The aim of the project is two fold: 1) Improve understanding of why migrant youth have poorer employment outcomes This is especially important because young people are an asset to any (local) economy. In light of population ageing in many OECD countries , it is important that all young people are mobilised, 2) Develop policy recommendations for local but also more central decision makers on this issue The project was carried out by OECD LEED in collaboration with the European Commission DG Employment, Labour and Social Affairs Directorate
Project was launched in mid 2010 15 case studies and learning models from OECD and non OECD countries were commissioned (after a call) A seminar was held in October 2010 bringing together local practitioners, case study authors, experts, young migrants to discuss local initiatives AND to come to findings, which have fed into the manual Experts delivered final papers at end of 2010 All this lead to a practical, action-based manual for those working in the field on ways in which initiatives can be developed and implemented which can help young migrants in fulfilling their promise. But as I already said also more regional governments can benefit from this manual, according to me ,
The manual gives recommendations on 3 levels: education, work and governance We know that education is the key determinant of future employment outcomes Research has shown that: - migrant youth lag 1,5 school years behind their native counterparts - are more likely to repeat school grades - are less likely to attain as good results as their native counterparts - are and more likely to drop out; Contributing factors are numerous and diverse, as are outcomes – e.g. Socio-economic background, later age of entry into school for 1 st generation, language difficulties, intergenerational factors, schools difficulty in coping with growing ethnic diversity, financial pressure to leave school early and start earning etc.
Support along the entire education lifecycle is needed, but research has shown that the earlier the investment, the better the outcomes. Therefore additional programmes can often help migrant pupils to overcome barriers they face e.g. additional mother tongue language classes, mentoring programmes, financial support to remain in education. Parental and family involvement, for example by means of joint initiatives, can assist in improving childrens’ performance, but also the parents integration; Diversity management can mean avoid concentration of minority youth in certain schools by spreading children between schools e,g, by a city councel resolution Research has shown that a lack of self-confidence, self-belief and motivation is involved . Many young migrants also have limited social networks. The Steps to College Program is an example of an initiative in the U.S. which works with Hispanic youth to get them to consider the possibility of continuing into higher education, career choices and making links with universities and other college students. The “left behind”/drop outs are most difficult to reintegrate into mainstream services. Outreach services can often connect with these youth and provide the specialised help that they need – e.g. Youth Competence Centres in Antwerp., which work at the interface of free time/leisure, work and competence development e,g, renovate a former school ball room to a concert venu e and als worked on a tool to assess their competences, - Also exemples on post-sec, education and paid apprenticdships
Young people from immigrant backgrounds are more likely to be unemployed – about 1.6 times higher than the children of natives. This results from additional barriers to employment which they face such as low aspirations, discrimination and racism, limited job-search networks, more likely to live in deprived communities with less employment opportunities Initiatives to reverse these trends can tackle any number of the stages of the journey to employment : - Raising aspirations and buildings networks - Supporting job search and job readiness - Helping youth to access jobs and tackling discrimination - Supporting career progression and upskilling The end goal is not employment in itself but securing good quality, lasting employment.
Job readiness programmes which provide practical skills such as job finding, preparing CVs, doing interviews, as well as job specific skills are probably a necessity, paid employment or training schemes can work well here. Various cases play in this area, What really is important is help youth to raise their self-belief, their level of ambition and give them the motivation to achieve their goals . Hi5 initiative in the Netherlands (works with role models). Also expanding social networks can also be an effective way to increase migrants’ employment opportunities. E.g.Jobmarathon.be sports event (with mix running teams: unemployed, employers, social inclusion sector). Tackle discrimination in hiring and in the workplace (diversity plans in Flanders) Programmes which are more linked to local economic and sustainable needs and future growth areas can give youth the opportunity to get work experience in local firms. Racine, Wisconsin: focus on green growth withing E3 summer scheme Other initiatives were in the area of developing entrepreneurial skills – such as Creo Adam ( micro credits), Important here is to avoid ‘survival entrepreneruship).
There is much debate about how to target policy , Should one target by ethnicity (pro’s and cons (people sometimes don’t feel as belonging to an ethnic minority) , or on the basis of place based criteria? The case studies have shown a range of approaches: specific ethnic group, youth in general, religious groups, ,,, E,g, The Shiluvim Programme in Haifa, Israel, works with Ethiopian Jews, the Muslim Employment Project had as its focus Muslim job seekers before becoming mainstreamed. - We saw a place-bases approach in Parisian case study examples, “ Back door “ targeting offers a combination of both. And can be the solution, Rather than taking a primarily ethnicity based approach, universal “front door” services are accessible to all in neighbourhood level, but with targets set for attracting a certain % of minority youth and/or more targeted types of support. This is seen in the Action Acton example in London (as part of Future Jobs scheme). All policies and programmes put in place should be continually monitored, evaluated, and rewarded if successful by dissemination and praise – tis helps also to continue and raise necessary financing – this is not always the case for the examples Collaboration between the key stakeholders in designing and implementing policies will often bring about a better end result. Collaboration leads to more awareness, more local buy-in and less duplication – ultimately is cus costs
Targeting is sensitive and controversial – back door targeting can be the solution – also area based appraoches can be effective Cases showed that things go smooth an quick when working with established partners; when not a lot of effort is needed to build partnerships and trust Local community organisations can often provide active and targeted support at local level, we think of social economy organisations (work integration social enterprises); in fact organisations embedded in the local community can also play an important role als linking organisation, Working parallel to each other is to be avoided; e.d. in Antwerp project counsellors and PES staff shared their knowledge Most financing is public financing and limited in time; funding shortages were a big source of worry in most of the cases, One should also look at private funders; look at long term funding or think in time about mainstreaming Positive results can support future funding
labour market succes for ethnic minority and immigrant youth
Ensuring Labour Market Success for Ethnic Minority and Immigrant Youth A learning manual by the OECD LEED Programme
1) Education is key <ul><li>Education impacts on future employment prospects </li></ul><ul><li>Migrant youth have poorer outcomes overall in school – higher dropout rate, achievement gap </li></ul><ul><li>Contributing factors are complex; e.g. socio-economic background, later entry age, language barriers, etc. </li></ul>
3) Governance <ul><li>To target or not? Ethnicity/area-based approaches; </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership approach important (co-creation with target groups, business; NGO’s, social enterprises,…) </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of different funding measures (mostly public ) </li></ul>
Project Recommendations <ul><li>Target policy yes but with care, without stigmatising </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships work, but avoid fragmentation; strong networking is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Think innovatively on financing </li></ul><ul><li>Define success, monitor and evaluate </li></ul>
In conclusion <ul><li>The outcomes of migrant youth are far from homogeneous and vary according to numerous factors e.g. generation, country of origin, gender etc.; </li></ul><ul><li>All young people are a fundamental asset to the local community, particularly in light of population ageing and as the battle for talent intensifies; </li></ul><ul><li>Putting in place policies can prevent a lost generation of talented young people, which brings with it a high social and economic cost; </li></ul><ul><li>Mobilisation will ensure they contribute their skills and talent to strengthening the local economy. </li></ul>
The strengths of the manual <ul><li>Insights from research </li></ul><ul><li>Taking lessons from examples </li></ul><ul><li>Examples ‘speak’ – illustrate strengths and weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>Take care to adapt to your own local governance context </li></ul>