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Animal behaviour analysis with GPS and 3D accelerometers


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Presentation delivered at European Conference for Precision Livestock Farming at 11 September 2013 by Andrew Spink. How GPS and 3D accelerometers help in sensing and analysing different animal behaviours.

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Animal behaviour analysis with GPS and 3D accelerometers

  1. 1. Animal behaviour analysis with GPS and 3D accelerometers 6th European Conference on Precision Livestock Farming Andrew Spink, Brian Cresswell, Andrea Kölzsch, Frank van Langevelde, Marjolein Neefjes, Lucas Noldus, Herman van Oeveren, Herbert Prins, Tamme van der Wal, Nelleke de Weerd & Willem Frederik de Boer
  2. 2. E-Track Consortium • Noldus Information Technology BV • AeroVision BV • Biotrack Ltd • Wageningen University • Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research • Netherlands Institute of Ecology 11-Sep-13 2
  3. 3. Better and more reliably track and analyse the movements and behaviour of animals under field conditions • Limited battery life means sample rate has to be low — Smaller and more efficient GPS receivers • Inefficiencies of data import, formatting, smoothing, etc — Complete integrated solution of software and hardware • Location is the start, knowing what the animal is doing is more relevant —EGNOS-enhanced GPS to detect animal behaviours 11-Sep-13 3
  4. 4. 11-Sep-13 4 Position of cow determined by GNSS (GPS) Ionosphere causes inaccuracies EGNOS ground station measures difference in actual position and GNSS position Correction factor transmitted live by Galileo satellite and offline by internet (EDAS)
  5. 5. • European Geo-stationary Navigation Overlay Service • Accuracy improves from about 10m to 1-2m • Factors such a tree canopies and deep valleys will still cause inaccuracies (less satellites) • More accurate tracking opens the possibility to go beyond simple location data to detection of behaviours 11-Sep-13 5
  6. 6. Livestock Experiment Methods • Cows equipped with GPS collars and manually observed with Pocket Observer • GPS data visualized with TrackLab • Correlation between behaviours & GPS data tested with ANOVA • Decision tree used to create a model, which was then validated on new data 11-Sep-13 6
  7. 7. Livestock Experiment • Cow moves slower near water and silage • Searching behaviour (long segments, high speed) cf foraging behaviour (short segments, low speed)11-Sep-13 8 Results
  8. 8. Livestock Experiment Results (raw data) • Ruminating and Standing are not different • Foraging, Walking, do differ from Ruminating/ Standing 11-Sep-13 9 Turnangle°
  9. 9. Livestock Experiment Results (raw data) • Walking has higher velocity than other behaviours • Foraging & Walking have lower turn angle than Ruminating and Standing 11-Sep-13 10 Turnangle° Distance(m) Foraging Ruminating Walking Standing
  10. 10. Livestock experiment 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Foraging Ruminating Standing Walking Standing & Ruminating 11-Sep-13 13 % correctly classified
  11. 11. Livestock Experiment Results – Effects of forest canopy • Spread of data is less than in open area • Groups still different • Correct classification is only 57% 11-Sep-13 14
  12. 12. GPS & Accelerometer data Methods • EGNOS GPS collars attached to geese (<2% body weight) • 3D accelerometers on collars (not just tilt switch) • Behaviours manually scored with The Observer XT • Preliminary data – visual comparisons 11-Sep-13 15
  13. 13. GPS & Accelerometer data 11-Sep-13 16
  14. 14. GPS & Accelerometer data 11-Sep-13 17 Behaviours which cannot be distinguished by GPS, have different accelerometer waveforms
  15. 15. Ongoing research • TrackLab will be expanded to include import of accelerometer data, data segmentation, analysis of social behaviours • We are very interested in feedback! • Combined GPS, accelerometer & other data for detection of behaviours • Library of behaviours & parameters to detect them 11-Sep-13 18
  16. 16. Ongoing research • Intelligent geofencing — accurate positions, behaviours as input • Combination of indoor and outdoor tracking • Partnership with researchers working with precision livestock 11-Sep-13 19
  17. 17. GPS & Accelerometer data Conclusions • GPS data can be used to distinguish a variety of behaviours • The more accurate the GPS, the more behaviours • Additional data such as from accelerometers can enable detection of more behaviours — more research needed • TrackLab is an efficient solution for acquiring, visualizing and analysing tracking data 11-Sep-13 20
  18. 18. E-Track is carried out in the context of the Galileo FP7 R&D programme supervised by the GSA. (nr. 277679-2). For more information, please check . Thank you for your attention. 11-Sep-13 21