooled data analysis : data collected at various sites and combined in a database
  69. 69. Problem-Solving Projects • Information searches : collaborative hunts • Electronic process writing : peer edits • Sequential creation of a poem, story, etc. • Parallel problem-solving : answers to a posed question shared electronically • Simulations in "real" time • Social action projects : action-oriented
  70. 70. Locating Online Projects •E-mail Classroom Exchange •Newsgroups •Listservs •Web sites for educators
  71. 71. Food Guide Pyramid •Site provides information about the food pyramid and an illustration •Have students create a survey for their classmates to find out how healthy their eating habits are and enter the results in a database or spreadsheet
  72. 72. International Games •This site contains information about popular games in other parts of the world •Discuss the differences between games played in the US and the world •Have students mark a world map with names and locations of the sports
  73. 73. WebQuest An inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from resources on the Internet
  74. 74. Critical Attributes of a WebQuest • Introduction • Interesting task • A set of information sources both print and Internet • Process description • Guidance in organizing information • Conclusion
  75. 75. Further WebQuest Information webquest/webquest.htm
  76. 76. How To Find What You Want
  77. 77. Directories vs. Search Engines Directories • Lists of Web sites added by a human • May be general or subject-specific • Yahoo : general • Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators : subject-specific Search engines • An index built by a computer program that goes out and collects data • More inclusive than a directory • Keyword searchable
  78. 78. Successful Searching •Combining terms is called Boolean logic •Combine terms to both expand and limit your search •Most search engines have an advanced feature that allows this
  79. 79. Boolean Logic : AND Limits your search Women & History Only returns pages with both of these terms on them
  80. 80. Boolean Logic : OR Broadens your search Women or History Returns every page with either of these terms on them
  81. 81. Boolean Logic : NOT Limits your search Women not History Only returns pages that contain one but not the other term on them
  82. 82. Sites to Refer To •Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators •WebQuests in Our Future : The Teacher's Role in Cyberspace •Differences Between Search Engines and Directories
  83. 83. Welcome to Internet Basics
  84. 84. Uses of the Internet  Real Time Data/Information  Publish Student’s work  To find Unique Sources of Information  Communicate
  85. 85. What is the Internet?  World Wide network of computer networks  Even more simply— millions of computers around the world connected with wires  These “connections” allow the computers to communicate and share information
  86. 86. How Do You Get Connected? Using a Modem  What you need:  Internet Software  Computer  Modem  Standard Phone or Cable  Internet Service Provider
  87. 87. How Do you Connect to the Internet?  Connecting Directly  Advantages • Always connected • Can connect many computers using one T1 line • Very fast  Disadvantages • High Cost • High Maintenance
  88. 88. How Do I Get Resources From the Net?
  89. 89. Launch a Browser  Browsers are the software used to access the Internet.
  90. 90. URL—Uniform Resource Locator  Every computer has a unique URL 
  91. 91. Suffixes  .com = Commercial  .edu = Educational  .org = organizations  .mil = military  .net = networking  .us = country
  93. 93. What is the Internet? • A worldwide network of computers • Allows access to send and receive information almost instantly • Combines the immediacy of broadcast with the in-depth coverage of the newspaper • Provides access to numerous reference materials such as library collections, museums, and research facilities
  94. 94. What’s a Web browser? • Reads the HTML text and converts it into a page you can read • Finds, retrieves, views, and sends information • Used to send/receive electronic mail • Used to participate in newsgroups • Used to look for text and graphics on the WWW • Netscape and Internet Explorer are the two most popular browsers; Opera is considered the fastest.
  95. 95. What’s a URL? • Uniform Resource Locator • Internet file address • Consists of four parts: • protocol • domain/server name • path • file www
  96. 96. Example of a URL http is the protocol is the domain/server is the director/path is the document/file
  97. 97. What do the domain/server names mean? • .edu - educational institution • .com - commercial enterprise • .org - nonprofit organization • .gov - government organizations • .net - for networks • .mil - for military services • .int - for organizations established by international treaty
  98. 98. What is HTML? • HyperText Markup Language • Programming language used to build web sites • Contains standard codes (tags) that determine how a page will look • Tags allow for the hyperlink connections across the internet
  99. 99. What’s on the Toolbar • Back -moves backward through the pages you’ve viewed, beginning with the most recent • Forward - moves forward through the pages you’ve viewed using the Back button • Stop - halts the process of the action being performed (usually downloading a page)
  100. 100. What’s on the Toolbar • Refresh - updates any web page that has been previously viewed and stored • Home - returns you to the page that you have designated as your Home Page • Search - displays a choice of internet search engines and a place to enter the key words for your search
  101. 101. What’s on the Toolbar • Favorites - displays a list of the sites that you’ve saved as Favorites • Print - prints the page you’re viewing • Find - allows you search the page you’re viewing for certain words/phrases
  102. 102. What is a search engine? • A service that indexes, organizes, rates, and reviews web sites • Different search engines work in different ways • Some rely on people to maintain a catalog of web sites • Some use software to identify key information on sites
  103. 103. Which type of search engine is best? People catalog sites • looking for a broad, common topic • want to yield fewer results • want to yield higher quality results • Yahoo! is a good example Software catalogs sites • looking for a rare, less common topic • want to yield more results • Excite is a good example
  104. 104. General searching tips . . . • Use more than one search engine • Read the “About” page--many search engines have detailed information pages about how to get the best results • Be specific with your searches (search on golden retriever, not dogs) • Get more results by being general
  105. 105. Ways to refine your search . . . • Exact phrase - enclose the phrase in quotation marks • Group parts of the search - enclose parts of the search in parentheses • Various forms of a word - add an asterisk to the end of the word (good if a word might end in s, ing, or ed) • Use a + sign or the word and to search for two or more words on the same page
  106. 106. Let’s try a search! 1. Select three search engines such as: Excite Yahoo Google 2. Enter in two words you want to research such as: food + habits 3. View the following three slides for the results.
  107. 107. Results of Excite search • Entered food + habits • Received 3, 621, 420 results • Offers a selection of related words to add to your search • Offers a link to booksellers for related books
  108. 108. Google Results of the Google Search • Entered food + history • Received 556,000 results • Offers search tips • Offers advanced search
  109. 109. Results of Yahoo! search • Entered food + habits • Received 483 results • Offers a selection of related words to add to your search • Offers a means to search within the results of the current search
  110. 110. How to spot the links • Move the pointer over the page • When the pointer changes to a hand, the item is a link • A link can be a picture, a three-dimensional image, or colored text (usually underlined) • Click on the link to go to another page (inside or outside of the current site)
  111. 111. How to Bookmark a Web page • Go to the page you want to add • On the favorites/bookmark menu, click Add to Favorites/Bookmark • Use the default name that is shown, or rename the page (do whichever helps you identify the site quickly and accurately)
  112. 112. How to copy/paste text from web pages • Highlight the text you want to copy by clicking the left mouse button and moving over the text • Once text is highlighted, right click and select Copy • Go to word processing application such as MS Word • Right click, select Paste
  113. 113. How to copy graphics from a web site • Move the pointer over the graphic you want to copy • Right click on the mouse • Select Copy • Go to word processing or other application • Right click, select Paste
  114. 114. How to save graphics from a web site • Move the pointer over the graphic you want to save • Right click on the mouse • Select Save Picture As • Browse to the folder where you want to save the file • Click Save
  115. 115. How to create a desktop shortcut to a web page • Go to the page you want to add to your desktop • Right click on the mouse (position the pointer over the text of the page, not over a graphic) • Select Create Shortcut
  116. 116. What is the Internet?  Computers connected together are called a network.  Networks let computers share programs and information.  The Internet is a network of many smaller networks made up of millions of personal computers connected to thousands of host servers.
