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3 computer hardware and fundamentals edited for 1st sem


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3 computer hardware and fundamentals edited for 1st sem

  1. 1. 1 Introduction to Information Systems Essentials for the Internetworked E-Business Enterprise 3 Computer Hardware
  2. 2. Introduction to Information Systems Computer System Categories
  3. 3. Introduction to Information Systems Trends in Computer System Capabilities First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation Vacuum Tubes Solid-State Integrated Circuits LSI, VLSI Micro- processors Greater Power, Smaller Footprint Trend: Toward Smaller, Faster, More Reliable, and Less Costly Trend: Toward Easy to Purchase, and Easy to Maintain
  4. 4. Introduction to Information Systems Microcomputer Systems • User Interface • Handheld Computers – PDA, Information Appliances • Notebook Computers • Desktop Computers • Workstations • Network Server – Powerful microcomputer used in small LANs
  5. 5. Introduction to Information Systems Network Computers and Terminals • Network Computer (Thin Client) – Web Browser – No storage • NetPC – Has own software – Hard drive – OS on server • Network Terminal – No storage – Processing on Server Benefits • Lower purchase cost • Easier maintenance • Easier software distribution and licensing • Computer platform standardization • Reduced end user support requirements • Enterprise Control
  6. 6. Introduction to Information Systems Midrange and Mainframe Computers • Midrange – High-end network servers – Multi-user systems – Database servers – Mini-computers (older) • Mainframe – Large, fast, powerful – Used in data mining – Major corporations and governments • Supercomputers – Parallel processing – Government and major corporations
  7. 7. Introduction to Information Systems Organizational Computing Mainframe Computing Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages Disadvantages Centralized computing power including management and backup Command-driven application displaying only text and numbers High levels of security High initial cost and cost of upgrades to existing systems Capability to run enterprise applications Problems with failure of centralized computing inability to keep up with high demand
  8. 8. Introduction to Information Systems Computer System Components Central Processing Unit Output Devices Cache Memory Primary Storage Secondary Storage Devices Control Unit ALU Special Purpose Processors Output Devices Input Devices
  9. 9. Introduction to Information Systems TYPES OF MEMORY • RAM : Random Access Memory – Dynamic: Changes thru processing – Main memory for data and programs • ROM : Read Only Memory – Program doesn’t change – Start-up • Cache – Stores most frequently used instructions – Allows faster retrieval and execution
  10. 10. Introduction to Information Systems Computer Power • Two major factors: Speed and Memory capacity • Speed is determined mainly by – Clock Speed -- rate at which the CPU operates Measured in MHz, GHz, and MIPS. – Word Size -- amount of information the CPU can process per cycle (32 bit chip processes 32 bits/cycle) – Bus --number of bits that can be moved at one time between CPU and other devices; ideally word length and bus width will be at least equal
  11. 11. Introduction to Information Systems PC Processor Types (Chips) • Intel (90+%) – Celeron, Pentium – (600-700MHz), (1+GHz) • AMD – Athlon • Mac – Motorola
  12. 12. Introduction to Information Systems Input Technology Trends First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation Punched Cards Paper Tape Punched Cards Key to Tape/ Disk Keyboard Data Entry Pointing Devices Optical Scanning Voice Recognition Touch Devices Handwriting Recognition Trend: Towards Direct Input Devices that Are More Natural and Easy to Use
  13. 13. Introduction to Information Systems Common Input Devices • Keyboard • Pointing Devices • Pen Based Computing • Speech Recognition • Optical Scanning • Magnetic Ink Character Recognition • Smart Cards • Digital Cameras
  14. 14. Introduction to Information Systems Source Data Automation • Captures Data in Computer Readable Form (Scanning) • WHY? – Source Data Input – Reduce Errors – Increase Speed – Price Lookup – Inventory Control
