Endocrine system

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Short revision of endocrine glands

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Endocrine system

  1. 1. 1234567218 9A9B1C DEF8C88AFCFBF8E8 !#828C$%F T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  2. 2. 1 Endocrine system maintains homeostasis: 2 Growth, maturation, reproduction, energy, metabolism (physical and chemical changes that (physical takes place w/i an organism), behavior1 Composed of glands or glandular tissue: 2 Synthesize, store, and secrete hormones1 Endocrine- Endocrine-glands /or cells are ductless but highly vascular; secretion hormones into bloodstream T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  3. 3. HORMONES1 Hormones: natural chemical substances secreted1 Carried in bloodstream to “target” cells/tissues1 Effects are direct or indirect 2 Trophic/tropic- Trophic/tropic- stimulate another endocrine gland T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  4. 4. 1 What are hormones?1 Hormones are organic chemical messengers produced and secreted by endocrine cells into the bloodstream. Hormones regulate, integrate and control a wide range of physiologic functions. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  5. 5. Characteristics:1 Circulate in blood at low concentrations1 Secreted in minute amounts at variable rates1 Bind to specific receptors/cells1 Variable effects on rates of responses1 Most not stored, must be produced as needed1 Activity is of short duration T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  6. 6. Actions of Hormones1 Fetal development and differentiation1 Cell growth1 Metabolism1 Cardiovascular function1 Renal function1 Skeletal function1 Reproductive function1 Immune function1 Central nervous system function T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  7. 7. SECRETION1 Pituitary-target Pituitary- gland axis: pituitary gland regulates endocrine glands thru tropic hormones. Tropic hormones get feedback about specific target glands by constant monitoring of levels of hormone.1 Works by stimulation or inhibition of hormones T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  8. 8. SECRETION1 Hypothalamic-pituitary-target-gland Hypothalamic-pituitary-target- axis: axis: hypothalamus in brain’s di-encephalon di- produces tropic hormones; in particular the pituitary gland. In turn, pituitary controls other target glands to produce hormones. Therefore works indirectly1 Hypothalamus secretes releasing factors and inhibiting factors T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  9. 9. FEEDBACK MECHANISMS1 Negative- Negative- increased levels of substance inhibit hormone synthesis and secretion; decreased levels stimulate production and release (heat thermostat)1 Positive- increased levels stimulate hormone Positive- production and release; decreased levels inhibit synthesis and secretion1 Complex- thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in Complex- pituitary is activated by thyroid releasing hormone (TRH) and inhibited by somatostatin (in hypothalamus). Decreased T3 T4 leads to increased TSH release. Increased levels lead to inhibit TSH secretion T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  10. 10. DYSFUNCTIONS DEFINITIONS1 HYPERFUNCTION: HYPERFUNCTION: excessive hormone production/function1 HYPOFUNCTION: deficient hormone HYPOFUNCTION: function/production1 HYPERTROPHY: increase in size of organ, in bulk not in # of cells or tissue elements as a result of increased function1 HYPERPLASIA: excessive proliferation of normal cells in normal tissue arrangement of an organ T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  11. 11. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao.h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i FeP ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  12. 12. THE PITUITARY (HYPOPHYSIS)T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao.h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i FeP ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  13. 13. THE PITUITARY1 The pituitary is located just below the brain, and this location is crucial for its function.1 The part of the brain in direct contact with the pituitary is the hypothalamus, but neural pathways mediate influences of other parts of the brain on the pituitary.1 As described in the above figure (including the legend!), the pituitary in the human consists of two lobes: the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis), and the posterior lobe. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  14. 14. 