  117. 117. The World Wide Web  A global network of information servers  Information may be in the form of text, audio, video, or animation  Many millions of sites containing documents with links to other documents  Fastest growing area of the Internet
  118. 118. History of the Internet  Started in 1969 by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)  The Department of Defense wanted a system that would still work if part of it were destroyed  In 1983, the research computers that were networked became ARPANET
  119. 119. History Continued  In 1986 the National Science Foundation took the initiative and ran the network backbone  In 1995, the NSF stepped out and commercial providers took over the Internet
  120. 120. The Internet is useful when you need to know something that is...  not in your textbooks or library  based on data collected by the government  likely to require specialized knowledge  best understood from eyewitness accounts  fast-breaking news
  121. 121. The Internet is not useful for...  in-depth historical information  a quick overview or definition of a topic The Internet is also good for:  collaborating on projects with students all over the world  finding and contacting experts  getting real-world experience in researching and evaluating information  publishing students’ projects and publications
  122. 122. The Internet is not a substitute for :  face-to-face interaction with other students and teachers  drawing, writing, building, planting, or any other type of hands-on activities
  123. 123. Evaluation of Web Pages
  124. 124. Evaluating Information on the Net  Who wrote it?  When was it written?  Why was it written?  Is it biased?  Is it authentic?  Is the author an expert?  Is the page easy to use?  Is the page free from HTML errors?  Are the graphics useful?  Can you verify the information?  Is a bibliography included?
  125. 125. Evaluation Criteria  Technical & design aspects  Navigation  Authorship and authority  Content
  126. 126. Technical and Design Aspects  Does the page extend beyond the sides of the monitor?  Are there useful headings and subheadings?  Are grammar and spelling correct?  Is multimedia appropriately incorporated?  Does the use of graphics impair the loading of the page?
  127. 127. Navigation  Is there an image map? Text alternatives?  Links back to home page from other pages?  Is the site "user-friendly"?  Is the resource organized logically for its intended audience?  Do all the links (internal & external) work?
  128. 128. Authorship & Authority  Is the page signed with a name & address?  Is information about the author given?  Is the author affiliated with a recognized institution?  Does the author's affiliation seem to bias the information?
  129. 129. Content  Is the purpose of the site stated?  Is the date of last update included?  Does the site contain original information?  Is a bibliography included?  Is the information verifiable in a traditional print source? Does it add to the existing body of knowledge about the topic?
  130. 130. How to Approach the Internet  Don’t get frustrated  Keep it simple  Give yourself time to explore  “Mess with it!”  Find a mentor to help  Look for personal interests first
  131. 131. Web Browsers  A computer program that lets you access the WWW and “browse” the Internet for information  Common browsers : Netscape Navigator Internet Explorer Mosaic
  132. 132. Example of a WWW Page
  133. 133. Parts of a Browser Window  Menu  Tool Bar  URL Field  Document viewing area  Status Bar
  134. 134. The Browser Toolbar : Netscape To go forward one page To go to the home page To find a word on that page To print that page To stop a page from loading To move backward one page To open a dialog box to type a URL
  135. 135. To move backward one page To move forward one page Stop Refresh Start Page Search the Net Read Newsgroups Open Favorites Add to Favorites Change Font Size Edit Source SendOpen The Browser Toolbar : Internet Explorer
  136. 136. World Wide Web Browser  Allows you to view WWW sites which contain text, pictures, and sound  Netscape vs. Internet Explorer vs. Mosaic  After installation, browsers must be configured for your machine  Easy to move back and forth between pages due to cache
  137. 137. Browser Configuration & Helper Applications  The browser can display text and certain formats of pictures  For other formats the browser needs to have “helper applications” configured Example: If you choose a sound file, you have to have told the browser what piece of software on your machine is to be run to play the file
  138. 138. Web Sites  A single group of many pages dealing with the same topic and written by the same person is called a Web site.  A Web site is like a magazine with many articles. A home page is like a front cover that tells what is inside.
  139. 139. HTML : Hypertext Markup Language  The standard set of codes used on the Internet to design and view World Wide Web pages.  These pages are basically plain text files with special codes inserted throughout to tell a computer’s web browsing software how the document should appear and behave on the screen.
  140. 140. Hypermedia The Internet supports many different formats of information  Text files  Pictures  Photographs  Sound files  Video files
  141. 141. Hypertext Links  Underlined words on a Web page that allow you to jump to another place or Web page  They look like this : the survey included  Hidden codes are attached to these words  This coding is called Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
  142. 142. URL: Uniform Resource Locator  “Address” of a file on the Internet  Contains type of protocol followed by the computer name, directory and file name   gopher://gopher.boombox.micro/  ftp:// 
  143. 143. EFFECTIVE SEARCH STRATEGIES How to easily find what you are looking for on the Internet
  144. 144. What’s a search engine?  An Internet tool which will search for Internet sites containing the words you designate as your search terms.  Provides results back to you in the form of links to those sites which include the terms you are looking for.  Search engines search databases of information that have been collected by automated computer programs.
  145. 145. How does a search engine know about things on the Net?  If search engine finds it while its “spiders” are out collecting data from the Web servers. The information is put into a large database that the user searches.  If a publisher of a Web page registers the site with the search engine.
  146. 146. What’s an Internet subject directory?  Subject directories organize Internet sites by subject.  Created by a human.  Users conduct their searches by selecting a series of progressively narrower search terms.  May contain a search element.
  147. 147. Which is better to use?  Directories allow more control and allow the user to browse.  Search engines leave the searching pattern to the computer program and can be used to find more specific resources.  Cons: – With directories, there is a fixed vocabulary – With search engines, you get excessive hits
  148. 148. How can I improve my use of search engines?  Learn how to use wildcards and Boolean operators.  Wildcards allow you to search simultaneously for several words with the same stem.  Boolean operators allow you to combine terms to broaden or narrow a search.
  149. 149. How do I use a wildcard?  A wildcard is a special character that can be appended to the root of a word so you can search for all possible endings to that root.  Example : Doing a search on whal* would return whale, whales, whaling, whalers
  150. 150. What’s a meta-search engine?  A meta-search engine doesn’t create it’s own database of information.  A meta-search engine searches those of other engines and directories.  By using multiple databases, the results are more comprehensive, but slower to receive.
  151. 151. What are some effective search Strategies?  Decide whether a search engine or a directory will be best for your purpose.  When using a search engine, be a specific as possible.  Try different search engines.  Read the “tips” and help files that are included with most engines.
  152. 152. Review of AltaVista  Size : 31 million URL's  Interface : simple and advanced; Boolean and truncation available  Helpful online instructions  Results ranked by relevancy  Results can be shown as compact or detailed  Also includes the ability to search Usenet
  153. 153. Review of Excite  Size : 50 million URL's  Interface : simple, but no advanced options at the beginning  Help is clearly written, but not detailed  Allows Boolean searching, and finds similar sites  Also allows searches of Usenet and includes a subject directory
  154. 154. Successful Searching • Combining terms is called Boolean logic • Combine terms to both expand and limit your search • Most search engines have an advanced feature that allows this
  155. 155. Search Tools Directory [Subject Search] Search Engine [Keyword Search] Search Engine [Keyword Search] Encyclopedia Britannica AltaVista / Google Dogpile LookSmart Excite / Hotbot Mamma Yahoo* Infoseek / Northern Light Metacrawler OneKey Fast Snap SavvySearch Preferred Search Tools
  156. 156. Directories vs. Search Engines Directories  Lists of Web sites added by a human  May be general or subject-specific  Yahoo : general  Kathy Schrock's Guide for Educators : subject-specific Search engines  An index built by a computer program that goes out and collects data  More inclusive than a directory  Keyword searchable
  157. 157. Directory Search 1. A directory search tool searches for information by subject matter. It is a search that starts with a general topic and moves to more specific sub- headings. This search method is called a Subject Search. Tips: Choose a subject search when you want general information on a subject or topic. You can find links in the references provided that will lead to specific information you want. Advantage: It is easy to use. Also, information placed in its database is reviewed and indexed first by skilled persons to ensure its value.