  15. 15. Introduction to Information Systems Source Input Techniques • OCR -Optical Character Recognition • UPC - Universal Product Codes • Magnetic Strip • MICR - Magnetic Ink Character Recognition • OMR - Optical Mark Reader • Page Scanners
  16. 16. Introduction to Information Systems Other Input • Touch Screen – Pressure sensitive surface – Reduce keyboard entry, Less errors – More User friendly • Data Collection Device – Used to collect data at the site where the transaction takes place • Meter reading , Inventory /Price check
  17. 17. Introduction to Information Systems Voice Input • Voice Recognition – Speaker Dependent • Trained by Speaker • Handicapped – Speaker Independent • Limited vocabulary • Postal Service • UPS
  18. 18. Introduction to Information Systems Output Technology Trends First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation Punched Cards Printed Reports and Documents Punched Cards Printed Reports and Documents Printed Reports and Documents Video Displays Video Displays Audio Responses Printed Reports and Documents Video Displays Voice Responses Hyperlinked Multimedia Documents Trend: Towards Output Methods that Communicate Naturally, Quickly, and Clearly
  19. 19. Introduction to Information Systems Common Output Devices • Video Output – CRT – LCD • Printed Output – Inkjet – Laser
  20. 20. Introduction to Information Systems Spoken Output • Digitized – actual spoken word stored in digital form – Voice mail • Synthesized – transfers words to speech – Raider Express
  21. 21. Introduction to Information Systems Storage Trends First Generation Second Generation Third Generation Fourth Generation Fifth Generation Magnetic Drum Magnetic Core Magnetic Core LSI Semiconductor Memory Chips VLSI Semiconductor Memory Chips Trend: Towards Large Capacities Using Smaller Microelectronic Circuits Trend: Towards Massive Capacities Using Magnetic and Optical Media Magnetic Tape Magnetic Drum Magnetic Tape Magnetic Disk Magnetic Disk Magnetic Tape Magnetic Disk Optical Disk Magnetic Tape Optical Disk Magnetic Disk Primary Storage Secondary Storage
  22. 22. Introduction to Information Systems Optical Disks • Written via Laser • High volume of storage • Very Durable • Slower access time vs. magnetic • Direct Access Storage Device
  23. 23. Introduction to Information Systems • CD-ROM: 500-660 Megabytes – Land: Flat Parts Of Disk Surface Reflects Light – Pits: Small Scratch On Surface Scatters Light • WORM: Write Once / Read Many – CDRecordable • Erasable Optical Storage (EOS) Disks – CDRW - ReWritable * OPTICAL STORAGE
  24. 24. Introduction to Information Systems Digital Video Disk • Hold 4.7 Gigabytes per layer per side – home entertainment, educational, imformation • Forms – Read-only (current) – Write-once (DVDR) – Single and dual layer • 135 minutes playing time
  25. 25. Introduction to Information Systems Other Storage Mediums • Zip Drive (~$100) – 100 Megabytes Disk – 250 Megabytes Disk • Jaz and Jaz2 Drive (~$200 or $350) – 1 or 2 Gigabyte Disk
  26. 26. Introduction to Information Systems Primary & Secondary Storage Media Semiconductor Memory Magnetic Disks Floppy Disk Hard Disk, RAID Magnetic Tape Optical Disks CD-ROM, CD-R CD-RW DVD Direct Access Sequential Access Direct Access
  27. 27. Introduction to Information Systems Characteristics of Magnetic Disks Cylinders Access Mechanism Access Arms Read/Write Heads Disks Tracks: Concentric circles for storing data as magnetized bits. Sectors: Portions of a track Track
  28. 28. 28 Introduction Chapter 1 1.1 What is an operating system 1.2 History of operating systems 1.3 The operating system zoo 1.4 Computer hardware review 1.5 Operating system concepts 1.6 System calls 1.7 Operating system structure
  29. 29. 29 Introduction • A computer system consists of – hardware – system programs – application programs
  30. 30. 30 What is an Operating System • It is an extended machine – Hides the messy details which must be performed – Presents user with a virtual machine, easier to use • It is a resource manager – Each program gets time with the resource – Each program gets space on the resource
