Designing redd+ projects johnp


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Designing redd+ projects johnp

  1. 1. DESIGNING REDD+ PROJECTSLessons from the Past<br />John Pielemeier<br />Independent Consultant<br />
  2. 2. Types of Programs to Learn From<br />Integrated Rural Development (late 60s-70s)<br />Integrated Conservation and Development (mid-1980s – today)<br />Landscape projects (mid-1990s-today)<br />Payment for (non-environmental) Services<br />Global Initiatives<br />
  3. 3. Integrated Rural Development<br />“Extending development to low-income subsistence populations”<br />Province or District-wide. Ag focus, but a wide range of productive and social services<br />$50-100M over 5-10 years<br />Often managed via Project Management Units<br />
  4. 4. Lessons Learned-Lele<br />Tried to accomplish too much too fast<br />Too complex for recipients<br />Too complex for donors<br />Inadequate knowledge of socio-political and administrative environment<br />
  5. 5. IRD Recommendations (1)<br />Complex projects need careful phasing<br />Consider a planning year<br />Start with:<br /> - local capacity building<br /> - careful data collection<br /> - identification and resolution of policy constraints.<br />
  6. 6. IRD Recommendations (2)<br />Begin with “only the simplest interventions to remove the most critical constraints” <br />Train field and administrative staff<br />Develop local and regional human, institutional and financial capability<br />Strengthen regional administration systems <br />
  7. 7. Integrated Conservation and Development<br />Created to “move beyond fines and fences” & work with people in and around the PAs (buffer zones)<br />50+ by 1995; estimated 300 ICDPs today <br />“BD conservation projects with rural development components”.<br />Activities: Social Development, Alternative Livelihoods<br />
  8. 8. ICDP Lessons Learned-Brandon and Wells<br />Tenuous linkage between development and conservation <br />Difficult to measure conservation impact<br />ICDPs too limited in size to resolve many “external” threats<br />PAs too small to effect national/sub-national conservation needs<br />
  9. 9. ICDP Lessons Learned- Madagascar <br />Conservation NGOs unable to respond effectively to multiple community priorities <br />Limited Community management capacity<br />Hard to avoid elite capture/internal conflict<br />
  10. 10. ICDP Recommendations <br />Longer project cycle needed to change behavior<br />Implement a few prioritized activities, ideally with local participation and leadership<br />Start small, learn and scale-up gradually as capacity improves<br />Approach conservation and development within the broader context of regional planning<br />Address wider policy/legal/market constraints<br />
  11. 11. Landscapes – What is it?<br />Large-scale regions with particular biological importance for conservation investment <br />The landscape approach is all about ensuring that land is optimally used for various purposes—from protected areasto agriculture, including restoration<br />
  12. 12. Central Africa Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE): Lessons Learned (1)<br />Need sufficient resources and time<br />Establish adequate overarching legal and policy framework<br />Use macrozone and microzone land use planning<br />Figure out stakeholder relationships<br />Establish the incentive system as close to the deforestation problem as possible <br />
  13. 13. CARPE – Lessons Learned (2)<br />Need participatory approaches and local capacity building<br />Integration into markets is critical for promoting improved livelihoods<br /> Establish systems to share information for decision making. See for CARPE mapper. CARPE Data Explorer and CARPE Information Management <br />
  14. 14. Madagascar Landscape Development Initiative: Lessons Learned<br />Lead with sustainable development, not BD conservation. Economic benefits are key<br />Get quick, visible results in order to build trust with communities<br />Must work at multiple scales: spatial, temporal and institutional<br />Ensure linkages and coordination between these scales<br />Cross-sectoral approaches appeal to clients and are cost-effective<br />
  15. 15. Landscapes – Lessons Learned <br />Local participation is a key ingredient, perhaps THE key ingredient, in long-term success<br />Local capacity is very weak and its strengthening requires early attention.<br />Good policies mean little if not implemented<br />Implementing NGOs can work in more than one sector with “value added” (e.g. conservation, basic health services, micro-credit) <br />
  16. 16. Landscapes – Recommendations <br />Work at multiple scales (regional, district, community). Address jurisdictional issues<br />Have a holistic vision and accompanying land-use plans <br />Focus on specific zones within the landscape e.g. PAs, Indigenous Lands, concessions<br />Keep management systems as simple as possible (especially donor requirements)<br />
  17. 17. Payment for (non-environmental) Services or Conditional Cash Transfer<br />Initially in Brazil and Mexico, now more than 12 countries<br />These programs provide money to poor families, conditional on certain behavior<br /> -school attendance <br /> -visits to health centers on a regular basis<br />
  18. 18. Payment for (non-environmental) Services: Lessons Learned (1)<br />Clear evidence of success from the first generationof programs <br />Increasedenrollment rates<br />Improved preventive health care<br />Increasedhousehold consumption. <br />Still new: many questions remain unanswered about longer-term impact and sustainability <br />
  19. 19. Payment for (non-environmental) Services: Lessons (2) <br />The most important questions of program design are:<br />defining the target population<br />selecting the appropriate conditions and size of the transfer<br />setting entry and exit rules<br />deciding on complementary interventions<br />
  20. 20. Global Initiatives: HIV/AIDS: Lessons Learned (1)<br />Donor overload and donor competition<br />Competing donor requirements led to “the three 1s”: one strategy, one M&E system, one national coordination office<br />Scarce human resources “stolen” from other health programs<br />Donor/NGO staff also concentrated on one issue<br />Vertical program management (HIV only) <br />
  21. 21. Global Initiatives: HIV/AIDS: Lessons Learned (2)<br />2nd phase focus in now on broader health systems strengthening<br />Wherever you have a major initiative, the auditors will be close behind. Be prepared.<br />
  22. 22. Recurring Themes (1)<br />Adequate project timeframe and funding<br />How to work at multiple scales: spatial, institutional, temporal<br />Decide degree and means of coordination needed between scales<br />Sequencing<br />Policy and legal framework; policy implementation capacity<br />
  23. 23. Recurring Themes (2) <br />Capacity at community, district, regional and national levels<br />Capacity and flexibility of funding agencies and NGOs. Need for partners.<br />How to find/develop leadership and local “champions”<br />How to gain “trust” and provide incentives<br />Use of cross-sectoral approaches<br />
  24. 24. Thank you!Questions and Reactions Please<br />Questions and Reactions Please<br />