  158. 158. 2. A search engine tool searches for information through use of keywords and responds with a list of references or hits. The search method it employs is known as a Keyword Search. Tip: Choose a keyword search to obtain specific information, since its extensive database is likely to contain the information sought. Advantage: Its information content or database is substantially larger and more current than that of a directory search tool. Disadvantage: Not very exacting in the way it indexes and retrieves information in its database, which makes finding relevant documents more difficult. Key Word Search
  159. 159. Directory With Search Engine 3. A directory with search engine uses both the subject and keyword search methods together. In the directory search part, the search follows the directory path through increasingly more specific subject matter. The subject and keyword search is thus said to be coordinated. The further down the path the keyword search is made, the narrower is the search field and the fewer and more relevant the hits.
  160. 160. Directory With Search Engine #2 Tip: Use when you are uncertain whether a subject or keyword search will provide the best results. Advantages: Ability to narrow the search field to obtain better results. Disadvantages: This search method may not succeed for difficult searches. Some search tools use search engine and directory searches independently. They are said to be non-coordinated.
  161. 161. Multi-Engine Search Tool 4. A multi-engine search tool (sometimes called a meta-search) utilizes a number of search engines in parallel. The search is conducted by keywords using common operators or plain language. It then lists the hits either by the search engine used or by combining the results into a single listing. The search method it employs is known as a meta search.
  162. 162. Multi-Engine Search Tool #2 Tip: Use to speed up the search process and to avoid redundant hits. Advantage: Tolerant of imprecise search questions and provides fewer hits of likely greater relevance. Disadvantage: Not as effective as a search engine for difficult searches.
  163. 163. Search Exercises For those just starting to learn the search process, this segment is recommended to help you understand how the process works. The following is the general procedure: Connect to the Internet via your browser [e.g. Netscape or MS Explorer] In the browser’s location box, type the address [i.e. URL] of your search tool choice. Press Enter. The Home Page of the search tool appears on your screen. Type your query in the address box at the top of the screen. Press Enter.
  164. 164. Search Exercises #2 Your search request travels via phone lines and the electronic backbone of the Internet to the search tool’s Web site. There, your query terms are matched against the index terms in the site’s database. The matching references are returned to your computer by the reverse process and displayed on your screen. The references returned are called "hits" and are ranked according to how well they match your query.
  165. 165. • Combining terms is called Boolean logic • Combine terms to both expand and limit your search • Most search engines have an advanced feature that allows this Successful Searching
  166. 166. How do I limit a search?  Using the Boolean operator “and”  Example : – The search string heart and disease will only provide links to sites that have both of these terms. – Documents which have just one of the terms will be ignored. – You can narrow it more by using and more than once.
  167. 167. How do I broaden a search?  Using the Boolean operator “or”  Example : – The search string drama or theater will return links to sites that have either of these words present. – You can broaden it even more by using or more than once
  168. 168. Limits your search Women & History Only returns pages with both of these terms on them Boolean Logic : AND
  169. 169. Broadens your search Women or History Returns every page with either of these terms on them Boolean Logic : OR
  170. 170. Limits your search Women not History Only returns pages that contain one but not the other term on them Boolean Logic : NOT
  171. 171. Boolean Search - details Uses AND, NEAR, OR and NOT to connect words and phrases [i.e. terms] in the query. AND requires that both terms are present somewhere within the document being sought. It does not promise any association between terms and thus broadens a search. When unrestricted, it can produce an enormous number of hits. NEAR requires that one term must be found within a certain number of words of the other term. It generally indicates that the query terms it connects are within about two to twenty-five words of each other, depending on the search engine. This makes it more likely that there is an association between the terms, thereby helping to narrow the search.
  172. 172. [There can be a complication when query terms have no operators between the terms. Some search engines assume AND as the default between the terms, while others assume NEAR. Therefore, it is more exact to use a [+] before each term rather than leave a space.] OR requires that at least one of the terms is present. NOT excludes any document containing the term. • When using these operators, remember to capitalize them as shown above. Example: "house OR home OR dwelling" Details Continued
  173. 173. Synonyms significantly improve the odds of finding documents that you want. The more synonyms you use, the more you weight their importance. When needed, use a dictionary or thesaurus to find useful synonyms. NOT excludes even a single use of the term in the document. It is most suitably employed to reduce a large number of irrelevant hits when other measures have failed. Example: canine NOT dog Details Finished
  174. 174. Directory [Subject Search] Type in the location box of your Internet Browser [e.g. Netscape Navigator or MS Explorer]. Press Enter. The Yahoo! Home Page is displayed. From the subject list provided, choose and click a category of your interest to follow. Choose titles that are increasingly more specific until there are no more options of interest offered. Scroll through the references or hits, and click a hit that interests you to get an abstract or title of the reference.
  175. 175. Search Engine [Keyword Search] Type in the location box of your Internet Browser and press Enter to access the Home Page. Using keywords, type your question or query into the location box. Click Find. Examine the hits of interest and click one to access the reference.
  176. 176. Multi-Engine Search – Keyword Search Type in the location box of your Internet Browser and press Enter. Type the same keyword query as used in [2] above. Compare the hits with those obtained in [2].
  177. 177. Keyword Search Operators Operators are the rules or specific instructions used for composing a query in a keyword search. A well- defined query greatly improves the chances of finding the information you are looking for. While each search engine has its own operators, some operators are used in common by a number of search engines. The following are among the most used operators.
  178. 178. If a query asks for American customs rather than "American customs", the responses will be for the words American and customs separately, in addition to the coupled words. This increases the number of irrelevant hits enormously. Use phrases whenever you can appropriately; they are one of the most effective means of sharpening meaning and narrowing a search. Example: +"search the www" +"tutorial for beginners and non-experts" This example is a much more definitive query than the following Example: +search +www +tutorial +beginners +non-experts 1. Parentheses & Phrases. . .
  179. 179. 2. Parentheses & Phrases Words enclosed within double quotation marks mean an exact phrase, or reasonably close to it. More often, it is treated like a single term. Query Example: “tutorial for beginners” • Put quotes ("....") around words that must appear together and in the order you specify. Let's say you are trying to find information on Disneyland. Previous searching gave you a lot of results for Walt Disney World but few for the smaller Disneyland. Solution: Search on the following: +disney vacation -florida -world - Result excludes references that would have favored Walt Disney World.
  180. 180. 3. Parentheses & Phrases Put phrases in parentheses [nesting] to narrow a search. Example: search +["tutorial OR guide"] +["beginners And non-experts"] In the search process, phrases are searched before the other terms in the query, which narrows the search area for the non-phrase terms. A phrase is a sequence of words that has a particular meaning and is formed by enclosure within double quotes. A phrase is treated as a single term and is usually searched as such. Examples: "American customs" +"Man of the Year“ +"Time Magazine"
  181. 181. 4. Plus / Minus Techniques • Uses [+] before a term to retrieve only the documents containing that term. It is similar to the Boolean AND. • Uses [-] before a term to exclude that term from the search. It is similar to the Boolean NOT. Do not leave a space between the operator and the term that follows. Query Example: +search +tutorial –course Example #2: +apple –computer –macintosh
  182. 182. 5. Stemming [Truncation] The use of the stem or the main part of a word to search for variations of the word [e.g. the stem "sing" searches sings, singer, singing and sing-a-long]. Stemming can be automatic, or it may require use of a wild card, symbolized by an asterisk [*] to initiate. Query Example: sing* To include variations of a keyword, use the wild card symbol [*] after the stem of the word. This broadens a search to retrieve documents that otherwise would be missed. Example: col* This search includes the words: color, colors, color, coloring, colorant. Do not use stemming if it introduces too many irrelevant terms.
