Online Grammar Clinic I Prof.Trad.Valeria Virga Theme, focus &  information processing Today we are going to examine  Clef...
Let´s recap <ul><li>In our previous class we have seen structures that are the results of constituents being moved, for sp...
Focus structures <ul><li>Today we will look at structures that result form the movement of constituents . </li></ul><ul><l...
Cleft-sentences <ul><li>As Ron Cowan explains: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cleft sentences, or  clefts  , are a variation of </li>...
Clefting <ul><li>It is interesting to note that although information </li></ul><ul><li>could well be given in a single cla...
Consider the following <ul><li>The individual  </li></ul><ul><li>ultimately feels  </li></ul><ul><li>the effects of  </li>...
And now this: <ul><li>Its is the individual who  </li></ul><ul><li>ultimately feels the  </li></ul><ul><li>effects of the ...
Clefting <ul><li>Why are cleft sentences used? </li></ul><ul><li>To bring particular elements into additional focus </li><...
Interesting! <ul><li>Which elements can be used as focus in </li></ul><ul><li>cleft sentences? </li></ul><ul><li>The Feder...
Answer <ul><li>The Federal Convention   </li></ul><ul><li>convened  in the State  </li></ul><ul><li>House  </li></ul><ul><...
That is to say: <ul><li>NPs, whichever function they fulfill </li></ul><ul><li>Prep Ps as Adverbials of place </li></ul><u...
Cleft Sentences consist of: <ul><li>It is the individual who ultimately feels the </li></ul><ul><li>effects of the governm...
Cleft sentences: analysis <ul><li>It is the individual who ultimately feels the </li></ul><ul><li>effects of the governmen...
Consider the following: <ul><li>The ceremony was in the hands of Mr </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Dubcek, who <…>.  He it wa...
Pseudo-cleft sentences: Quirk <ul><li>The focus is on the Verb </li></ul><ul><li>It occurs most typically with wh-clauses ...
Pseudo-cleft sentences <ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><li>To resume a topic. </li></ul><ul><li>To present the gist. </li></ul>...
Pseudo-cleft sentences <ul><li>I sent the committee  </li></ul><ul><li>a proposal to refurbish the building . </li></ul><u...
Pseudo-Cleft Sentences <ul><li>I sent the committee  </li></ul><ul><li>a proposal to refurbish the building . </li></ul><u...
An example found in  A Student´s Grammar of the English Language  by Quirk  et al  . <ul><li>What it was you asked for was...
Clefting <ul><li>Thank you, </li></ul><ul><li>Valeria </li></ul>
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Clefting