  31. 31. 31 History of Operating Systems (1) Early batch system – bring cards to 1401 – read cards to tape – put tape on 7094 which does computing – put tape on 1401 which prints output
  32. 32. 32 History of Operating Systems (2) • First generation 1945 - 1955 – vacuum tubes, plug boards • Second generation 1955 - 1965 – transistors, batch systems • Third generation 1965 – 1980 – ICs and multiprogramming • Fourth generation 1980 – present – personal computers
  33. 33. 33 History of Operating Systems (3) • Structure of a typical FMS job – 2nd generation
  34. 34. 34 History of Operating Systems (4) • Multiprogramming system – three jobs in memory – 3rd generation
  35. 35. 35 The Operating System Zoo • Mainframe operating systems • Server operating systems • Multiprocessor operating systems • Personal computer operating systems • Real-time operating systems • Embedded operating systems • Smart card operating systems
  36. 36. 36 Computer Hardware Review (1) • Components of a simple personal computer Monitor Bus
  37. 37. 37 Computer Hardware Review (2) (a) A three-stage pipeline (b) A superscalar CPU
  38. 38. 38 Computer Hardware Review (3) • Typical memory hierarchy – numbers shown are rough approximations
  39. 39. 39 Computer Hardware Review (4) Structure of a disk drive
  40. 40. 40 Computer Hardware Review (7) Structure of a large Pentium system
  41. 41. 41 Operating System Concepts (1) • A process tree – A created two child processes, B and C – B created three child processes, D, E, and F
  42. 42. 42 Operating System Concepts (2) (a) A potential deadlock. (b) an actual deadlock.
  43. 43. 43 Operating System Concepts (3) File system for a university department
  44. 44. 44 Operating System Concepts (4) • Before mounting, – files on floppy are inaccessible • After mounting floppy on b, – files on floppy are part of file hierarchy
  45. 45. 45 Metric Units The metric prefixes
  46. 46. The Computer Continuum 1-46 Chapter 3: Computer Hardware Components: CPU, Memory, and I/O What is the typical configuration of a computer sold today?
  47. 47. 3-47 Computer Hardware Components  In this chapter: • How did the computer become known as the stored-program computer? – Do they all have the same characteristics? • Memory on chips and memory on magnetic media, how do they differ? • What do you look for when comparing memory devices? • How is information moved around within the computer? • How can you help your computer run better?
  48. 48. 3-48 Basic Concepts of Computer Hardware  This model of the typical digital computer is often called the von Neumann computer. • Programs and data are stored in the same memory: primary memory. • The computer can only perform one instruction at a time. CPU (Central Processing Unit) Input Units Output Units Primary Memory
  49. 49. 3-49 Basic Concepts of Computer Hardware  Input/Output (I/O): Refers to the process of getting information into and out of the computer. • Input: Those parts of the computer receiving information to programs. • Output: Those parts of the computer that provide results of computation to the person using the computer.
  50. 50. 3-50 Sources of Data for the Computer  Two types of data stored within a computer: • Original data or information: Data being introduced to a computing system for the first time. – Computers can deal directly with printed text, pictures, sound, and other common types of information. • Previously stored data or information: Data that has already been processed by a computer and is being stored for later use. – These are forms of binary data useful only to the computer. – Examples: Floppy disks, DVD disks, and music CDs.
  51. 51. 3-51 Input Devices  Two categories of input hardware: • Those that deal with original data. • Those that handle previously stored data.
  52. 52. 3-52 Input Devices  Input hardware: Those that deal with original data. • Keyboard • Mouse • Voice recognition hardware • Scanner • Digital camera  Digitizing: The process of taking a visual image, or audio recording and converting it to a binary form for the computer. • Used as data for programs to display, play or manipulate the digitized data.
