NaNo scieNceThe prefix “ nano” is a Greek word for “dwarf”One nanometer (nm) is equal to one-billionth of ameterAbout a width of 6 carbon atoms or 10 water moleculesA human hair is approximately 80,000 nm wideRed blood cells is 7000 nm wideAtoms are smaller than 1 nanometer Molecules and some proteins are between 1 nm andabove
NaNo scieNceAt IBM in the US, a technique called electron beamlithography was used to create nanostructures and devicesas small as 40 to 70 nm in the early 1970s
NaNo scieNceThe concept of nanotechnology was first coined by RichardFeynman in 1959 in his lecture “There’s plenty of room atthe bottom”Manipulating material at a scale of individual atoms andmoleculesImagining the whole Encyclopedia Britannica written onhead of a pin
NaNotechNology iNmediciNeNanotechnology is a new field with many possible uses,medicine being one of them
NaNo techNology“The manufacturing technology of the 21stcentury"The study and manufacture of devices of moleculardimensions, in the range of nanometers or one-billionth of a meterMost of industrial manufacturing processes arebased on top-down technologies -- i.e., they takelarger objects and make them smaller yieldingproducts of fairly high precision and complexity
NaNo techNologyDNA serves as a data-storage system, transmittingdigital instructions to molecular machines e.g., theribosomes, that manufacture protein molecules.
NaNo mediciNeSome medicines are made through biotechnologicalprocesses, for example those using recombinant DNA(human hepatitis vaccine)Under these processes the DNA of living creatures(usually bacteria) is alteredNanotechnology represents a similar approach to themanufacture of pharmaceuticals and other goods.
NaNo robots: mediciNe of thefutureWhat are they?Nano robots are nano devices that will be used for thepurpose of maintaining and protecting the human bodyagainst pathogens.They will have a diameter of about 0.5 to 3 microns andwill be constructed out of parts with dimensions in therange of 1 to 100 nanometers
NaNo robotsThe powering of the nanorobots can be done bymetabolizing local glucose and oxygen for energyOther sources of energy within the body can also beused to supply the necessary energy for the devicesThey will have simple onboard computers capable ofperforming around 1000 or fewer computations persecond.
NaNorobotsA navigational network may be installed in the body,which may provide high positional accuracy to allpassing nanorobotsThis will enable the physician to keep track of thevarious devices in the body
A singleinhalednanorobotreaches,deeplyinspired intothe lungs,enters analveolar ductand attachesto the tissuesurface.
Mechanicaldrilling of asmall tumormass by ananorobot
TherapeuTic applicaTions ofnanoTechnology in MedicineNanotechnology also theoretically allows the mimickingof natural biological processes e.g., repair of damagedtissuesUsing nanotech to build scaffoldings of artificialmolecules that bone cells often adhere to and growbones onBroken bones would heal much faster.Transport of oxygen within the body by creating anartificial red blood cell
TherapeuTic applicaTions ofnanoTechnology in MedicineTo cure skin diseases, a cream containing nanorobotsmay be used it may:- Remove the right amount of dead skin- Remove excess oils- Add missing oils- Apply the right amounts of naturalmoisturising compounds- Achieve the elusive goal of deep pore cleaningby actually reaching down into pores andcleaning them out.
TherapeuTic applicaTions ofnanoTechnology in MedicineA mouthwash full of smart nanomachines could identifyand destroy pathogenic bacteria while allowing theharmless flora of the mouth to flourish in a healthyecosystem
Four remote-controlled nanorobots examineand clean the subocclusal surfaces of apatients teeth, near the gumline.DentalRobots
TherapeuTic applicaTions ofnanoTechnology in MedicineMedical nanodevices couldaugment theimmune system byfinding anddisabling unwantedbacteria andviruses.
A NANOROBOT NIBBLING ON AN ATHEROSCLEROTIC DEPOSIT INA BLOOD VESSEL
“Stinger"nanorobotgrabs a sick Tlymphocyteand injects aglucocorticoiddesigned toinducecellularapoptosis.