  183. 183. 6. Case Sensitive • Use lower case for query terms except for proper names. • Treat adjacent capitalized words as a single proper name, e.g. George Washington. • Separate proper names from each other a comma. Query Example: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson Capitalization rules apply to proper names as taught under basics. However, it is more definitive to treat a multiple-word name as a phrase, by enclosing it within double quotes. Example: "Gone With The Wind"
  184. 184. 7. Fields There are many fields, but the two you are most likely to find useful are Title and URL. When you think a term is likely to be in a particular field, use the term in that query. The field symbol that precedes the query may differ among search engines. For example, it can be title or t, and url or u. Examples: title:"search www tutorial " Field choices are usually found in the vicinity of the query box or reached by clicking an appropriate link.
  185. 185. 8. Planning Your search for a specific item in a world of information can be difficult, especially if the search is done without any planning. Understand what it is you want and the different ways you can type in the query you want.
  186. 186. Information Distribution  Information on the Internet is located on many millions of computers  No one agency has jurisdiction of the Internet; everyone plays a part
  187. 187. What is the Internet? • A network of networks – computers using the same protocol • Physically it is: – Fiber Optic Cables – Traditional Phone Lines – Computers • Powerful Servers • Work Stations – Linking Equipment • routers, gateways
  188. 188. Brief History of the Internet • 1969 - ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency) • 1973 - Development of TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol – Internet Protocol – Packets of data are sent in bursts of 0s and 1s • 1982 - UNIX Local Area Networks using IP • 1986 - NSFNET to connect Supercomputer Centers (San Diego, Cornell, Urbana-Champaign, Pittsburgh)
  189. 189. Brief History (cont.) • 1991 - NREN – National Research and Educational Network • 1992 - NII – National Information Infrastructure • 1997 - UNII – Unlicensed National Information Infrastructure for wireless communication • 1997 - Internet II – High speed experimental 14,000 mile backbone
  190. 190. What does the Internet Provide? • High Speed Communication • Access to Resources – many are free – many are becoming fee based • Publishing Opportunities • Distance Education • Virtual Communities • Business Environment
  191. 191. Tools to Use on the Internet • Email • Electronic Mailing Lists • Web Browsers • TELNET (Remote Login) • File Transfer Protocol • Newsgroups • HTML Publishing
  192. 192. How Large is the Internet? • 50,000+ networks • 10 million+ Internet Hosts • 47 million adults in USA (end of 1996) • 260,000+ Usenet Sites • 70 million+ web pages • Exponential Growth • For more information see: –
  193. 193. As Fast as Light? Internet Speeds • vBNS (650 megabits/sec) • OC3 (155 megabits/sec) • T-3 (45 megabits/sec) • T-1 (1.5 megabits/sec) • ISDN – 128 kilobits/sec – 64 kilobits/sec – 56 kilobits/sec
  194. 194. Internet Speeds (cont.) • Modems – 56 kilobits/sec – 33.6 kilobits/sec – 28.8 kilobits/sec – 14.4 kilobits/sec • New Technologies – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines (6-8 megabits/sec) – Cable Modems (10 megabits/sec)
  195. 195. Internet Issues: What’s Happening Now? • Rapid Growth Rate • Increased Commercialization • Digitizing Projects • “Global Village” • Virtual Communities • Connectivity Options Increasing
  196. 196. Internet Issues: What’s Going to Happen? • Continued exponential growth • Broad-band technologies • Government regulation? • Increased commercialization • Increase of community networks • Connectivity will cease to be a barrier
  197. 197. Internet Attitudes • “Everything should be free!” • “Anything should be allowed.” • “Newbies are a pain!” • “Give me more speed!” • “Nothing of real value is on the Internet!” • “If it’s on the Internet, it’s not copyrighted.”
  198. 198. Internet Basics • History of the Internet – ARPANET – NSFNET – ISPs – Internet Investment Bubble • Technology of the Internet – A Network of Interconnected Networks – TCP/IP Protocol Suite – IP Addresses – Domain Names – Client and Server Applications
  199. 199. History of the Internet • Defense Dept. - Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) network starts in 1969 • TCP/IP protocols defined by 1977-1979 • TCP/IP Internet begins operation in 1980 • MILNET Separates from ARPANET in 1983 • ARPANET becomes NSFNET in 1987 • World Wide Web concept begins in 1989
  200. 200. History of the Internet • Internet Society (ISOC) takes over control of Internet Architecture from DOD in 1992 • Internet Service Providers (ISPs) take over control of Internet itself from NSF in 1995 • ISP Dial-up User Market Shares in 2002 – America On-line (AOL) 34% – Microsoft Network (MSN) 16% – Earthlink 6%
  201. 201. History of the Internet • By 2000, the Internet had grown to: – Over 100 Million Users – On 100 Thousand Networks – In 209 Countries
  202. 202. History of the Internet • Since 2000 - An Internet Investment Bubble – Industry overestimated future Internet growth – Telecom companies overbuilt network facilities – Telecom companies went deeply into debt – Their suppliers overbuilt equipment inventories – Telecom companies started failing / bankruptcies – Their suppliers had to write off excess inventories – NASDAQ has plunged over 75% since 2000 – Telecom investors have lost their “shirts”
  203. 203. Technology of the Internet • A Network of Interconnected Networks • TCP/IP protocol suite • IP Addresses • Domain Names
  204. 204. A Network of Interconnected Networks
  205. 205. Access to the Internet • Local Area Networks – Many computers in one location (UMB labs) • Dial Up Modems on Telephone Lines – Most common for home users in 2002 • High Speed (Also called “Broadband”) – Cable Modem (on same wire as your cable TV) – Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) on a phone line
  206. 206. TCP/IP Protocol Suite • Architecture and protocols are documented in “Request for Comments” (RFCs) • TCP/IP on virtually every computer now! – TCP = Transmission Control Protocol – IP = Internet Protocol • All Internet data is transferred in IP packets • Routers transfer IP packets between networks
  207. 207. IP Addresses • Each host on the Internet has an IP address • Some hosts “own” a permanent IP address – Web Servers – Your PC if permanently connected to your ISP • Many hosts only “rent” their IP address – Your PC if you dial up to your ISP • A router has an IP address on each network to which it is attached
  208. 208. IP Addresses • Dotted Quad Notation for an IP address • Each IP packet has a source and destination address (similar to a letter in the US mail) – From: – To: • Routers find paths between IP addresses and forward IP packets where they need to go.
  209. 209. Domain Names • Hosts that have a permanent IP address are usually assigned a Domain Name also • Users access host via an “easily remembered” name instead of a “cryptic” IP address – e.g. “” or “” • User host communicates with Domain Name Server (DNS) to translate name to IP address • Sometimes that step is noticeable to the user, e.g when it doesn’t work correctly or introduces delay.
  210. 210. Domain Names • Read the hierarchy of a Domain Name like a postal address (most specific to least specific) • Postal Address: – Number, Street, Town, State, Zip_Code, Country • Domain Name: – • Value xxx has significance (.com, .net., edu) or is a code for the country (.us, .uk, .fr, .tv)
  211. 211. Client and Server Applications • “Client” application is located on the user’s computer and it communicates with a server on another computer to perform the work. • “Server” application is located on a central computer that is accessible by many users. • Client-Server communication is supported via TCP/IP protocols over the Internet.
  212. 212. Email • The first popular Internet application • Email Addresses: user_name@domain_name • Email Protocols and Servers – Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) Server to send email – Post Office Protocol (POP) Server to get email
  213. 213. Email • Advantages – Faster than Postal Service (“Snail Mail”) – Provides a permanent record / accountability – Time shifted (sender and receiver don’t need to be available for communication at same time) – No revelation of your identity or home location – No cost on a “per message” basis.