  53. 53. 3-53 Input Devices  Connecting Hardware to the computer: • Hardware needs access through some general input/output connection. – Port: The pathway for data to go into and out of the computer from external devices such as keyboards. • There are many standard ports as well as custom electronic ports designed for special purposes. • Ports follow standards that define their use. » SCSI, USB: Multiple peripheral devices (chain). » RS-232, IDE: Individual peripheral devices. – Peripheral device: A piece of hardware like a printer or disk drive, that is outside the main computer.
  54. 54. 3-54 Input Devices  Connecting Hardware to the computer: (continued) • Hardware needs software on the computer that can service the device. – Device driver: Software addition to the operating system that will allow the computer to communicate with a particular device.
  55. 55. 3-55 Input Devices  Common Basic Technologies for Storing Binary Information: • Electronic • Magnetic • Optical
  56. 56. 3-56 Input Devices  Electronic Circuits • Most expensive of the three forms for storing binary information. • A flip-flop circuit has either one electronic status or the other. It is said to flip-flop from one to the other. • Electronic circuits come in two forms: – Permanent – Non-permanent
  57. 57. 3-57 Input Devices  Magnetic Technology • Two parts to most of the magnetic forms of information storage: – The medium that stores the magnetic information. • Example: Floppy disk. Tiny spots on the disk are magnetized to represent 0s and 1s. – The device that can “read” that information from the medium. • The drive spins the disk. • It has a magnetic sensing arm that moves over the disk. • Performs nondestructive reading.
  58. 58. 3-58 Input Devices  Optical • Uses lasers to “read” the binary information from the medium, usually a disc. – Millions of tiny holes are “burned” into the surface of the disc. – The holes are interpreted as 1s. The absence of holes are interpreted as 0s.
  59. 59. 3-59 Input Devices  Secondary Memory Input Devices • These input devices are used by a computer to store information and then to retrieve that information as needed. – External to the computer. – Commonly consists of floppy disks, hard disk drives, or CD-ROMs. • Secondary memory uses binary. – The usual measurement is the byte. • A byte consists of 8 binary digits (bits). The byte is a standard unit.
  60. 60. 3-60 Input Devices  The four most important characteristics of storage devices: • Speed and access time • Cost / Removable versus non-removable • Capacity • Type of access
  61. 61. 3-61 Input Devices  Speed (Access time) - How fast information can be taken from or stored onto the computer memory device’s medium. • Electronic circuits: Fastest to access. – 40 billionths of a second. • Floppy disks: Very slow in comparison. – Takes up to 1/2 second to reach full speed before access is even possible.
  62. 62. 3-62 Input Devices  Cost • Megabyte: A Million bytes. • Gigabyte: A billion bytes. • Two parts to a removable secondary storage device: – The cost of the medium. (Cheaper if bought in quantity) – The cost of the drive. Examples: Cost for drive Cost for medium Floppy drive (1.4MB) 59.00 .50 Zip 100 (100 MB) 99.00 10.00 CD-WR (650 MB) 360.00 and up 1.00
  63. 63. 3-63 Input Devices  Capacity - The amount of information that can be stored on the medium. Unit Description Approximate Size 1 bit 1 binary digit 1 nibble 4 bits 1 byte 8 bits 1 character 1 kilobyte 1,024 bytes 1/2 page, double spaced 1 megabyte 1,048,576 bytes 500,000 pages 1 million bytes 1 gigabyte 1,073,741,824 bytes 5 million pages 1 billion bytes 1 terabyte 1 trillion bytes 5 billion pages
  64. 64. 3-64 Input Devices  Type of Access – Sequential - Obtained by proceeding through the storage medium from the beginning until the designated area is reached (as in magnetic tape). – Random Access - Direct access (as in floppy and hard disks).