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Clefting

  1. 1. Online Grammar Clinic I Prof.Trad.Valeria Virga Theme, focus & information processing Today we are going to examine Cleft and Pseudo-Cleft Sentences
  2. 2. Let´s recap <ul><li>In our previous class we have seen structures that are the results of constituents being moved, for specific reasons related to communicative dynamism and the presentation of information. </li></ul><ul><li>We have also considered concepts such as theme-rheme and end-focus/weight. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Focus structures <ul><li>Today we will look at structures that result form the movement of constituents . </li></ul><ul><li>These structures are widely used in both conversation and writing </li></ul><ul><li>We, EFL teachers, should understand the grammar of these structures and their usage. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cleft-sentences <ul><li>As Ron Cowan explains: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cleft sentences, or clefts , are a variation of </li></ul><ul><li>basic declarative sentences, differe¿ing from </li></ul><ul><li>them in that constituents have been made </li></ul><ul><li>prominent through changes that include </li></ul><ul><li>spliting, or “clefting”, the sentence.” </li></ul><ul><li>Cowan, Ron (2008) “The Teacher´s Grammar of English”, CUP, USA. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Clefting <ul><li>It is interesting to note that although information </li></ul><ul><li>could well be given in a single clause, when using </li></ul><ul><li>cleft-sentences it is broken up into two clauses, </li></ul><ul><li>each with its own verb. </li></ul><ul><li>In this module we are going to deal with: </li></ul><ul><li>1- Cleft Sentences </li></ul><ul><li>2- Pseudo-Cleft Sentences </li></ul>
  6. 6. Consider the following <ul><li>The individual </li></ul><ul><li>ultimately feels </li></ul><ul><li>the effects of </li></ul><ul><li>the government </li></ul><ul><li>policies. </li></ul>
  7. 7. And now this: <ul><li>Its is the individual who </li></ul><ul><li>ultimately feels the </li></ul><ul><li>effects of the </li></ul><ul><li>government policies . </li></ul><ul><li>Which sentence do you like better and why? </li></ul>It is the individual
  8. 8. Clefting <ul><li>Why are cleft sentences used? </li></ul><ul><li>To bring particular elements into additional focus </li></ul><ul><li>For the sake of contrast </li></ul><ul><li>For the sake of cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>To contradict </li></ul><ul><li>To argue a point </li></ul><ul><li>To establish a topic </li></ul>
  9. 9. Interesting! <ul><li>Which elements can be used as focus in </li></ul><ul><li>cleft sentences? </li></ul><ul><li>The Federal Convention convened in the </li></ul><ul><li>State House (Independence Hall) in </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia on May 14, 1787, to revise </li></ul><ul><li>the Articles of Confederation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Answer <ul><li>The Federal Convention </li></ul><ul><li>convened in the State </li></ul><ul><li>House </li></ul><ul><li>(Independence Hall) </li></ul><ul><li>in Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><li>on May 14, 1787 , </li></ul><ul><li>to revise the Articles </li></ul><ul><li>of Confederation. </li></ul>
  11. 11. That is to say: <ul><li>NPs, whichever function they fulfill </li></ul><ul><li>Prep Ps as Adverbials of place </li></ul><ul><li>Prep Ps as Adverbials of time </li></ul><ul><li>Clauses, finite or non finite </li></ul><ul><li>-Except for VERBS- </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cleft Sentences consist of: <ul><li>It is the individual who ultimately feels the </li></ul><ul><li>effects of the government policies. </li></ul><ul><li>The pronoun “it” </li></ul><ul><li>A form of the verb “to be” </li></ul><ul><li>The focused element: NP, PP, AdvP or adverbial clause </li></ul><ul><li>A relative-like clause introduced by that/who/ Ø , whose last element receives end-focus. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cleft sentences: analysis <ul><li>It is the individual who ultimately feels the </li></ul><ul><li>effects of the government policies. </li></ul><ul><li>It : f: pers. pronoun, 3rd p sing, neuter </li></ul><ul><li>F: introductory element in a cleft sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Original Sentence : The individual ultimately feels </li></ul><ul><li>the effects of government policies”. </li></ul><ul><li>Focused Element : “the individual” f: NP F: S </li></ul>
  14. 14. Consider the following: <ul><li>The ceremony was in the hands of Mr </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Dubcek, who <…>. He it was who </li></ul><ul><li>ushered in the new head of state to the </li></ul><ul><li>dais in Prague Castle where the oath was </li></ul><ul><li>sworn. </li></ul><ul><li>In a rare variant of cleft-sentences, the </li></ul><ul><li>FE is placed in IP: “it was he, no one else” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pseudo-cleft sentences: Quirk <ul><li>The focus is on the Verb </li></ul><ul><li>It occurs most typically with wh-clauses as S, as it presents a climax in the complement. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the cleft-sentence, it rarely freely </li></ul><ul><li>permits marked focus to fall on the </li></ul><ul><li>predication. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pseudo-cleft sentences <ul><li>Uses </li></ul><ul><li>To resume a topic. </li></ul><ul><li>To present the gist. </li></ul><ul><li>To contradict. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pseudo-cleft sentences <ul><li>I sent the committee </li></ul><ul><li>a proposal to refurbish the building . </li></ul><ul><li>It is I that/who sent…building. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the committee that I sent…building. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a proposal to…building that I sent the </li></ul><ul><li>committee. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pseudo-Cleft Sentences <ul><li>I sent the committee </li></ul><ul><li>a proposal to refurbish the building . </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, the clause beginning with what is old information, and the focused element is new information. </li></ul><ul><li>What I sent the committee is a proposal </li></ul><ul><li>… building. </li></ul><ul><li>What I did was (to) send the committee </li></ul><ul><li>… building. </li></ul>
  19. 19. An example found in A Student´s Grammar of the English Language by Quirk et al . <ul><li>What it was you asked for was a ticket </li></ul><ul><li>to Brighton . Did you mean Birmingham ? </li></ul><ul><li>The cleft and pseudo-cleft types cooccur </li></ul><ul><li>in this sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>Can you find them? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Clefting <ul><li>Thank you, </li></ul><ul><li>Valeria </li></ul>

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