  214. 214. Email • Disadvantages – May be slower than phone call or face-to-face – Provides a permanent record / accountability (Note: Accountability is a double-edged sword!) – No clues to recipient’s reactions (No body language or facial expressions are visible) – Spam (Unwanted commercial solicitations)
  215. 215. Email • Guidelines for Use – Never say anything that you would not want to see on the front page of tomorrow’s newspaper. – Avoid angry/harassing statements (“flaming”) – Be careful with humor, irony, sarcasm. If used, add an Emoticon to make your intention clear, e.g. “Of course, you are an idiot! ;-)” – Be careful with use of broadcast mailing lists
  216. 216. What IS the Internet? “A network of networks based on the TCP/IP protocols, a community of people who use and develop these protocols, and a collection of resources that can be reached from those networks.” -- Krol & Hoffman
  217. 217. Frequently Asked Questions • What IS the Internet? • How does the Internet work? • What can I do on the Internet? • How do Internet addresses work? • Is the Internet really as “bad” as I hear?
  218. 218. Internet Basics’ Goals • To answer some of the Internet’s biggest FAQ’s • To show you how the Internet really works • To teach you how to read Internet addresses • To do all of this in ENGLISH!!
  219. 219. US Military Intelligence • Needed a way to hook up all of the mainframes in the USA • Needed a system that could withstand a direct nuclear attack • Needed a system without a central command
  220. 220. TEXAS and the Internet? • Suburbs = LANs • Cities = Servers • Interstates = Communications lines • Networks
  221. 221. IP Packets • Everything that is sent over the Internet is sent in an IP Packet. • IP Packets can contain anythingIP Packet
  222. 222. IP Packet Routing • TCP – Universal “rules” of the Road • IP Addresses – IP Packet
  223. 223. Domain Name System (DNS) Converts “English” names into “Machine” (IP) names
  224. 224. IP Packet Routing • You write an e-mail letter. • Hit “send” • Mail is sent to your Internet Service Provider’s mail server IP Packet
  225. 225. IP Packet Routing • Mail server “resolves” address • Mail server breaks your letter into a whole bunch of packets IP Packet
  226. 226. IP Packet Routing • Mail server ships packets to the router • Router ships packets to the next “city” IP Packet
  227. 227. Questions Routers “Ask” • Is this packet broken? • Is this packet for me? • In which general direction should this packet be sent? IP Packet
  228. 228. At the Final Destination • Mail server “collects” all of the packets • Puts all of the packets back together (in order) • Delivers the e-mail to your mailbox IP Packet
  229. 229. What can I do on the Internet? • Communicate • Login • Download • Publish • PLAY!
  230. 230. How can I get on the Internet? • Bulletin Board Service (BBS) • Commercial Online Service – AOL – CompuServe – MSN • Internet Service Provider • Work/School
  231. 231. Modems • Converts digital signals to analog signals • Modem at the other end turns the analog signal back into a digital signal.
  232. 232. Modem Speeds The Internet Baud Speed Transfer Rate 14.4 14,400 bps 1 page every 2 seconds 28.8 28,800 bps 1 page per second 56 K 56,600 bps 2 pages per second T1 1.5 million bps 47 pages per second T3 45 million bps 1,410 pages per second Internet2 (I2) Baud Speed Transfer Rate OC-3 155 million bps 4,857 pages per second OC-12 622 million bps 19,489 pages per second
  233. 233. Internet Addresses • Machine addresses (IP or DNS) • “Personal” addresses (e-mail) • Resource addresses (Web pages, gopher directories, etc). :)
  234. 234. Machine Addresses • IP Addresses • DNS Addresses Hi
  235. 235. E-Mail Addresses • The world of e-mail is bigger than the Internet • E-mail goes to a person, not just a machine
  236. 236. Parts of an E-mail Address • USERID – Name – Number – Combination of both
  237. 237. Parts of an E-mail Address • The “at” sign – Above the number 2 on your keyboard
  238. 238. Parts of an E-mail Address • The address of the user’s mail server – IP Address – DNS Address
  239. 239. Resource Addresses Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) protocol://machine.address/dir/file The /dir/file/ stuff may be optional The protocol, the ://, and the machine address are REQUIRED
  240. 240. Resource Addresses Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) protocol://machine.address/dir/file http Web pages ftp File Transfer Protocol gopher Gopher Directories
  241. 241. Resource Addresses Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) protocol://machine.address/dir/file gopher://
  242. 242. Resource Addresses Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) protocol://machine.address/dir/file REMEMBER E-mail addresses have @ symbols URLs have ://
  243. 243. Resource Addresses Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) protocol://machine.address/dir/file The machine address can be either a DNS Address or an IP Address
  244. 244. Resource Addresses Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) protocol://machine.address/dir/file gopher://
  245. 245. Internet Addresses • Machine Addresses – DNS or IP address • Personal Addresses – userid@machine.address • Resource Addresses – protocol://machine.address/dir/file
  246. 246. Internet Addresses • Machine Addresses – – • Personal Addresses – • Resource Addresses –
  247. 247. Internet Addresses • Machine Addresses – – • Personal Addresses – • Resource Addresses –
  248. 248. Machine Addresses -- Domains EDU Education MIL Military GOV Non-Military Government Sites COM Commercial Organizations
  249. 249. Machine Addresses -- Domains NET Network Sites ORG Other Organizations UK United Kingdom CA Canada AU Australia
  250. 250. Proposed Domains FIRM Businesses STORE Stores WEB Web Providers ARTS Cultural Orgs. REC Recreation INFO Information NOM Nomenclature
  251. 251. Reading Internet Addresses postmaster@
  252. 252.
  253. 253.
  254. 254.
  255. 255.
  256. 256.
  257. 257.
  258. 258.
  259. 259.
  260. 260.
  261. 261.
  262. 262.
  263. 263. HPL Catalog
  264. 264. HPL Aspire
  265. 265. HPL Kids Page
  266. 266. HPL Interactive
  267. 267. HPL Internet Links
  268. 268. HPL Internet Links
  269. 269. HPL Internet Links
  270. 270. Search Engines & Directories  Yahoo!  Go To  Search.Com  HotBot  Infoseek  Excite  Lycos
  271. 271. Yahoo!
  272. 272. Yahoo!
  273. 273. Yahoo!
  274. 274. Dog Boots
  275. 275. The Internet  What is it? • A large, growing, connection of over 10,000 networks and 30+ million users in over 60 countries. • Shared communications over phone lines and other communications media (cable, fiber, satellite) • Initially provide the exchange of electronic mail coded as standard ASCII text messages. Each message was small (1-10K) - one page. Now communications includes: – high-resolution color images – full-motion video and video conferencing – voice, sound, half duplex phone • Growth is phenomenal (20% per month)!
  276. 276. The Internet Timeline 1956 USSR launches Sputnik, 1st satellite; USA Department of Defense (DOD) forms Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) 1962 Packet-switched network concept 1969 DOD starts ARPANET for networking research 1974 Protocol for packet internetworking Transmission Control Program (TCP) 1981 BITNET (Because Its Time Network) provided widespread email access. Minitel is deployed across France by French Telecom
  277. 277. 1982 Internet Protocol (IP) established TCP/IP 1984 Domain Name Server (DNS) introduced and number of host is 1,000 1986 NSFNET created a high speed backbone (56Kbps) to interconnect supercomputer centers 1987 Number of hosts breaks 10,000 1989 Number of hosts breaks 100,000 and NSFNET is upgraded to T1 line (1.544 Mbps) Commercial email carrier (Compuserve) connects to the Internet The Internet Timeline (continued)
  278. 278. The Internet Timeline (continued) 1990 ARPANET ceases to exist; MCI mail connects to the Internet 1991 WAIS released by Thinking Machines Corporation to aid information search Gopher released by U of Minnesota 1992 WWW released by CERN (a physics research institute in Switzerland) Number of hosts breaks 1,000,000 NSFNET upgraded to T3 line (44.736 Mbps)
  279. 279. The Internet Timeline (continued) 1993 WWW annual growth rate 341,634% Whitehouse goes online United Nations & World Bank go on-line. US National Infrastructure Act championed by Al Gore. Mosaic developed by National Supercomputer Center PC Flowers established Internet florist
  280. 280. The Internet Timeline (continued) 1994 Communities become wired to the Internet For example, Blacksburg, WV - bus & movie schedules on-line, town meetings, etc. US Senate and House go on-line Mass marketing frenzy on the Internet USA sales at cybermalls grows to $200 million versus $50 billion in catalog sales & $1.5 trillion in total USA retail sales. 1995 *.com sites exceed *.edu sites
  281. 281. An Overview of Telecommunications  Hardware Design Issues • bandwidth - data rate or speed • distance - LAN, WAN • expandability - add nodes to network • errors - equipment reliability, fault tolerance, validity • security  Media • twisted-pair wires - phone lines • coaxial cable - cable TV • fiber optics - glass filaments diameter of hair transmit light • microwave - use high frequency bandwidths • satellite - acts as relay station. 3 in geosynchronous orbit 22,300 miles above Earth give global coverage. Iridium Project with 72 low orbit satellites for cellular phone connection anywhere in the world.