  65. 65. 3-65 Primary Memory  Primary storage or memory: Is where the data and program that are currently in operation or being accessed are stored during use. • Consists of electronic circuits: Extremely fast and expensive. • Two types: – RAM (non-permanent) • Programs and data can be stored here for the computer’s use. • Volatile: All information will be lost once the computer shuts down. – ROM (permanent) • Contents do not change.
  66. 66. 3-66 The Central Processing Unit  The Central Processing Unit ( CPU) • Often referred to as the “brain” of the computer. • Responsible for controlling all activities of the computer system. • The three major components of the CPU are: 1. Arithmetic Unit (Computations performed) Accumulator (Results of computations kept here) 2. Control Unit (Has two locations where numbers are kept) Instruction Register (Instruction placed here for analysis) Program Counter (Which instruction will be performed next?) 3. Instruction Decoding Unit (Decodes the instruction) • Motherboard: The place where most of the electronics including the CPU are mounted.
  67. 67. 3-67 Output Devices  Output units store and display information (calculated results and other messages) for us to see and use. • Floppy disk drives and Hard disk drives. • Display monitors: Hi-resolution monitors come in two types: – Cathode ray tube (CRT) - Streams of electrons make phosphors glow on a large vacuum tube. – Liquid crystal display (LCD) - A flat panel display that uses crystals to let varying amounts of different colored light to pass through it. • Developed primarily for portable computers.
  68. 68. 3-68 Output Devices  Audio Output Devices • Windows machines need special audio card for audio output. • Macintosh has audio playback built in. • Audio output is useful for: – Music • CD player is a computer. • Most personal computers have CD players that can access both music CDs and CD-ROMs. – Voice synthesis (becoming more human sounding.) – Multimedia – Specialized tasks (i.e.: elevator’s floor announcements)
  69. 69. 3-69 Output Devices  Optical Disks: CD-ROM and DVD • CD-ROM (Compact Disk - Read Only Memory) – By its definition, CD-ROM is Read Only. – Special CD drives “burn” information into blank CDs. • Burn: A laser is used to “burn” craters into the surface to represent a binary 1. • Two main types of CDs: » CD-R (Compact Disk - Recordable) » CD-WR (Compact Disk - ReWritable) – It takes longer to write to a CD-R than a hard drive. – Special software is needed to record.
  70. 70. 3-70 Output Devices  DVD (Digital Versatile Disk) • Allows up to 17 gigabytes of storage (from 4.7 GB to 17 GB). • Compatible with older CD-ROM technology. • The four versions of the DVD:
  71. 71. 3-71 Output Devices  Storage Requirements: How much storage capacity is needed for… • One keystroke on a keyboard. 1 byte (8 bits) • One page single-spaced document. 4.0 K • Nineteen pages formatted text. 75 K • One second of high-fidelity sound. 95-110 K • Complete word processing program. 8.4 MG  Storage Capacity: How much data can be stored on… • One inch of 1/2 in. wide magnetic tape. 4 K • One 3 1/2” floppy disk, high density. 1.4 MG • One Compact Disk. 650 MG • One DVD. up to 17 GB
  72. 72. 3-72 Moving Information Within the Computer  How do binary numerals move into, out of, and within the computer? • Information is moved about in bytes, or multiple bytes called words. – Words are the fundamental units of information. – The number of bits per word may vary per computer. – A word length for most large IBM computers is 32 bits:
  73. 73. 3-73 Moving Information Within the Computer  Bits that compose a word are passed in parallel from place to place. • Ribbon cables: – Consist of several wires, molded together. – One wire for each bit of the word or byte. – Additional wires coordinate the activity of moving information. – Each wire sends information in the form of a voltage pulse.
  74. 74. 3-74 Moving Information Within the Computer  Example of sending the word WOW over the ribbon cable • Voltage pulses corresponding to the ASCII codes would pass through the cable.
