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  1. 1. Legal and Insitutional Structures for REDD+: International and National Landscapes<br />Duncan Marsh<br />The Nature Conservancy<br />REDDex<br />July, 2010<br />
  2. 2. International Institutional Arrangements<br />
  3. 3. International Negotiating Body: UNFCCC<br />Multilateral Funding Vehicles for REDD+<br />Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF)<br />UN REDD<br />Forest Investment Program <br />(under World Bank’s Climate Investment Funds)<br />Bilateral Donors<br />Global REDD+ Partnership <br />coordinating partnership, emerged from “Paris-Oslo process”<br />Mobilize funding<br />UN REDD and FCPF to contribute support services<br />Institutional Landscape<br />
  4. 4. International Institutional Arrangements<br />Global REDD+ Partnership<br />
  5. 5. FCPF = A Partnership to Make REDD+ Happen<br />37 Countries and TwoMechanisms<br />5<br />Readiness Mechanism<br />READINESS FUND<br />Capacity Building<br />(2008-2012?)<br />Target ~$185 million<br />Available $115 million<br />Carbon Finance Mechanism<br />CARBON FUND<br />Emission Reductions<br />(2011-2015?)<br />Target ~$200 million<br />Pledged $55 million<br />
  6. 6. FCPF: The Big Picture<br />6<br />
  7. 7. FCPF: Composition of 2nd Participants Committee<br />REDD COUNTRIES<br />Argentina<br />Colombia<br />Costa Rica<br />DRC<br />Gabon<br />Ghana<br />Kenya<br />CONTRIBUTORS<br />AFD<br />Australia<br />Denmark<br />European Commission<br />Finland<br />Germany<br />Japan<br />Mexico<br />Nepal<br />Panama<br />Papua New Guinea<br />Suriname<br />Tanzania<br />Vietnam<br />Netherlands<br />Norway<br />Spain<br />Switzerland<br />The Nature Conservancy<br />United Kingdom<br />United States<br />OBSERVERS<br />Forest-Dependent Indigenous Peoples, Private Sector, <br />International Organizations, <br />NGOs, <br />UNFCCC Secretariat, <br />UN-REDD Programme<br />
  8. 8. Multilateral REDD+ institutions: Governance characteristics<br />
  9. 9. National-Level Institutional Arrangements<br />
  10. 10. Implementation framework needs to cover legislation and policy instruments that help institutions to govern REDD program (financing mechanisms, institutional mandates, stakeholder engagement, data management, etc.) <br />Legislation – <br />Existing Laws: eg, Costa Rica, Mexico and Argentina<br />Proposed Laws: eg, Republic of Congo<br />Mexico, Costa Rica, for example, have existing financing mechanisms and institutions that other countries could learn from<br />No one size fits all, but general principles apply.<br />Variations in Countries’ Institutional Infrastructure and Needs<br />
  11. 11. Top-Level of Structure: National Committee -- DRC<br />
  12. 12. Lead Agency in Kenya: Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources<br />MEMR<br />NEMA<br />Secretariat at MEMR<br />PROGRAMS OFFICE<br />Policy, Law and Strategy<br />Adaptation Programs Division<br />Monitoring & Evaluation Division<br />Research, Early Warning and Disaster Management Division<br />Communications, Education and Awareness Division<br />Emissions Trading, CDM and Technology Transfer Division:the DNA<br />REDD, Land Use and Land Use Change Division<br />Key Players:<br />Government, Local Authorities Universities, Private Sector, Civil Society/ NGOs<br />Key Players:<br />Inter Dep’t committee of experts on M&E, External M&E experts, Internal Auditors, External Auditors, Office of the PM<br />Key Players:<br />KMD, Nat’l Lands Information Management Systems, CC Expert Group, KFS, KWS, KASALs, FAO & other local and Int’l orgs & dev’t partners<br />Key Players:<br />Government, Universities, NEMA, Media Training Institutions, Civil Society/ NGOs, Local & Dev’t Partners<br />Key Players:<br />IPC, NEMA, Gov’t, Local Authorities, KIRDI, KIPI, KEBS, KNPC, NGOs, Local and foreign experts and Dev’t partners<br />Key Players:<br />Gov’t, KFS, KARI, KEFRI, NEMA, ICRAF, ICIPE, Local and Int’l NGOs & Dev’t partners<br />
  13. 13. Thank you<br />
  14. 14. Additional slides<br />
  15. 15. FCPF Governance<br />Participants Assembly (PA) <br />All Eligible REDD Countries, <br />Donors and Carbon Fund Participants<br />Technical Advisory Panels (TAP)<br />- Forum for exchange of information<br /><ul><li> Meets at least annually
  16. 16. Opportunity for ‘subgroups’ to meet and discuss experiences, elect their representatives</li></ul>Provide external technical <br />Advise and Assessments<br />Readiness<br />Fund<br />(Bank as <br />Trustee)<br />Carbon<br />Fund<br />(Bank as <br />Trustee)<br />Participants Committee (PC) <br />An elected subset of the PA with equal numbers of Donors and REDD Countries<br />Primary decision making body, including all policy issues<br />Official Observers<br />Carbon Fund Participants <br />Committee<br />Facility Management Team (FMT)<br />(Bank)<br />Decision making on specific carbon transactions<br />Bank facilitates partnership and ensures compliance with policies <br />
  17. 17. From Readiness to Carbon Finance<br />“REDD ready”<br />REDD plus Strategy<br />Reference Scenario<br />Monitoring System<br />Management arrangements<br />16<br />World Bank support (readiness preparation + fiduciary and safeguards) throughout <br />IMPLEMENTATION <br />(Carbon Fund)<br />PREPARATION (Readiness Fund)<br />Carbon Fund<br />
  18. 18. DRC Example for an Implementation Framework Process<br />
  19. 19. National Readiness Management Arrangements<br />Most R-PPs provide a comprehensive arrangement that includes all the relevant ministries and other stakeholders<br />However, there are three classes of problems:<br />Assuring high enough political profile<br />Making the consultative bodies powerful enough and broadly representative enough <br />Overcoming sectoral constraints about REDD (agriculture, mining, local government)<br />Most countries achieve some, but rarely all of these conditions<br />Important to create a top-level coordinating body to facilitate cross-sectoralcoordination<br />
  20. 20. The Three Phases of REDD+<br />Operations<br /><ul><li> Payments
  21. 21. Performance-based </li></ul>Capacity, Reforms <br />& Investments <br /><ul><li>Institution strengthening
  22. 22. Forest governance </li></ul> and information<br /><ul><li>Sustainable forest </li></ul> management<br /><ul><li>Investments outside </li></ul> forest sector<br />Readiness<br /><ul><li>Diagnostic
  23. 23. Reference Scenario
  24. 24. REDD Strategy
  25. 25. Monitoring System
  26. 26. REDD management structure</li>