  282. 282. An Overview of Telecommunications Feature public leased T1 - T4 C able Availability good good good good E xpandability fair fair fair good E rror rate 10 -4 10 -5 varies 10 -8 S ecurity fair fair fair poor D istance fair fair good 10 miles E nvironm ental zoning, right-of-way, airplanes, etc. D ata rate 0 - 14.4 K 19.2 - 56 K 1.5 - 271 M 3 - 45 M Feature Microw ave S atellite Fiber R adio Availability good fair good poor E xpandability good good poor good E rror rate 10 -6 10 -7 10 -9 10 -3 S ecurity poor poor good poor D istance 30 miles global good varies E nvironm ental FC C , dish FC C , dish few FC C , legal D ata rate 45 M 50 M 1 - 271 M 9.6 K
  283. 283. An Overview of Telecommunications  Modem modulation / demodulation • digital-to-analog conversion required except for ISDN Integrated Digital Services Network • bps = number of discrete cycles per second • baud rate reflects modulation of signal to send more than one bit of information per cycle (e.g., quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) = 4 signals / cycle) • 14.4K bps over public lines is common digital signal digital signalanalog signal modem modem commercial phone line
  284. 284. An Overview of Telecommunications  Transmission Modes • Asynchronous allows transmitter to send signal one character at a time at irregular intervals. 7 data bits = 27 = 128 standard ASCII codes • Synchronous requires continuous transmission between two devices. If no data are ready, idle characters are sent to maintain synchronization. Start D ParityTIBATA Stop Start Frame Header Address Error Checking Start Message Message 256 - 1024+ Characters Stop Frame End Message
  285. 285. An Overview of Telecommunications  Circuit switching uses a physical connection between two points for the duration of the call (e.g., most voice carriers except AT&T / RBOC).  Packet switching use a logical connection and dynamic routing; down node causes rerouting but the packets get through (This was the goal of ARPANET in nuclear war!)
  286. 286. An Overview of Telecommunications Transmission Control Protocol • TCP carries on dialog between client and server • IP routes the data across the web of networks • Separates information into packets for transmission • Assembles received information; if a packet is garbled it only asks for that packet again. Smarter than most modem protocols Client Server Network DNetwork C Network A Network B
  287. 287. An Overview of Telecommunications  Internet Protocol (IP) • IP address is the numeric version of an address = • Domain Name System (DNS) com = commercial edu = education gov = US government mil = US military net = network providers org = nonprofit organizations int = international organizations
  288. 288. Internet Applications  Telnet - remote computer access  FTP - transfer files between computers  E-mail - asynchronous electronic mail  chat, talk, etc - synchronous e-mail user must be on-line chat  Newsgroups - (e.g., tin is one type)  Finger - to find out public information for a particular user finger  Browsers for WWW - netscape, Mosaic  Information search - gopher, WAIS, veronica
  289. 289. Gopher developed at University of Minnesota in 1991  Distributed document search and retrieval • Search Archie database file server - index of anonymous FTP files • Telnet to libraries • VERONICA (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computerized Archives) indexes thousands of resources in gopherspace, letting you search by keyword.  Example • At UNIX prompt type: • Browse / navigate with arrow and return keys • Choose business resources • Choose EDGAR - SEC • Search for a company (e.g., Microsoft) • Type q to quit
  290. 290. World Wide Web • Wide-area hypermedia information retrieval initiative aiming to give universal access to a large universe of documents • Allows finding / browsing Internet information using hypertext pointers to other documents. Other documents can reside anywhere on the Internet. – read the Wall Street Journal – go on a tour of the Whitehouse – find a job – track delivery of your FEDEX package – go shopping at a cybermall
  291. 291. World Wide Web  Uniform Resource Locator (URL) allows access to nearly any kind of data or Internet service • Standard codes – first part before colon is access method - HyperText Transport Protocol – part after colon is an address or object, e.g., the CIA • Other examples – telnet:// to access Princeton University Library – to access files from the WWW virtual library at Cern in Switzerland – gopher://
  292. 292. Electronic Commerce  The Information Era is here! Knowledge is Power!  Universal access to information will change the nature of business • NOT “location, location, location” but connectivity, connectivity, connectivity! • The Internet allows you compete over boundaries in – time – geography – language / cultural barriers • Global communication of technology, ideas, and processes • New markets open up and competitors change
  293. 293. Electronic Commerce  $200 million in USA cybermalls sales in 1994 $50 billion in catalog sales $1.5 trillion in total USA retail sales • 1998 projection for Internet sales is $5 billion! • CompuServe average sale is $70 • Prodigy is largest seller of airline tickets in the USA • Online users are affluent, open-minded, highly educated • 1994 CompuServe 2.4 M; AOL 1.75 M; Prodigy 2.1 million  Lobo Enterprises; Pasadena, California excellent example of a well-organized electronic catalog for a niche market • • Hot sauce catalog with products like Nuclear Fire, Endorphin Rush, and Gib’s Bottled Hell
  294. 294. Electronic Commerce  Benefits of online services for customers and marketers: • Convenience - open 24 hours/day 365 days/year • Information - store and display more product information than TV, newspaper, direct mail, phone book, radio or magazines • Fast response to market - update information on the fly • Reduce printing and postage cost • Build relationships - there can be a high-level of interaction with online customers • Fewer hassles - consumers deal with virtual salespeople • Interactive medium - newsgroups, mailing lists, discussion groups, electronic mail, custom catalogs
  295. 295. The Future  Why bother printing books? • Too expensive to print - read hypertext version on line • Publishers predict most technical material will be digital  What if everyone shopped at cybermalls? • What happens to the city tax base? • What about the loss of contact with people? • How would people handle delivery of food / perishables?  What if everyone subscribed to digital newspapers? • How would you design advertising? • How do you entice consumers to view your ad? • Interaction, updates, instant information
  296. 296. Internet Value Chain: Customer Relations Internet Capability Company Benefits Opportunities for advantages Marketing & Product Research Sales & Distribution Support & Customer Feedback Increased market share Lower cost margins Enhanced customer satisfaction Data for market research Establishes consumer response to new products Environmental Scanning Reaches new customers Low cost distribution method Electronic catalogs Multiples contact points at no additional cost Access to customer comments online More staff in contact with customers Immediate response to customer problems
  297. 297. Internet Value Chain: Inputs from Supplies Internet Capability Company Benefits Opportunities for advantages Pricing & Ordering Delivery/Order Tracking/Inventory Product Support Lower cost of obtaining materials Faster, more flexible delivery Improved reliability and performance Easy, efficient access Information constantly updated Not locked to a proprietary system Faster turnaround Improves planning Less inventory stockpiled Direct access to expertise Interactive Faster problem resolution
  298. 298. Internet Value Chain: Internal Operations Internet Capability Company Benefits Opportunities for advantages Global Connectivity R&D / Sharing Distributed Resources Location- Independent Work International reach Flexibility and effectiveness in information based activities Increased productivity Savings in telecommunications Improves connections to business partners & customers Promotes global awareness Facilitates business partnerships and joint ventures Disseminates resources more broadly Shortens development time Flexible work arrangements Telecommuting and contract employees Virtual teams based on expertise, not location
  299. 299. The Internet
  300. 300. What is the Internet? • Computer Network – any group of two or more computers linked together by cabling, telephone lines, or other media – users can communicate and share resources • Internet – thousands of academic, business, and government networks connected together
  301. 301. Computer Network
  302. 302. Internetworking - A Network of Networks Network 1 Network 2 Network 3 Network 5Network 4
  303. 303. Communications Protocols • Most computers on early Internet used the UNIX operating system • Need to connect dissimilar computers with different operating systems • A suite of communications standards, protocols, was developed which is now the required method for communication on the Internet – TCP/IP • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
  304. 304. What is the WWW? • World Wide Web – originally developed by physicists in Geneva, Switzerland to exchange data and research materials with other scientists – The Web gathers Internet resources from all over the world into menu pages or screens on your computer – Pages are connected together using hypertext links, which enable you to jump from one link to another – Part of the Internet • the most current and most updated • constantly changing resources • using a browser you can access other parts of the INTERNET
  305. 305. Hardware Requirements • A personal computer • Access to an Internet “host” provided to you by an Internet access provider • Physical connection – network cable – modem and telephone line – cable modem
  306. 306. Communications - Modem and Telephone Line
  307. 307. Software Requirements • Internet protocol, TCP/IP – provided by the Internet access provider • A version of TCP/IP that can be transmitted over a telephone line or cable – Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP), or – Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) • Internet front-end software application – the software you interact with to find and use Internet resources – Netscape Communicator
  308. 308. Accessing the Internet • Internet access provider – gives you your Internet host name and user name – supplies • software you need to connect • protocols such as TCP/IP • front-end software such as Netscape Communicator
  309. 309. Types of Access Providers • Corporate – large company or educational institution that has a network that is already connected to the Internet • Free-Net – free municipal computer networks that connect to the Internet, ex. Public library • Commercial – Internet access provided for a fee – User dials into that provider’s host from their own computer by using a modem and telephone line.