  75. 75. 3-75 Packaging the Computer  The many physical forms of the general purpose computer: • All follow general organization: – Primary memory – Input units – Output units – Central Processing Unit • Grouped according to speed, cost, size, and complexity. Super Computers Mainframe Computers Minicomputers Microcomputer Palmtop Computer Calculator Fast Expensive Complex Large Slow Cheap Simple Small
  76. 76. The Computer Continuum 3-76 Software Tools for Maintaining Your Computer Hardware  Utility Programs exist that can help diagnose and solve computer hardware problems. • Four major problem areas where utility programs are helpful: – Finding and fixing problems. • Testing Input/Output peripherals. • Testing RAM, motherboard, video cards. • Recovering deleted files or fixing damaged disks. – Improving computer performance. • De-fragmenting a disk (Packs all files closer together). – Preventative maintenance. – Troubleshooting. • Locates incompatible programs.
  77. 77. 5-77 The Pencil and Paper Computer  Parts of a typical General-purpose Computer: CPU (Central Processing Unit) 1. Arithmetic Unit (Computations performed) Accumulator (Results of computations accumulated here) 2. Control Unit Instruction Register (Instruction placed here for analysis) Program Counter (Which instruction will be performed next?) 3. Instruction Decoding Unit (Decodes the instruction) Input Units Output Units Memory Devices
  78. 78. 5-78 The Pencil and Paper Computer  Parts of the Pencil & Paper Computer (a conceptual computer): CPU (Central Processing Unit) 1. Arithmetic Unit (Computations performed) Accumulator -14 bits long (largest number is 4095) 2. Control Unit (Analyzes and performs instructions) Instruction Register Program Counter - Next instruction found where? 3. Instruction Decoding Unit (Decodes the instruction) Input Unit: Pencil Output Unit: Paper Memory Devices
  79. 79. 5-79 Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  80. 80. 5-80 The Pencil and Paper Computer  The Pencil & Paper Instruction Format: • Operation Code (Opcode) - Dictates action by Pencil & Paper Computer. • Operand (Argument) - The address of a position in memory. Pencil & Paper Instruction Operation Code (3 BITS) Operand (5 BITS)
  81. 81. 5-81 The Pencil and Paper Computer  The Pencil & Paper Instruction Set: • A unique set of commands to be used only when programming the Pencil & Paper Computer. Opcode English Action taken by command 001 ADD Add the contents of the referenced memory location to the value in the accumulator. 010 SUB Subtract the contents of the referenced memory location from the value found in the accumulator. 011 LOAD Load a copy of the value of the referenced memory location into the accumulator. 100 STORE Store a copy of the contents of the accumulator into the referenced memory location. 101 READ Read a value from the keyboard and store it at the referenced memory location. 110 PRINT Print the value found at the referenced memory location. 111 PJUMP Jump to the referenced memory location if the value of the accumulator is a positive nonzero number. 000 STOP This causes the computer to stop execution of the program.
  82. 82. 5-82 The Pencil and Paper Computer  Process for writing Pencil & Paper Computer programs: 1. Read the problem. 2. Determine the algorithm. – Break the problem down into steps. – What will be needed as input? – What will be needed to be computed? – What is the desired output? 3. Write an outline of the steps. 4. Write the program. 5. Trace through the program.
  83. 83. 5-83 The Pencil and Paper Computer  Problem: Write a program that sums 2 numbers read in from the “user.”  2. Determine the algorithm. • Input: Read in 2 numbers. • Computations: Add the two numbers together. • Output: Print out the sum of the 2 numbers.  3. Outline: • Read in 2 numbers. • Add the 2 numbers. • Print the Sum.  4. Write the program.
  84. 84. 5-84 The Pencil and Paper Computer  Problem: Write a program that sums 2 numbers read in from the “user.”  Program: READ NUM1 READ NUM2 LOAD NUM1 ADD NUM2 STORE SUM PRINT SUM STOP Memory: Accumulator: Output: Num1 Num2 Sum Trace the program.