1 The posterior lobe is also referred to as “the neurohypophysis”. However, these two terms are not entirely synonymous, as will be explained later.1 Anatomically, the pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus by the stalk, a “stem” much thinner than the pituitary itself.1 The interrelation of the two parts of the pituitary with the brain is different in nature.1 The endocrine cells of the anterior pituitary are epithelial. There are five types of adenohypopyseal cells, each specializing in producing one or two hormones, all of them proteins or long polypeptides. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  15. 15. 1 Of the six hormones of the anterior pituitary discussed in this course, four are tropic (trophic) hormones, namely, hormones whose central target organ is an endocrine gland.1 The hypothalamus regulates the anterior pituitary cells via neurohormones, produced by hypothalamic neurons. The hypothalamic hormones are secreted from the nerve endings of these neurons (i.e., from the end of their axons).1 They then diffuse into the portal system (branched blood vessels), which brings them to the anterior pituitary cells.1 The hypothalamic hormones are cell-type specific. cell- Most of the hypothalamic hormones are stimulatory, but there are several inhibitory ones as well. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  16. 16. 1 The anterior pituitary has five types of cells- cells- somtotrophs, thyrotrophs, gonadotrophs, lactotrophs and corticotrophs. These cells secrete seven hormones.1 The two hormones secreted from the posterior pituitary are vasopressin (or anti diuretic hormone – ADH), and oxytocin. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  17. 17. HORMONE TARGET PRINCIPAL ACTIONS TISSUE$8 LIVER Stimulates liver, muscle,8 cartilage, bone, and other tissues$8 promote growth of body cells,(8 protein synthesis, tissue repair.9$BE8 THYROID Stimulates synthesis and secretion)$ 8 GLAND of thyroid hormones by thyroid$8B9 gland.B8* 8 OVARIES In females initiates development)$ 8 TESTES of oocytes and induces ovarian$8*9 secretion of estrogens. In males stimulates testes to produce sperms. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  18. 18. HORMONE TARGET PRINCIPAL ACTIONS TISSUE+,8 OVARIES In females , stimulates secretion of$8 TESTES estrogens and progesterone, ovulation+ and formation of corpus luteum. In males stimulates production of testosterone.- 8 MAMMARY Together with other hormones-6+8 GLANDS promotes milk secretionE ADRENAL Stimulates secretion of glucocorticoids8 CORTEX by adrenal cortex.$85B8C 8 BRAIN May influence brain activity.)$ 8$8C9 T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  19. 19. HORMONE TARGET PRINCIPAL ACTIONS TISSUE4.84B8 UTERUS Stimulates contraction of MAMMARY smooth muscles of GLANDS uterus during child birth, stimulates milk ejectionD)))8 KIDNEYS Decreases urine volume,88 SWEAT decreases water lossE8 GLANDS through perspiration,$8 raises blood pressure by ARTERIOLES3 constricting arterioles T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  20. 20. ANTERIOR PITUITARY DYSFUNCTIONS1 HYPOPITUITARYISM: caused by deficiency of one or more of hormones. Decreased production of all hormones is rare, but referred to as panhypopituitarism1 More commonly, one or two deficiencies are present1 ACTH: Adrenocorticotropic hormone*1 TSH: thyroid stimulating hormone*1 **Most life-threatening life-1 Deficiencies of gonadotropins (LH,FSH) change sexual function in men and women1 Testicular failure in men, ovarian failure in women1 Lags in puberty, amenorrhea, and infertility T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  21. 21. ANTERIOR PITUITARY1 GROWTH HORMONE: changes tissue growth indirectly1 May lead to dwarfism (growth retardation), hypoglycemia, and delayed wound healing1 In adults, leads to decreased bone density, (osteoporosis) pathological fractures, decreased muscle strength, and increased cholesterol T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  22. 22. HYPERPITUITARYISM1 GROWTH HORMONE: produce gigantism or acromegaly 2 Gigantism: excess hormone occurs before puberty causing rapid proportional growth in bone length. Height 6’6” 2 Most die early with infection or trauma. 2 Acromegaly: occurs after puberty producing skeletal thickness, hypertrophy of skin, enlarged visceral organ like liver and heart. • Enlarged hands, feet, Para nasal and frontal sinuses, deformities of spin and mandible, enlarged tongue, speech difficulties, hoarseness, hypertension, oily skin, and joint pain • Cardiomegaly leads to CHF • GH is an insulin antagonist leading to hyperglycemia • Stimulate adrenal cortex- Cushing’s Disease cortex- T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  23. 