  310. 310. A Corporate Internet User INTERNET Your local network connection Your office Internet connection
  311. 311. Using a Free-Net Public library Your home INTERNET
  312. 312. Using a Commercial Internet Access Provider Your office Access provider Modem INTERNET
  313. 313. User Name and Full Internet Addresses • Each individual user on the Internet has his or her own user name – ex. MEREDIGM@SPART5.K12.SC.US – ex. MEREDIGM@HOME.COM
  314. 314. Top Level Domains Nam e Type of Enterprise .com Com m ercial organizatons .gov Government bodies .edu Educational institutions .m il M ilitary institutions .net Computer networks .org Other types of organizations
  315. 315. Home Page • The first screen you see when you start Navigator – District Five Home Page •
  316. 316. Navigator Toolbars Navigation toolbar Location toolbar Personal toolbar
  317. 317. Universal Resource Locators (URLs) • The standard naming methodology for location information • Syntax: sourcetype://hostname/path/filename – sourcetype - identifies the type of application used to access the information – hostname - specifies where the host resides – path - identifies the path that is taken to the file • (type in this URL)
  318. 318. Using Yahoo’s List of Subjects • Click on the Computers & Internet link • Click on the following sequence of links: – Internet – Online Teaching and Learning – Teacher Resources
  319. 319. Searching the World Wide Web Search Tool URL Alta Vista Excite InfoSeek Lycos M agellan W ebCrawler Yahoo!
  320. 320. Search Services • Search Engines – perform simple, one-word searches by using phrases or special symbols • Web Guides – Perform simple and complex searches, and also have lists of categories from which you can narrow down your search • White & Yellow Pages – Search for people’s email addresses • Topic Specific – Search for specific information, depending on the tool
  321. 321. Practice Searching • In the Navigation toolbar, click on the “Search” button • Click on the Excite link • In the search field, type weather • Click on “Search” • Go back to the Excite web page and search for a topic of your choice
  322. 322. Using Boolean Operators • Click on the “Back” button to go back to the Excite search service • In search field type: • weather + Spartanburg + SC • Click on “Search” button • Scroll down to see links to Spartanburg’s weather information
  323. 323. Search Tips • Computers follow instructions literally • Check spelling carefully • A topic that is too global, ex. “computers”, will cause too many documents to be found • A topic that is too specific may bring up no matches • Refine your searches by using special symbols such as “”,=,-,+, and Boolean operators such as AND, OR, NEAR. Each search tool has a unique syntax for Boolean operators and most provide a Help page for this.
  324. 324. Meta Search Engines • Meta search engines search many search engines at once: • Dogpile • Highway 61 • MetaFind • MetaSearch
  325. 325. Bookmarks • Netscape saves the location of a document in the Bookmarks menu • Bookmarks are stored on the hard disk of your computer in a file called bookmark.htm
  326. 326. Using Bookmarks • Click on the “Bookmarks” button • Point to the “Travel And Leisure” folder • Click on “The Weather Channel” • Go to some of the other links in your Bookmarks menu
  327. 327. Adding Bookmarks • In the Location field type: • Click on Teacher Source link • Click on the “Bookmarks” button • Click on “Add Bookmark”
  328. 328. Organizing Bookmarks • Click on the Bookmarks button, and choose Edit Bookmarks • To create a new folder, click on “Bookmarks for…” – Click “File” “New Folder” and type: yourname’s folder. Click on OK – Drag your PBS Teacher Source bookmark into your folder • Click on your folder • Press the delete key on your keyboard • Close the Bookmarks window
  329. 329. Use the “Bookmark Icon” • Create a “Teaching Resources” folder • Find to the “Bookmark icon” on the Location toolbar • Drag the “Bookmark icon” to the “Teaching Resources” folder in your bookmarks menu to place the bookmark in the folder
  330. 330. Securing your Internet Account • Choose a safe password • Encrypt your data – converts it to a form that is readable only by those to whom you give your personal decryption key • Avoid Internet Viruses – if you download a program, check it immediately for viruses
  331. 331. Plug-ins • Software programs that you can add to supplement Netscape’s capabilities – ex. A plug-in may give you the ability to play audio samples or view movies • You can download plug-ins to your hard disk by using instructions that come with the plug-in
  332. 332. Internet Basics Terminology
  333. 333. add-on a software program that works with another program, enhancing its features.
  334. 334. address book component of e-mail programs to store names, electronic addresses and other details about specific identities.
  335. 335. animated GIF web page graphic that combines several GIF graphics in one file and in a sequence. Animated GIF's are widely used on the Internet because they do not require a special player.
  336. 336. anonymous FTP sites file transfer servers where you do not need a password to log on and access files. Sometimes you need to use the password "anonymous," hence the name.
  337. 337. antivirus program a utility that searches electronic files for computer viruses and removes any found.
  338. 338. Archie program that searches FTP servers for any files by filename.
  339. 339. ASCII American Standard Code for Information Exchange, code that represents English characters as numbers, used to represent text and transfer information between computers.
  340. 340. attachment an electronic file attached to an e-mail.
  341. 341. bandwidth the amount of data that can be transmitted in a given amount of time, typically expressed as bits per second (bps).
  342. 342. bit a binary digit, the smallest unit of information, a one or a zero. the smallest unit of electronic information, a bit an hold either of two variables, 0 or 1.
  343. 343. BCC blind carbon copy, a copy of an e-mail message sent to a second recipient without the address appearing in the original mailing.
  344. 344. bookmarks Netscape Navigator's method of marking and organizing web page addresses as links for later use.
  345. 345. bounce an e-mail message that is returned, or "bounced" back, due to an unknown or obsolete e-mail address.
  346. 346. browser a software application used to access the World Wide Web and view web pages
  347. 347. bulletin board an electronic message center where users post messages for other users to later read and comment on.
  348. 348. byte a unit of information containg eight bits, capable of representing an alphabetic character.