  85. 85. 5-85 The Pencil and Paper Computer  Problem: Write a program that prints the counting numbers from 5 down to 1. ONE: 1 COUNT: 5 START: PRINT COUNT LOAD COUNT SUB ONE STORE COUNT PJUMP START STOP Memory: Accumulator: Output: Count One
  86. 86. 5-86 The Pencil and Paper Computer The fetch and execute cycle: Start Program at the desired location. Fetch an instruction from program memory at current program counter location Increment counter to next location in the program memory. Execute the instruction which was just fetched. Stop Is the Instruction the STOP Instruction? YES NO
  87. 87. Chapter 4 Installing and Using Windows 9x
  88. 88. 88/33 You Will Learn… • About the different versions and architecture of Windows 9x • How to install and use Windows 9x • How to install hardware and applications with Windows 9x • How to manage hard drives, floppy disks, and memory with Windows 9x • How to get help from Microsoft
  89. 89. 89/33 Windows 9x Versions and Architecture • Windows 95 • Windows 95 Service Release 2 (SR2) • Windows 98 • Windows 98 Second Edition (SE) • Windows Me (Millennium Edition)
  90. 90. 90/33 How Windows 98 Differs from Windows 95 • Basically the same OS  Same core components  Same fundamental services to software, hardware, and user • Added features and tools  FAT32  Support for USB and DVD  New system tools to monitor and improve system performance  New hardware support  Additional Web tools
  91. 91. 91/33 Windows Me • Does not include option to boot to DOS command prompt in the Start menu • Does not allow real-mode device drivers and TSRs to be loaded from Config.sys and Autoexec.bat • New troubleshooting tools  System Restore  System File Protection
  92. 92. 92/33 Windows 9x Architecture • Core components  Shell • User component • Graphics Device Interface (GDI)  Kernel
  93. 93. 93/33 Windows 9x Architecture
  94. 94. 94/33 Virtual Machines • Set of resources made available to an application through predefined application programming interface calls (APIs) • Multiple logical machines within one physical machine
  95. 95. 95/33 Windows 9x Architecture • Modular approach divides functions into separate program groups; makes each component easier to update and implement • Components of Windows 9x  Virtual Machine Manager (VMM)  Installable File System (IFS) manager  Configuration Manager  Win32 Driver Model (WDM) driver manager
  96. 96. 96/33 Windows 9x • Supports 16-bit drivers, but best to use 32-bit drivers  Faster  Can be stored in extended memory  Can be dynamically loaded  Can share data with other 32-bit applications; better designed; make better use of OS resources
  97. 97. 97/33 Contents of Windows 9x CD • Files for:  Installing the OS  Customizing configuration of OS  Configuring and optimizing the desktop  Network administration  Diagnosing and troubleshooting system errors  File management
  98. 98. 98/33 Preparing for Installation: Hardware Requirements Windows 95 Windows 98 Processor 486DX, 25 MHz or higher 486DX, 66 MHz or higher RAM 4 MB (8 MB recommended) 24 MB (32 MB recommended) Hard disk storage 40 to 45 MB 140 to 315 MB
  99. 99. 99/33 Types of Installations • Clean install  May need to change boot order in CMOS  Comes on a set of floppy disks or on a CD • Upgrade install
  100. 100. 100/33 Installing 9x as an Upgrade • Verify hard drive space • Run ScanDisk and antivirus software • Save configuration files (Windows 3.x) • Check Config.sys and Autoexec.bat for potential problems • Disable TSRs that might cause problems • Verify network connection is working • Create rescue disk (from Windows 95 to 98) • Put swap file on drive compressed with protected-mode software • Decide whether to use FAT16 or FAT32
  101. 101. 101/33 Installation Process from Setup Screen • Setup options  Typical  Portable  Compact  Custom • Begins in real mode; switches to protected mode • Records information in log files  Setuplog.txt  Detlog.txt  Detcrash.log