23. POSTERIOR PITUITARY1 HYPOFUNCTION: responsible for ADH and oxytocin1 Deficiency of ADH- DIABETES INSIPIDUS ADH- DI1 123456758498ABC758D7CBE4F23D3 1757B376818F7B638C48623CBF857BF8CEF738 4C857CB228ABC753 B5784FD7384985278757C7684F52B3 B332786765BC2483 C2DFBC738C253C85734373 T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  24. 24. POSTERIOR PITUITARY1 HYPERFUNCTION1 Oversecretion of ADH - SYNDROME OF INAPPROPRIATE ADH (SIADH) T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  25. 25. DWARFISM ACROMEGALY T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  26. 26. THYROID GLANDT iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao.h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i FeP ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  27. 27. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao.h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i FeP ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  28. 28. • The butterfly shaped thyroid gland is located in front of the trachea, in the frontal neck. It is symmetrical, consisting of two lobes connected with a narrower “bridge” (Isthmus).• The normal mass of thyroid gland is 30 gms.• The thyroid’s basic structural unit is the follicle: a sphere made of one layer of epithelial endocrine cells.• The main products of the follicular cells are the thyroid hormones: T4 (tyroxine, or tetraiodothyronine) and T3 (triiodothyronine).• A few cells called parafollicular / C cells lie between follicles. They produce hormone calcitonin. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  29. 29. Follicular cell C cell (parafollicular) Basolateral (Basal) membraneApical membrane T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  30. 30. Thyroid gland hormonesHORMONE PRINCIPAL ACTIONSB/8 Increases basal metabolic rate,0E18 stimulate synthesis of proteins,B2808.18 increase use of glucose, fatty acids, increase lipolysis, accelerate body growth.5 805B18 Lowers blood levels of ionic calcium, phosphorus T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  31. 31. THYROID1 Functions: 2 Metabolism: increase rate, accelerate food utilization for energy, excites mental processes 2 Growth: in children accelerates growth 2 Carbohydrate: stimulates metabolism, including insulin secretion 2 Fat: enhances fat metabolism 2 Body wt: production relates inversely to body wt (does not stimulate appetite) 2 CV: causes vasodilation, increased cardiac output and heart rate, increased systolic B/P by 10-20 mm but diastolic may 10- drop the same 2 Respiration: increases O2 use, rate, and depth 2 GI: increases appetitie, absorption,motility 2 CNS: speeds mental processes T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  32. 32. Hyperthyroidism 2 Involves excessive hormone production 2 Leads to hyper metabolism 2 Signs and symptoms: thyrotoxicosis 2 Stimulates heart, protein synthesis, breakdownbuildup leading to negative nitrogen balance (degradation); hyperglycemia; increased fat metabolism1 Grave’s disease: toxic diffuse goiter disease:1 Most common1 Strikes women, 20-30. 20-1 Multi system syndrome, affecting eyes, skin, bones1 Increased thyroid hormone as well as goiter T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  33. 33. Hypothyroidism 2 Deficiency in thyroid hormone 2 Leads to low metabolism with build-up of metabolites 2 Metabolites with water accumulate within cells, cause edema, called Myxedema 2 Myxedema coma: rare but can occur; heart becomes flabby, chambers increase in size, CO decreases; life threatening; high mortality rate1 3 TYPES: 2 HYPOTHYROIDISM: adult onset; tissue destruction is most probable cause 2 CRETINISM: • Profound hypothyroidism in infants • All developmental aspects are retarded • Severe brain damage can occur • If caught early, can prevent retardation 2 JUVENILE HYPOTHYROIDISM: • Begins during childhood, Hashimoto’s disease, caused by drugs, autoimmune • Affects growth and sexual maturation T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  34. 34. THYROID CANCERCONGENITAL RETROSTERNALHYPOTHYROIDISM T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  35. 35. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao.h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i FeP ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  36. 36. PARATHYROID GLANDS1 Partially embedded un posterior surface of lateral lobes of thyroid glands are several small round masses of tissue called parathyroid glands.1 Each parathyroid gland has a mass of 40 mg.1 Usually one superior and one inferior parathyroid gland is attached to each lateral thyroid lobe.1 Parathyroid has 2 type of cells – chief cells and oxyphil cell. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  37. 37. 