  349. 349. cable modem a modem designed to utilize cable television lines and therefore capable of transmitting more information with more bandwidth and faster connection speeds.
  350. 350. bache electronic folder that temporarily stores most recently downloaded web files, allowing faster display of reaccessed files.
  351. 351. chat real-time, text-based communication on the Internet.
  352. 352. client software program that requests files or makes other requests of a server
  353. 353. Collabra the newsreader software that comes with the Netscape Communicator suite.
  354. 354. Common Gateway Interface (CGI) script that transfers data between a client and a server, often used in interactive web pages such as forms.
  355. 355. component bar offers buttons to access the various components of the Communicator suite.
  356. 356. compression compacts data into a smaller file size by scanning a file and eliminating duplicate areas by replacing them with reference codes.
  357. 357. cookie electronic file transmitted from a server to a Web browser and sent back to the server when a new file is requested. Cookies are stored on the browser.
  358. 358. cybercast broadcast over the Internet.
  359. 359. cyberspace the non-physical space created by computers, such as the Internet.
  360. 360. DHTML Dynamic HTML, allows page content to change in reaction to user input without communication with the originating server.
  361. 361. dail-up account internet access account that enables a computer to connect to the Internet via an ISP computer using a modem.
  362. 362. database a collection of related information that can be searched.
  363. 363. document window displays the active Web page.
  364. 364. domain name names used in URL's and corresponding to one or more IP addresses. Domain names always carry a suffix, the top-level domain name such as com or edu. Domain names in a URL are case sensitive.
  365. 365. Domain Name Service (DNS) Internet service that translates domain names into their numeric IP numbers
  366. 366. download to copy electronic data from another computer to your computer over a network.
  367. 367. electronic commerce (e-commerce) business conducted online.
  368. 368. e-mail electronic messages transmitted over any computer network.
  369. 369. executable a file that a computer can execute, such as a software program.
  370. 370. external viewer a program that a browser launches automatically to open files not supported by the browser.
  371. 371. firewall programming designed to prevent Internet users from accessing parts of an Internet server.
  372. 372. forum a discussion group where users share information on a particular topic of common interest.
  373. 373. frame a section of a document window, divided areas of a browser display showing distinct web pages.
  374. 374. freeware copyrighted software that is provided free for anyone's use.
  375. 375. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) a common protocol that facilitates transferring any type of electronic files over the Web.
  376. 376. gif or GIF compressed graphics file format supported by all graphics Web browsers, the most common graphics file format used on the Web.
  377. 377. gigabyte (GB) unit of electronic information storage capable of holding 1,073,741,824 bytes.
  378. 378. home page the Web page that appears when you start Netscape Navigator, the index or default page of a particular Web server, folder, or person's Web site.
  379. 379. history list a web browser's list of sites visited since launching the browser.
  380. 380. history window a web browser feature with a list of sites visited, providing searchable data on each site, including title, URL, when first visited, when most recently visited, and how often visited.
  381. 381. home page the entrance page to a Web site with multiple pages; a Web page about a person or company; the start page for a browser.
  382. 382. host a computer connected to a TCP/IP network, such as the Internet, with a unique IP address; a computer that stores resources or provides a service for other computers on a network.
  383. 383. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) the protocol computers use to transmit Web documents between computers, identified by the prefix "http://" of the URL.
  384. 384. hypertext documents electronic files containing links that can be selected to move to another part of the document or to another document altogether.
  385. 385. Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) programming language used to create documents displayed by Web browsers, a logical language to format documents that can be universally understood on different computer platforms and by different Web browsers.
  386. 386. imagemap a single graphic that serves as more than one hyperlink.
  387. 387. inbox folder in an e-mail program where incoming messages are stored until moved to another folder or deleted.
  388. 388. inline image a graphic displayed along with text in a Web page.
  389. 389. Integrated Message Access Protocol (IMAP) e-mail retrieval protocol that allows storage of messages on the remote server instead of downloading them to the client computer.
  390. 390. Internet a global network of computer networks that use standard protocols to exchange information, the largest network of computer networks.
  391. 391. Internet Service Provider (ISP) companies that sell access to the Internet to other users.
  392. 392. IP address the numerical identifier for a computer connected to a TCP/IP network, such as the Internet. IP addresses consist of a set of four numbers from 0 - 255 and separated by periods. For example
  393. 393. Java the programming language developed by Sun Microsystems used for creating applications that can be run over the Web, computer language designed to be run on any computer regardless of the operating system.
  394. 394. JavaScript language developed by Netscape to add functionality and enhancements to Web pages.
  395. 395. jpg or JPEG pronounced "jay-peg," a compressed graphics format supported by all graphical web browsers, second of the most common image formats used on the Web. The acronym stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group.
  396. 396. kilobyte, KB unit of electronic storage capable of holding 1,024 bytes.
  397. 397. link that portion of a hypertext document that allows for moving to another part of the document or to another document altogether.
  398. 398. list a specified group of Address Book entries that allows you to send an e-mail message to a group of people without manually selecting each individual addressee.
  399. 399. local area network computer network that covers a relatively small area, such as a single building or company, and allows for sharing devices such as printers or services such as Internet connection.
  400. 400. location bar identifies the address of the Web page displayed in the browser window.
  401. 401. mailer form a form in a Web page that sends an e-mail message.
  402. 402. mailto link a link in a Web page that opens the default e-mail program and addresses a message to a specific address. The specified URL begins with "mailto:" followed by the e- mail address.
  403. 403. megabyte (MB) the unit of electronic storage capable of holding 1,048,576 bytes.
  404. 404. menu bar groups commands by menu name, clicking a menu name opens a menu of commands or submenus.
  405. 405. META tags HTML tags that provide information about a Web page, such as author, keywords, description, character set and authoring program.
  406. 406. modem device that enables a computer to connect to other computers via a telephone or other transmission line
  407. 407. navigational guide a list, index or directory of Web pages organized by themes or subjects.
  408. 408. navigation buttons tool bar buttons used to move among Web pages, includes, Back, Forward and Home.
  409. 409. Netcsape Communicator a software suite for using the World Wide Web.
  410. 410. network two or more computers linked together to exchange data.
  411. 411. newsgroup a forum on the Usenet network with a specific topic of interest, used by participants to read, post and reply to messages.
  412. 412. news reader special software used to receive message posted to newsgroups.
  413. 413. news server a server that manages and stores the messages posted to various newsgroups.
  414. 414. password a personal code that verifies that you have the right to access a computer, file, server or other electronic area or component.
  415. 415. personal toolbar customizable toolbar that displays buttons you can click to jump to Web pages.
  416. 416. plug-ins software programs that extend the capabilities of other programs.
  417. 417. Portable Document Format (PDF) file format that captures formatting information from various publishing programs and enables them to appear exactly as intended on other computers.
  418. 418. post a message sent to a newsgroup or bulletin board.
  419. 419. Posting the act of sending an e-mail message to a newsgroup or bulletin board.
  420. 420. Post Office Protocol (POP) a protocol used to retrieve e- mail from a server. POP3 clients must download their mail to their local computer to read it.
  421. 421. protocol procedure or format a computer uses to transmit or exchange files, enabling computers of different platform types to communicate in a standardized fashion.
  422. 422. query a request in question form that directs a search engine to find documents that contain the specified word, phrase or other component.
  423. 423. response time the amount of time it takes to complete a link.
  424. 424. search engine database software that retrieves information based upon query parameters.
  425. 425. self-extracting files compressed files capable of extracting its compressed files without a separate decompression program.
  426. 426. server computer that receives and fulfills requests to provide specific services on a network.
  427. 427. shareware a copyrighted software program distributed on the honor system that you can try before buying.
  428. 428. start page the Web page that appears when a Web browser is launched.
  429. 429. status bar indicates the status of the document you are retrieving from the Web server.
  430. 430. Suites packages of seamless, integrated and specialized software applications. Internet suites might include a browser, an e-mail capability, a web page creation capability and others. Groups of integrated software products.