  102. 102. 102/33 Customizing Setup • Information about the installation can be stored in information files (.inf), then used to do an automatic, hands-free installation • Can add switches to Setup.exe command that starts the setup process
  103. 103. 103/33 Switches for Setup Command
  104. 104. 104/33 continued…
  105. 105. 105/33 Windows 9x Installations Problems and Solutions
  106. 106. 106/33 Configuring Windows 9x Startup with Msdos.sys • Msdos.sys contains several parameters that affect how OS boots  AutoScan, BootMulti, BootWin, BootGUI, BootM enu, BootMenuDefault, BootMenuDelay, BootKey s, BootDelay, Logo, Drvspace, DoubleBuffer, Net work, BootFailSafe, BootWarn, LoadTop • To edit Msdos.sys, first change file attributes
  107. 107. 107/33 Downloading and Installing Updates for Windows 9x • Access Microsoft Web site by clicking Windows Update on Start menu Keystroke Shortcuts in Windows
  108. 108. 108/33 Managing the Windows 9x Desktop • Make applications automatically load at startup • Create shortcuts to files and applications  User clicks an icon to load software • Make environment more user-friendly
  109. 109. 109/33 File Attributes
  110. 110. 110/33 Installing Hardware with Windows 9x • Adding new hardware • Installing 16-bit and 32-bit device drivers • Plug and Play support • Installing and using device drivers under Windows9x  Use Add New Hardware Wizard  Select from a list of devices to use a Windows driver or click Have Disk to use your own drivers • View and change current device drivers from the Control Panel
  111. 111. 111/33 Installing a CD-ROM Drive with Windows 9x • Most manufacturers assume that Windows will provide 32-bit drivers and ship accompanying floppy disk only with 16-bit drivers • Use 16-bit drivers if hard drive has failed and you are booting from the rescue disk  Rescue disk created in Windows 98 automatically includes 16-bit drivers  Rescue disk created in Windows 95 does not automatically include 16-bit drivers, but you can add them
  112. 112. 112/33 Plug and Play Hardware Installations • Criteria  System BIOS must be PnP  All hardware devices and expansion cards must be PnP-compliant  OS must support PnP (eg, Windows 9x)  A 32-bit device driver (VxD) must be available
  113. 113. 113/33 Installing Applications in Windows 9x • Preparing for software installation  Check available resources  Protect original software  Back up registry and system configuration files • Performing software installations  Use Add/Remove Programs icon from Control Panel  After installation is complete and software is working, update backup copies of: • Autoexec.bat • Config.sys • System.ini • Win.ini • Registry
  114. 114. 114/33 Installing Applications in Windows 9x • Troubleshooting software installations  Delete all files and folders under WindowsTemp  Look at Readme.htm hypertext file in Windows directory • Supporting DOS applications under Windows 9x  Use Properties feature of DOS program file, which will: • Create an individual PIF file for the program file • Serve as the PIF editor
  115. 115. 115/33 Real Mode vs. Virtual Real Mode • An OS that supports protected mode can allow a 16-bit program that is written to work in real mode to run in virtual real mode • In virtual real mode, the program “thinks” that:  It is the only program running  It has all memory available to it  It accesses data using a 16-bit data path
  116. 116. 116/33 Memory Management with Device Drivers in Windows 9x • Major improvements  New level of 32-bit protected mode drivers  Frees up more conventional and upper memory; no longer uses Smartdrv.exe or Share.exe • Managing memory for 16-bit drivers
  117. 117. 117/33 Windows 9x Swap File
  118. 118. 118/33 Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) • Manages memory paging, which involves swapping blocks of memory stored in RAM to the hard drive
  119. 119. 119/33 Chapter Summary • How Windows 9x is structured and used • How Windows 9x works with various software programs and hardware devices