1 Parathyroid hormone corrects calcium deficiency by promoting calcium conservation by kidneys, stimulating calcium release by bone, enhance calcium absorption from GI, reduce serum phosphate levels.1 Works on negative feedback control1 In kidneys, causes calcium to be reabsorbed with release of phosphorus1 Stimulates kidneys to convert Vit D to a metabolite that allows for PTH to work on bone1 In bone, helps convert osteoblasts to osteoclasts, promoting bone breakdown and release of calcium.1 Acts on GI to stimulate absorption of calcium (must have calcitriol).1 Calcitonin from thyroid causes inhibition of Ca++ release from bones T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  38. 38. Parathyroid gland hormonesHORMONE PRINCIPAL ACTIONS-E8 Increases blood Ca and Mg levels$8 decreases blood phosphate level0-B18 promotes vita.D production. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  39. 39. Parathyroid dysfunctions1 Hyperparathyroidism: lead to increased calcium and decreased phosphorus.1 Hypoparathyroidism:too little PTH leading to decreased calcium and increase phosphorus. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  40. 40. Hyperparathyroidism Hypothyroidism T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  41. 41. ADRENAL GLANDS T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  42. 42. ADRENAL GLANDS1 The paired adrenal ( suprarenal ) glands, one of which lies superior to each kidney, have a flattened pyramidal shape.1 In an adult each adrenal gland is 3-5 cm in height, 2-3 cm in width and 1 cm thick. Weighs about 3.5-5 gms.1 The adrenal gland has 2 different parts- a large peripherally located adrenal cortex, small centrally located adrenal medulla.1 The adrenal medulla has chromaffin cells which produce epinephrine and norepinephrine.1 The adrenal cortex is sub divided into 3 zones. 2 Zona glomerulosa – outer zone secretes mineralocorticoids 2 Zona fasciculata - middle wider zone secretes glucocorticoids. 2 Zona reticularis – inner zone secretes androgens/ sex hormones. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  43. 43. HORMONE SOURCE PRINCIPAL ACTIONSC Zona Increase blood levels ofE)8 glomerulosa Na, water decreases K( Zona Increases proteinE) fasciculata breakdown, stimulate lipolysis, dampen inflammationE)8 Zona Assist in early growth of reticularis axillary and pubic hair, in females libido.18 Adrenal Fight-or-flight, increase in38 medulla heart rate, contraction, blood pressure, blood flow, glucose level. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  44. 44. ADRENAL DYSFUNCTIONS1 Cushing’s syndrome: hypercortisolism1 Cortisol excess1 Affects more women than men1 ADRENAL GLAND INSUFFICIENCY: ADDISON’S -Suppressed adrenocortical function and hormones1 May precipitate “adrenal crisis”: life-threatening life-1 ALDOSTERONISM- ALDOSTERONISM- Excessive secretion of mineralocorticoids, especially aldosterone T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  45. 45. Cushing’s SyndromeT iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao.h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i FeP ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  46. 46. PANCREAS1 Pancreas is both endocrine as well as exocrine gland.1 The pancreas is 12.5-15 cm in length. 12.5-1 It is located in curve of duodenum.1 It has a head, body and tail.1 Scattered among the exocrine acini are 1- 1- 2 millions tiny clusters of endocrine tissue called pancreatic islets or islets of langerhans. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  47. 47. HORMONE SOURCE PRINCIPAL ACTIONS( 8 Alpha Raises blood glucose level cells A cells7) 8 Beta cells Lowers blood glucose level B cells9$) Delta Inhibits secretion of insulin cells and glucagon D cells-8 F cells Inhibits Somatostatin E secretion. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  48. 48. Hormones of the OvariesHORMONE SOURCE PRINCIPAL ACTIONS1))#8 ovary Regulate female reproductive) cycle, oogenesis, maintain pregnancy, promote development of feminine secondary sex characters6 .8 ovary Flexibility of pubic symphysis dilation uterine cervix7%8 ovary Inhibits secretion of FSH from anterior pituitory. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  49. 49. Hormones of the TestesHORMONE SOURCE PRINCIPAL ACTIONSB))8 Testes Stimulates descent of testes before birth, regulates spermatogenesis, promotes maintains masculine secondary sex characters.7%8 Testes Inhibits secretion of FSH from anterior pituitary. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao. h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i Fe P ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a
  50. 50. T iP F liCetd yr les n f D -lP F rao.h D - es rae b tavro o P F i D Cetr s i i FeP ae s p r ae vro t rmoe h mesg . l s ue uc sd es n o e v ti s e e h i s a

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